Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home

Genetic and Environmental Etiology of the Relationship Between Childhood Hyperactivity/Inattention and Conduct Problems in a South Korean Twin Sample

  • Yoon-Mi Hur (a1)
Abstract

Recently, there has been increased research into the etiology of the comorbidity between hyperactivity/inattention problems (HIP) and conduct problems (CP). However, the nature of the etiology of the comorbidity has remained unclear. Mothers of 507 pairs of twins, comprised of 221 monozygotic (MZ) and 286 dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs aged from 6 to 13 years (mean = 9.6 years; SD = 2.0 years), completed the HIP and the CP scale of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) via a telephone interview. The phenotypic correlation between HIP and CP was 0.43 (p < .01). MZ and DZ twin correlations were, respectively, 0.48 (95%CI: 0.37–0.58) and 0.06 (95%CI: -0.06–0.19) for HIP and 0.38 (95%CI: 0.26–0.49) and 0.35 (95%CI: 0.25–0.45) for CP. The bivariate model-fitting results revealed additive genetic correlation of 1.0 (95% CI: 0.72–1.00), a complete overlap of additive genetic variance component between HIP and CP, supporting the importance of correlated additive genetic risk factors for the comorbid condition of HIP and CP. HIP was additionally influenced by non-additive genetic factors that did not contribute to the relationship between HIP and CP. There was a significant but moderate child-specific environmental correlation (r e = 0.37) between HIP and CP. CP was additionally influenced by shared family environmental influences. While the results of the present study are generally consistent with the findings from Western twin studies of the relationship between HIP and CP, they add a new finding to the extant literature by showing that it is additive rather than non-additive genetic factors that are responsible for the co-occurrence of HIP and CP.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Genetic and Environmental Etiology of the Relationship Between Childhood Hyperactivity/Inattention and Conduct Problems in a South Korean Twin Sample
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Genetic and Environmental Etiology of the Relationship Between Childhood Hyperactivity/Inattention and Conduct Problems in a South Korean Twin Sample
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Genetic and Environmental Etiology of the Relationship Between Childhood Hyperactivity/Inattention and Conduct Problems in a South Korean Twin Sample
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
address for correspondence: Yoon-Mi Hur, Department of Education, Mokpo National University, 61 Dorim-ri, Cheonggye-myeon, Jeonnam, South Korea 534-729. E-mail: ymhur@mokpo.ac.kr
References
Hide All
Ahn, J.-S., Jun, S.-K., Han, J.-K., Noh, K.-S., & Goodman, R. (2003). The development of a Korean version of the strengths and difficulties questionnaire. Journal of Korean Neuropsychiatric Association, 42, 141147.
Akaike, H. (1987). Factor analysis and AIC. Psychometrika, 52, 317332.
American Psychiatric Association. (2004). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. Washington, DC: Author
Angold, A., Costello, J. E., & Erkanli, A. (1999). Comorbidity. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 40, 5787.
Biederman, J., Newcorn, J., & Sprich, S. (1991). Comorbidity of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder with conduct, depressive, anxiety, and other disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry, 148, 564577.
Burt, S. A., Krueger, R. F., McGue, M., & lacono, W. G. (2001). Sources of covariation among attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder: The importance of shared environment. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 110, 516525.
Burt, S. A., Krueger, R. F., McGue, M., & Iacono, W. (2003). Parent-child conflict and the comorbidity among childhood externalizing disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry, 60, 505513.
Dick, D. M., Viken, R. J., Kaprio, J., Pulkkinen, L., & Rose, R. J. (2005). Understanding the covariation among childhood externalizing symptoms: Genetic and environmental influences on conduct disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and oppositional defiant disorder symptoms. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 33, 219229.
Ebejer, J. L., Medland, S. E., van der Werf, J., Gondro, C., Henders, A. K., Lynskey, M., &mldr; Martin, N. G. (2012). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in Australian adults: Prevalence, persistence, conduct problems and disadvantage. PLOS One, 7, e47404.
Faraone, S. V. & Mick, E. (2010). Molecular genetics of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. The Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 33, 159180.
