We thank the study participants and the support staff involved in participant recruitment, phenotype collection, genotyping, data management and processing. Individual study acknowledgements can be found in the online Supplementary material. ASPS: The research reported in this article was funded by the Austrian Science Fond (FWF) grant numbers P20545-P05 and P13180. The Medical University of Graz supports the databank of the ASPS. HRS: HRS is supported by the National Institute on Aging (NIA U01AG009740). The genotyping was funded separately by the National Institute on Aging (RC2 AG036495, RC4 AG039029). LBC1921: Phenotype collection was supported by the UK's Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC), the Royal Society, and the Chief Scientist Office of the Scottish Government. Genotyping was funded by the BBSRC. The work was undertaken by the University of Edinburgh Centre for Cognitive Ageing and Cognitive Epidemiology, part of the cross council Lifelong Health and Wellbeing Initiative (MR/K026992/1). Funding from the BBSRC and Medical Research Council (MRC) is gratefully acknowledged. LifeLines Cohort Study: The LifeLines Cohort Study, and generation and management of GWAS genotype data for the LifeLines Cohort Study is supported by the Netherlands Organization of Scientific Research NWO (grant 175.010.2007.006), the Economic Structure Enhancing Fund (FES) of the Dutch government, the Ministry of Economic Affairs, the Ministry of Education, Culture and Science, the Ministry for Health, Welfare and Sports, the Northern Netherlands Collaboration of Provinces (SNN), the Province of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, the University of Groningen, Dutch Kidney Foundation and Dutch Diabetes Research Foundation. NTR: This work was supported by the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO: MagW/ZonMW grants 904-61-090, 985-10-002,904-61-193,480-04-004, 400-05-717, NOW-bilareral agreement 463-06-001, NWO-VENI 451-04-034, Addiction-31160008 Middelgroot-911-09-032, Spinozapremie 56-464-14192), Biobanking and Biomolecular Resources Research Infrastructure (BBMRI; NL, 184.021.007), the VU University's Institute for Health and Care Research (EMGO+) and Neuroscience Campus Amsterdam (NCA), the European Science Council (ERC Advanced, 230374), the Avera Institute for Human Genetics, Sioux Falls, South Dakota (USA) and the National Institutes of Health (NIH, R01D0042157-01A). Part of the genotyping was funded by the Genetic Association Information Network (GAIN) of the Foundation for the US National Institutes of Health (NIMH, MH081802) and by the Grand Opportunity grants 1RC2MH089951-01 and 1RC2 MH089995-01 from the NIMH. Part of the analyses (for RS & TRAILS, too) were carried out on the Genetic Cluster Computer (http://www.geneticcluster.org), which is financially supported by the Netherlands Scientific Organization (NWO 480-05-003), the Dutch Brain Foundation, and the Department of Psychology and Education of the VU University Amsterdam. M. Bartels is/was financially supported by a senior fellowship of the (EMGO+) Institute for Health and Care and a VU University Research Chair position. MCTFR: Research reported in this publication was supported by the National Institutes of Health under award numbers R37DA005147, R01AA009367, R01AA011886, R01DA013240, R01MH066140, and U01DA024417. QIMRB: Funding was provided by the Australian NHMRC (241944, 339462, 389927, 389875, 389891, 389892, 389938, 442915, 442981, 496739, 552485, 552498, 613608), the FP-5 GenomEUtwin Project (QLG2-CT-2002-01254), and the U.S. NIH grants (AA07535, AA10248, AA13320, AA13321, AA13326, AA14041, MH66206). RS: The generation and management of GWAS genotype data for the Rotterdam Study is supported by the Netherlands Organisation of Scientific Research NWO Investments (nr. 175.010.2005.011, 911-03-012). This study is funded by the Research Institute for Diseases in the Elderly (014-93-015; RIDE2), the Netherlands Genomics Initiative (NGI)/Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO) project no. 050-060-810. The Rotterdam Study is funded by Erasmus Medical Center and Erasmus University, Rotterdam, Netherlands Organization for the Health Research and Development (ZonMw), the Research Institute for Diseases in the Elderly (RIDE), the Ministry of Education, Culture and Science, the Ministry for Health, Welfare and Sports, the European Commission (DG XII), and the Municipality of Rotterdam. STR: The Jan Wallander and Tom Hedelius Foundation (P2012-0002:1), the Ragnar Söderberg Foundation (E9/11), The Swedish Research Council (421-2013-1061), the Ministry for Higher Education, The Swedish Research Council (M-2205-1112), GenomEUtwin (EU/QLRT-2001-01254; QLG2-CT-2002-01254), NIH DK U01-066134, the Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research (SSF). The Rush Memory and Aging Project is supported by NIA grants R01AG15819 and R01AG17917, and the Translational Genomics Research Institute. TRAILS has been financially supported by various grants from the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research NWO (Medical Research Council program grant GB-MW 940-38-011; ZonMW Brainpower grant 100-001-004; ZonMw Risk Behavior and Dependence grants 60-60600-97-118; ZonMw Culture and Health grant 261-98-710; Social Sciences Council medium-sized investment grants GB-MaGW 480-01-006 and GB-MaGW 480-07-001; Social Sciences Council project grants GB-MaGW 452-04-314 and GB-MaGW 452-06-004; NWO large-sized investment grant 175.010.2003.005; NWO Longitudinal Survey and Panel Funding 481-08-013 and 481-11-001), the Dutch Ministry of Justice (WODC), the European Science Foundation (EuroSTRESS project FP-006), Biobanking and Biomolecular Resources Research Infrastructure BBMRI-NL (CP 32), and the participating universities. YFS: Has been financially supported by the Academy of Finland (grants 126925, 121584, 124282, 129378 (Salve), 117787 (Gendi), 41071 (Skidi), and 265869 (Mind)), the Social Insurance Institution of Finland, Kuopio, Tampere and Turku University Hospital Medical Funds (grant 9N035 for Dr. Lehtimäki), Juho Vainio Foundation, Paavo Nurmi Foundation, Finnish Foundation of Cardiovascular Research and Finnish Cultural Foundation, Tampere Tuberculosis Foundation and Emil Aaltonen Foundation (for Dr. Lehtimäki).
M. J. Adams , J. E. King , & A. Weiss (2012). The majority of genetic variation in orangutan personality and subjective well-being is nonadditive. Behavior Genetics, 42, 866–866.
M. Bartels (2015). Genetics of wellbeing and its components satisfaction with life, happiness, and quality of life: A review and meta-analysis of heritability studies. Behavior Genetics, 45, 137–156.
M. Bartels , & D. I. Boomsma (2009). Born to be happy? The etiology of subjective well-being. Behavior Genetics, 39, 605–615.
T. J. Bouchard Jr., & J. C. Loehlin (2001). Genes, evolution, and personality. Behavior Genetics, 31, 243–273.
B. Bulik-Sullivan , H. K. Finucane , V. Anttila , A. Gusev , F. R. Day , P. R. Loh , . . . B. M. Neale (2015). An atlas of genetic correlations across human diseases and traits. Nature Genetics, 47, 1236–1241.
M. H. de Moor , P. T. Costa , A. Terracciano , R. F. Krueger , E. J. de Geus , T. Toshiko , . . . D. I. Boomsma (2012). Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies for personality. Molecular Psychiatry, 17, 337–349.
M. H. de Moor , S. M. van den Berg , K. J. Verweij , R. F. Krueger , M. Luciano , A. Arias Vasquez , . . . D. I. Boomsma (2015). Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies for neuroticism, and the polygenic association with major depressive disorder. JAMA Psychiatry, 72, 642–650.
K. M. DeNeve , & H. Cooper (1998). The happy personality: A meta-analysis of 137 personality traits and subjective well-being. Psychological Bulletin, 124, 197–229.
F. Dudbridge (2013). Power and predictive accuracy of polygenic risk scores. PLoS Genetics, 9, e1003348.
J. Euesden , C. M. Lewis , & P. F. O'Reilly (2015). PRSice: Polygenic risk score software. Bioinformatics, 31, 1466–1468.
H. J. Eysenck , & S. B. G. Eysenck (1991). Eysenck Personality Questionnaire – Revised (EPQ-R). London: L Hodder & Stoughton.
S. P. Hagenaars , S. E. Harris , G. Davies , W. D. Hill , D. C. Liewald , S. J. Ritchie , . . . I. J. Deary (2016). Shared genetic aetiology between cognitive functions and physical and mental health in UK Biobank (N = 112 151) and 24 GWAS consortia. Molecular Psychiatry. Advance online publication.
E. Hahn , J. Gottschling , C. J. König , & F. M. Spinath (2016). The heritability of job satisfaction reconsidered: Only unique environmental influences beyond personality. Journal of Business and Psychology. Advance online publication.
E. Hahn , W. Johnson , & F. M. Spinath (2013). Beyond the heritability of life satisfaction – The roles of personality and twin-specific influences. Journal of Research in Personality, 47, 757–767.
E. Hare , J. Contreras , H. Raventos , D. Flores , A. Jerez , H. Nicolini , . . . M. Escamilla (2012). Genetic structure of personality factors and bipolar disorder in families segregating bipolar disorder. Journal of Affective Disorders, 136, 1027–1033.
M. C. Keller , W. L. Coventry , A. C. Heath , & N. G. Martin (2005). Widespread evidence for non-additive genetic variation in Cloninger's and Eysenck's personality dimensions using a twin plus sibling design. Behavior Genetics, 35, 707–721.
S. H. Lee , J. Yang , M. E. Goddard , P. M. Visscher , & N. R. Wray (2012). Estimation of pleiotropy between complex diseases using single-nucleotide polymorphism-derived genomic relationships and restricted maximum likelihood. Bioinformatics, 28, 2540–2542.
M. Luciano , J. E. Huffman , A. Arias-Vasquez , A. A. Vinkhuyzen , C. M. Middeldorp , I. Giegling , . . . I. J. Deary (2012). Genome-wide association uncovers shared genetic effects among personality traits and mood states. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics, 159B, 684–695.
M. Luciano , A. K. MacLeod , A. Payton , G. Davies , X. Y. Ke , A. Tenesa , . . . I. J. Deary (2012). Effects of gene copy number variants on personality and mood in ageing cohorts. Personality and Individual Differences, 53, 393–397.
C. M. Middeldorp , D. C. Cath , R. Van Dyck , & D. I. Boomsma (2005). The co-morbidity of anxiety and depression in the perspective of genetic epidemiology. A review of twin and family studies. Psychological Medicine, 35, 611–624.
C. M. Middeldorp , M. H. de Moor , L. M. McGrath , S. D. Gordon , D. H. Blackwood , P. T. Costa , . . . D. I. Boomsma (2011). The genetic association between personality and major depression or bipolar disorder. A polygenic score analysis using genome-wide association data. Translational Psychiatry, 1, e50.
A. Okbay , B. M. Baselmans , J. E. De Neve , P. Turley , M. G. Nivard , M. A. Fontana , . . . D. Cesarini (2016). Genetic variants associated with subjective well-being, depressive symptoms, and neuroticism identified through genome-wide analyses. Nature Genetics, 48, 624–633.
R. A. Power , & M. Pluess (2015). Heritability estimates of the big five personality traits based on common genetic variants. Translational Psychiatry, 5, e604.
S. M. Purcell , N. R. Wray , J. L. Stone , P. M. Visscher , M. C. O'Donovan , P. F. Sullivan , . . . P. Sklar (2009). Common polygenic variation contributes to risk of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Nature, 460, 748–752.
S. Purcell , B. Neale , K. Todd-Brown , L. Thomas , M. A. Ferreira , D. Bender , . . . P. C. Sham (2007). PLINK: A tool set for whole-genome association and population-based linkage analyses. American Journal of Human Genetics, 81, 559–575.
J. A. Russell , & J. M. Carroll (1999). On the bipolarity of positive and negative affect. Psychological Bulletin, 125, 3–30.
S. M. van den Berg , M. H. de Moor , M. McGue , E. Pettersson , A. Terracciano , K. J. Verweij , . . . D. I. Boomsma (2014). Harmonization of neuroticism and extraversion phenotypes across inventories and cohorts in the genetics of personality consortium: An application of item response theory. Behavior Genetics, 44, 295–313.
S. M. van den Berg , M. M. de Moor , K. H. Verweij , R. Krueger , M. Luciano , A. Arias Vasquez , . . . D. I. Boomsma (2015). Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies for extraversion: Findings from the genetics of personality consortium. Behavior Genetics, 46, 170–182.
A. Weiss , T. C. Bates , & M. Luciano (2008). Happiness is a personal(ity) thing – The genetics of personality and well-being in a representative sample. Psychological Science, 19, 205–210.
A. Weiss , J. E. King , & R. M. Enns (2002). Subjective well-being is heritable and genetically correlated with dominance in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 83, 1141–1149.
N. R. Wray , S. H. Lee , D. Mehta , A. A. Vinkhuyzen , F. Dudbridge , & C. M. Middeldorp (2014). Research review: Polygenic methods and their application to psychiatric traits. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 55, 1068–1087.
J. A. Yang , S. H. Lee , M. E. Goddard , & P. M. Visscher (2011). GCTA: A tool for genome-wide complex trait analysis. American Journal of Human Genetics, 88, 76–82.