Goodman, R., Ford, T., Simmons, H., Gatward, R., & Meltzer, H. (2000a). Using the strengths and difficulties questionnaire (SDQ) to screen for child psychiatric disorders in a community sample. British Journal of Psychiatry, 177, 534539.
Goodman, R., Renfrew, D., & Mullick, M. (2000b). Predicting type of psychiatric disorder from strengths and difficulties questionnaire (SDQ) scores in child mental health clinics in London and Dhaka. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 9, 129134.
Hur, Y.-M. (2014). Increasing phenotypic and genetic variations in hyperactivity/inattention problems from age 3 to 13 years: A cross-sectional twin study. Twin Research and Human Genetics, 17, 545552.
Hur, Y.-M., Jeong, H.-U., Chung, K. W., Shin, J. S., & Song, T.-B. (2013). The South Korean Twin Registry: An update. Twin Research and Human Genetics, 16, 237240.
Kerekes, N., Lundström, S., Chang, Z., Tajnia, A., Jern, P., Lichtenstein, P., &mldr; Nilsson, T. (2014). Oppositional defiant- and conduct disorder-like problems: Neurodevelopmental predictors and genetic background in boys and girls, in a nationwide twin study. Peer J, 22, e359.
Martin, N. G., Eaves, L. J., Kearsey, M. J., & Davies, P. (1978). The power of the classical twin study. Heredity, 40, 97116.
Mrug, S., Molina, B. S., Hoza, B., Gerdes, A. C., Hinshaw, S. P., Hechtman, L., & Arnold, L. E. (2012). Peer rejection and friendships in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Contributions to long-term outcomes. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 40, 10131026.
Murray-Close, D., Hoza, B., Hinshaw, S. P., Arnold, L. E., Swanson, J., Jensen, P. S., &mldr; Hechtman, L. (2010). Developmental processes in peer problems of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in the multimodal treatment study of children with ADHD: Developmental cascades and vicious cycles. Development and Psychopathology, 22, 785802.
Nadder, T. S., Rutter, M., Silberg, J. L., Maes, H. H., & Eaves, L. J. (2002). Genetic effects on the variation and covariation of attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional-defiant disorder/conduct disorder (ODD/CD) symptomatologies across informant and occasion of measurement. Psychological Medicine, 32, 3953.
Nadder, T. S., Silberg, J. L., Eaves, L. J., Maes, H. H., & Meyer, J. M. (1998). Genetic effects on ADHD symptomatology in 7- to-13-year-old twins: Results from a telephone survey. Behavior Genetics, 28, 8399.
Neale, M. C., Boker, S. M., Xie, G., & Maes, H. H. (2003). Mx: Statistical modeling (5th ed.). Richmond, VA: Department of Psychiatry, Virginia Commonwealth University.
Nikolas, M. A., & Burt, S. A. (2010). Genetic and environmental influences on ADHD symptom dimensions of inattention and hyperactivity: A meta-analysis. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 119, 117.
Ooki, S., Yamada, K., & Asaka, A. (1993). Zygosity diagnosis of twins by questionnaire for twins’ mothers. Acta Geneticae Medicae et Gemellologiae, 42, 1722.
Rhee, S. H., & Waldman, I. D. (2002). Genetic and environmental influences on antisocial behavior: A meta-analysis of twin and adoption studies. Psychological Bulletin, 128, 490529.
Robbers, S. C. C., van Oort, F. V. A., Polderman, T. J. C., Bartels, M., Boomsma, D. I., Verhulst, F. C., &mldr; Lubke, G. H. (2011). Trajectories of CBCL attention problems in childhood. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 20, 419427.
Saudino, K. J., Cherny, S. S., & Plomin, R. (2000). Parent ratings of temperament in twins: Explaining the ‘too low’ DZ correlations. Twin Research, 3, 224233.
Silberg, J., Rutter, M., Meyer, J., Maes, H., Hewitt, J., Simonoff, E., &mldr; Pickles, A. (1996). Genetic and environmental influences on the covariation between hyperactivity and conduct disturbance in juvenile twins. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 37, 803816.
Stone, L. L., Otten, R., Engels, C. M. E., Vermulst, Ad. A., & Janssens, M. A. M. (2010). Psychometric properties of the parent and teacher versions of the strengths and difficulties questionnaire for 4- to 12-year-olds: A review. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 13, 254274.
Thapar, A., Harrington, R., & McGuffin, P. (2001). Examining the comorbidity of ADHD-related behaviours and conduct problems using a twin study design. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 179, 224229.
Tuvblad, C., Zheng, M., Raine, A., & Baker, L. A. (2009). A common genetic factor explains the covariation among ADHD, ODD and CD symptoms in 9–10 year old boys and girls. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 37, 153167.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Twin Research and Human Genetics
  • ISSN: 1832-4274
  • EISSN: 1839-2628
  • URL: /core/journals/twin-research-and-human-genetics
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed