Skip to main content Accessibility help

Twin Registries Moving Forward and Meeting the Future: A Review

  • Paul N. Baird (a1) and Pirro Hysi (a2) (a3)


Twin registries have developed as a valuable resource for the study of many aspects of disease and society over the years in many different countries. A number of these registries include large numbers of twins with data collected at varying information levels for twin cohorts over the past several decades. More recent expansion of twin datasets has allowed for the collection of genetic data, together with many other levels of ‘omic’ information along with multiple demographic, physiological, health outcomes and other measures typically used in epidemiologic research. Other twin data sources outside these registries reflect research interests in particular aspects of disease or specific phenotypic assessment. Twin registries have the potential to play a key role in many aspects of the artificial intelligence/machine learning-driven projects of the future and will continue to keep adapting to the changing research landscape.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Twin Registries Moving Forward and Meeting the Future: A Review
      Available formats

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Twin Registries Moving Forward and Meeting the Future: A Review
      Available formats

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Twin Registries Moving Forward and Meeting the Future: A Review
      Available formats


Corresponding author

Author for correspondence: Paul N. Baird, Email:


Hide All
Allione, A., Marcon, F., Fiorito, G., Guarrera, S., Siniscalchi, E., Zijno, A., … Matullo, G. (2015). Novel epigenetic changes unveiled by monozygotic twins discordant for smoking habits. PLoS One, 10, e0128265.
Ashor, A. W., Siervo, M., Lara, J., Oggioni, C., Afshar, S., & Mathers, J. C. (2015). Effect of vitamin C and vitamin E supplementation on endothelial function: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. British Journal of Nutrition, 113, 11821194.
Bahl, A., Pöllänen, E., Ismail, K., Sipilä, S., Mikkola, T. M., Berglund, E., … Ollikainen, M. (2015). Hormone Replacement Therapy Associated White Blood Cell DNA Methylation and Gene Expression are Associated With Within-Pair Differences of Body Adiposity and Bone Mass. Twin Research and Human Genetics, 18, 647661.
Baran, Y., Subramaniam, M., Biton, A., Tukiainen, T., Tsang, E. K., Rivas, M. A., … Lappalainen, T. (2015). The landscape of genomic imprinting across diverse adult human tissues. Genome Research, 25, 927936.
Begemann, M., Rezwan, F. I., Beygo, J., Docherty, L. E., Kolarova, J., Schroeder, C., … Mackay, D. J. G. (2018). Maternal variants in NLRP and other maternal effect proteins are associated with multilocus imprinting disturbance in offspring. Journal of Medical Genetics, 55, 497504.
Bernardo, J., Nowacki, A., Martin, R., Fanaroff, J. M., & Hibbs, A. M. (2015). Multiples and parents of multiples prefer same arm randomization of siblings in neonatal trials. Journal of Perinatology, 35, 310.
Berry, S., Valdes, A., Davies, R., Delahanty, L., Drew, D., Chan, A. T., … Spector, T. (2019). Predicting personal metabolic responses to food using multi-omics machine learning in over 1000 twins and singletons from the UK and US: The PREDICT I Study (OR31-01-19). Current Developments in Nutrition, 3(Suppl. 1), nzz037.OR31-01-19.
Bianconi, E., Piovesan, A., Facchin, F., Beraudi, A., Casadei, R., Frabetti, F., … Canaider, S. (2013). An estimation of the number of cells in the human body. Annals of Human Biology, 40, 463471.
Blueprint Consortium. (2016). Quantitative comparison of DNA methylation assays for biomarker development and clinical applications. Nature Biotechnology, 34, 726737.
Bonder, M. J., Kurilshikov, A., Tigchelaar, E. F., Mujagic, Z., Imhann, F., Vila, A. V., … Zhernakova, A. (2016). The effect of host genetics on the gut microbiome. Nature Genetics, 48, 14071412.
Burbridge, D. (2001). Francis Galton on twins, heredity and social class. British Journal for the History of Science, 34, 323340.
Busche, S., Shao, X., Caron, M., Kwan, T., Allum, F., Cheung, W. A., … Grundberg, E. (2015). Population whole-genome bisulfite sequencing across two tissues highlights the environment as the principal source of human methylome variation. Genome Biology, 16, 290308.
Busk, T., Clemmesen, J., & Nielsen, A. (1948). Twin studies and other genetical investigations in the Danish Cancer Registry. British Journal of Cancer, 2, 156163.
Canter, P. H., Wider, B., & Ernst, E. (2007). The antioxidant vitamins A, C, E and selenium in the treatment of arthritis: A systematic review of randomized clinical trials. Rheumatology (Oxford), 46, 12231233.
Casey, KF, Levesque, ML, Szyf, M, Ismaylova, E, Verner, MP, Suderman, M, … Booij, L. (2017). Birth weight discordance, DNA methylation, and cortical morphology of adolescent monozygotic twins. Human Brain Mapping, 38, 20372050.
Castellani, C. A., Melka, M. G., Gui, J. L., O’Reilly, R. L., & Singh, S M. (2015). Integration of DNA sequence and DNA methylation changes in monozygotic twin pairs discordant for schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research, 169, 433440.
Chen, Y. C., Sudre, G., Sharp, W., Donovan, F., Chandrasekharappa, S. C., Hansen, N., … Shaw, P. (2018). Neuroanatomic, epigenetic and genetic differences in monozygotic twins discordant for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Molecular Psychiatry, 23, 683690.
Conroy, J., McGettigan, P. A., McCreary, D., Shah, N., Collins, K., Parry-Fielder, B., … King, M. D. (2014). Towards the identification of a genetic basis for Landau-Kleffner syndrome. Epilepsia, 55, 858865.
Córdova-Palomera, A., Fatjó-Vilas, M., Palma-Gudiel, H., Blasco-Fontecilla, H., Kebir, O., & Fañanás, L. (2015). Further evidence of DEPDC7 DNA hypomethylation in depression: A study in adult twins. European Psychiatry, 30, 715718.
Córdova-Palomera, A., Palma-Gudiel, H., Fores-Martos, J., Tabares-Seisdedos, R., & Fananas, L. (2018). Epigenetic outlier profiles in depression: A genome-wide DNA methylation analysis of monozygotic twins. PLoS One, 13, e0207754.
Cotillard, A., Kennedy, S. P., Kong, L. C., Prifti, E., Pons, N., Le Chatelier, E., … Ehrlich, S. D. (2013). Dietary intervention impact on gut microbial gene richness. Nature, 500, 585588.
Dempster, E. L., Wong, C. C., Lester, K. J., Burrage, J., Gregory, A. M., Mill, J., & Eley, T. C. (2014). Genome-wide methylomic analysis of monozygotic twins discordant for adolescent depression. Biological Psychiatry, 6, 977983.
Dyke, S. O., Cheung, W. A., Joly, Y., Ammerpohl, O., Lutsik, P., Rothstein, M. A., … Pastinen, T. (2015). Epigenome data release: A participant-centered approach to privacy protection. Genome Biology, 16, 142.
Elboudwarej, E., Cole, M., Briggs, F. B., Fouts, A., Fain, P. R., Quach, H., … Noble, J. A. (2016). Hypomethylation within gene promoter regions and type 1 diabetes in discordant monozygotic twins. Journal of Autoimmunity, 68, 2329.
Erny, D., Hrabe de Angelis, A. L., Jaitin, D., Wieghofer, P., Staszewski, O., David, E., … Prinz, M. (2015). Host microbiota constantly control maturation and function of microglia in the CNS. Nature Neuroscience, 18, 965977.
Ferreira, P. H., Oliveira, V. C., Junqueira, D. R., Cisneros, L. C., Ferreira, L. C., Murphy, K., … Teixeira-Salmela, L. F. (2016). The Brazilian Twin Registry. Twin Research and Human Genetics, 19, 687691.
Fraga, M. F., Ballestar, E., Paz, M. F., Ropero, S., Setien, F., Ballestar, M. L., … Esteller, M. (2005). Epigenetic differences arise during the lifetime of monozygotic twins. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 102, 1060410609.
Garrett-Bakelman, F. E., Darshi, M., Green, S. J., Gur, R. C., Lin, L., Macias, B. R., … Turek, F. W. (2019). The NASA Twins Study: A multidimensional analysis of a year-long human spaceflight. Science, 364, eaau8650.
Gatz, M., Harris, J. R., Kaprio, J., McGue, M., Smith, N. L., Snieder, H., … Institute of Medicine Committee on Twins. (2015). Cohort profile: The National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council Twin Registry (NAS-NRC Twin Registry). International Journal of Epidemiology, 44, 819825.
Gesell, A. (1942). The method of co-twin control. Science, 95, 446448.
Gilbert, J. A., Quinn, R. A., Debelius, J., Xu, Z. Z., Morton, J., Garg, N., … Knight, R. (2016). Microbiome-wide association studies link dynamic microbial consortia to disease. Nature, 535, 94103.
Goldberg, J., Curran, B., Vitek, M. E., Henderson, W. G., & Boyko, E. J. (2002). The Vietnam Era Twin Registry. Twin Research, 5, 476481.
Goodrich, J. K., Davenport, E. R., Beaumont, M., Jackson, M. A., Knight, R., Ober, C., … Ley, R. E. (2016). Genetic determinants of the gut microbiome in UK twins. Cell Host & Microbe, 19, 731743.
Goodrich, J. K., Waters, J. L., Poole, A. C., Sutter, J. L., Koren, O., Blekhman, R., … Ley, R. E. (2014). Human genetics shape the gut microbiome. Cell, 159, 789799.
Gordon, L., Joo, J. E., Powell, J. E., Ollikainen, M., Novakovic, B., Li, X., … Saffery, R. (2012). Neonatal DNA methylation profile in human twins is specified by a complex interplay between intrauterine environmental and genetic factors, subject to tissue-specific influence. Genome Research, 22, 13951406.
Gordon, L., Joo, J. H., Andronikos, R., Ollikainen, M., Wallace, E. M., Umstad, M. P., … Craig, J. M. (2011). Expression discordance of monozygotic twins at birth: Effect of intrauterine environment and a possible mechanism for fetal programming. Epigenetics, 6, 579592.
Hochberg, Z., Feil, R., Constancia, M., Fraga, M., Junien, C., Carel, J. C., … Albertsson-Wikland, K. (2011). Child health, developmental plasticity, and epigenetic programming. Endocrine Reviews, 32, 159224.
Honeyman, M. S. (1961). The Connecticut Twin Registry. Eugenics Quarterly, 8, 97.
Hopper, J. L., Foley, D. L., White, P. A., & Pollaers, V. (2013). Australian Twin Registry: 30 years of progress. Twin Research and Human Genetics, 16, 3442.
Huang, Y. J. (2015). The respiratory microbiome and innate immunity in asthma. Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine, 21, 2732.
Hwang, J. Y., Lee, H. J., Go, M. J., Jang, H. B., Choi, N. H., Bae, J. B., … Kim, B. J. (2018). Genome-wide methylation analysis identifies ELOVL5 as an epigenetic biomarker for the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Scientific Reports, 8, 14862.
Jiao, Z., Jiang, Z., Wang, J., Xu, H., Zhang, Q., Liu, S., … Qiu, H. (2017). Whole-genome scale identification of methylation markers specific for cerebral palsy in monozygotic discordant twins. Molecular Medicine Reports, 16, 94239430.
Johnsson, L., Helgesson, G., Rafnar, T., Halldorsdottir, I., Chia, K. S., Eriksson, S., & Hansson, M. G. (2010). Hypothetical and factual willingness to participate in biobank research. European Journal of Human Genetics, 18, 12611264.
Jones, J. (1811). Mr. Jones’s case of twins. The Medical and Physical Journal, 25, 311313.
Kaati, G., Bygren, L. O., & Edvinsson, S. (2002). Cardiovascular and diabetes mortality determined by nutrition during parents’ and grandparents’ slow growth period. European Journal of Human Genetics, 10, 682688.
Kaminsky, Z. A., Tang, T., Wang, S. C., Ptak, C., Oh, G. H., Wong, A. H., … Petronis, A. (2009). DNA methylation profiles in monozygotic and dizygotic twins. Nature Genetics, 41, 240245.
Kaprio, J., Koskenvuo, M., & Rose, R. J. (1990). Population-based twin registries: Illustrative applications in genetic epidemiology and behavioral genetics from the Finnish Twin Cohort Study. Acta geneticae Medicae et Gemellologiae (Roma), 39, 427439.
Kaut, O., Sharma, A., Schmitt, I., & Wüllner, U. (2017). DNA methylation of imprinted loci of autosomal chromosomes and IGF2 is not affected in Parkinson’s disease patients’ peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Neurological Research, 39, 281284.
Kesselmeier, M., Putter, C., Volckmar, A. L., Baurecht, H., Grallert, H., Illig, T., … WTCCC3. (2018). High-throughput DNA methylation analysis in anorexia nervosa confirms TNXB hypermethylation. World Journal of Biological Psychiatry, 19, 187199.
Klengel, T., & Binder, E. B. (2015). FKBP5 allele-specific epigenetic modification in gene by environment interaction. Neuropsychopharmacology, 40, 244246.
Klengel, T., Mehta, D., Anacker, C., Rex-Haffner, M., Pruessner, J. C., Pariante, C. M., … Binder, E. B. (2013). Allele-specific FKBP5 DNA demethylation mediates gene-childhood trauma interactions. Nature Neuroscience, 16, 3341.
Krueger, R. F., & Johnson, W. (2002). The Minnesota Twin Registry: Current status and future directions. Twin Research, 5, 488492.
Le Chatelier, E., Nielsen, T., Qin, J., Prifti, E., Hildebrand, F., Falony, G., … Pedersen, O. (2013). Richness of human gut microbiome correlates with metabolic markers. Nature, 500, 541546.
Lévesque, M. L., Casey, K. F., Szyf, M., Ismaylova, E., Ly, V., Verner, M. P., … Booij, L. (2014). Genome-wide DNA methylation variability in adolescent monozygotic twins followed since birth. Epigenetics, 9, 14101421
Li, M., Zou, D., Li, Z., Gao, R., Sang, J., Zhang, Y., … Zhang, Z. (2019). EWAS Atlas: A curated knowledgebase of epigenome-wide association studies. Nucleic Acids Research, 47, D983D988.
Li, W., Zhang, D., Wang, W., Wu, Y., Mohammadnejad, A., Lund, J., … Tan, Q. (2019). DNA methylome profiling in identical twin pairs discordant for body mass index. International Journal of Obesity. doi:10.1038/s41366-019-0382-4
Li, W., Christiansen, L., Hjelmborg, J., Baumbach, J., & Tan, Q. (2018). On the power of epigenome-wide association studies using a disease-discordant twin design. Bioinformatics, 34, 40734078.
Liang, L., Willis-Owen, S. A. G., Laprise, C., Wong, K. C. C., Davies, G. A., Hudson, T. J., … Cookson, W. (2015). An epigenome-wide association study of total serum immunoglobulin E concentration. Nature, 520, 670674.
Liu, D., Zhao, L., Wang, Z., Zhou, X., Fan, X., Li, Y., … Jiang, Y. (2019). EWASdb: Epigenome-wide association study database. Nucleic Acids Research, 47, D989D993.
Lozupone, C., Hamady, M., & Knight, R. (2006). UniFrac — An online tool for comparing microbial community diversity in a phylogenetic context. BMC Bioinformatics, 7, 371.
Malki, K., Koritskaya, E., Harris, F., Bryson, K., Herbster, M., & Tosto, M. G. (2016). Epigenetic differences in monozygotic twins discordant for major depressive disorder. Translational Psychiatry, 6, e839.
Martino, D., Loke, Y. J., Gordon, L., Ollikainen, M., Cruickshank, M. N., Saffery, R., & Craig, J. M. (2013). Longitudinal, genome-scale analysis of DNA methylation in twins from birth to 18 months of age reveals rapid epigenetic change in early life and pair-specific effects of discordance. Genome Biology, 14, R42.
Moayyeri, A., Hammond, C. J., Hart, D. J., & Spector, T. D. (2013). The UK Adult Twin Registry (TwinsUK Resource). Twin Research and Human Genetics, 16, 144149.
Mohandas, N., Loke, Y. J., Hopkins, S., Mackenzie, L., Bennett, C., Berkovic, S. F., Vadlamudi, L., & Craig, J. M. (2019). Evidence for type-specific DNA methylation patterns in epilepsy: A discordant monozygotic twin approach. Epigenomics, 11, 951968.
Murphy, T. M., Wong, C. C., Arseneault, L., Burrage, J., Macdonald, R., Hannon, E., … Mill, J. (2015). Methylomic markers of persistent childhood asthma: A longitudinal study of asthma-discordant monozygotic twins. Clinical Epigenetics, 7, 130.
Ollikainen, M., Ismail, K., Gervin, K., Kyllönen, A., Hakkarainen, A., Lundbom, J., … Kaprio, J. (2015). Genome-wide blood DNA methylation alterations at regulatory elements and heterochromatic regions in monozygotic twins discordant for obesity and liver fat. Clinical Epigenetics, 7, 39.
Oudejans, C., Poutsma, A., Michel, O., Mulders, J., Visser, A., van Dijk, M., … de Groot, C. J. (2016). Genome-wide identification of epigenetic hotspots potentially related to cardiovascular risk in adult women after a complicated pregnancy. PLoS One, 11, e0148313.
Pedersen, N. L., Lichtenstein, P., & Svedberg, P. (2002). The Swedish Twin Registry in the third millennium. Twin Research, 5, 427432.
Peng, H., Zhu, Y., Goldberg, J., Vaccarino, V., & Zhao, J. (2019). DNA methylation of five core circadian genes jointly contributes to glucose metabolism: A gene-set analysis in monozygotic twins. Frontiers in Genetics, 10, 329.
Peng, H., Zhu, Y., Strachan, E., Fowler, E., Bacus, T., Roy-Byrne, P., … Zhao, J. (2018). Childhood trauma, DNA methylation of stress-related genes, and depression: Findings from two monozygotic twin studies. Psychosomatic Medicine, 80, 599608.
Pietiläinen, K. H., Ismail, K., Järvinen, E., Heinonen, S., Tummers, M., Bollepalli, S., … Ollikainen, M. (2016). DNA methylation and gene expression patterns in adipose tissue differ significantly within young adult monozygotic BMI-discordant twin pairs. International Journal of Obesity, 40, 654661.
Plomin, R., & Haworth, C. M. (2010). Genetics and intervention research. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 5, 557563.
Qin, J., Li, R., Raes, J., Arumugam, M., Burgdorf, K. S., Manichanh, C., … Wang, J. (2010). A human gut microbial gene catalogue established by metagenomic sequencing. Nature, 464, 5965.
Ramos, P. S., Zimmerman, K. D., Haddad, S., Langefeld, C. D., Medsger, T. A. Jr., & Feghali-Bostwick, C. A. (2019). Integrative analysis of DNA methylation in discordant twins unveils distinct architectures of systemic sclerosis subsets. Clinical Epigenetics, 11, 58.
Riess, A., Binder, G., Ziegler, J., Begemann, M., Soellner, L., & Eggermann, T. (2016). First report on concordant monozygotic twins with Silver-Russell syndrome and ICR1 hypomethylation. European Journal of Medical Genetics, 59, 14.
Salzberg, S. L. (2018). Open questions: How many genes do we have? BMC Biology, 16, 94.
Schwartz, J. T. (1970). A twin register for eye studies and need for collaboration. Acta geneticae Medicae et Gemellologiae (Roma), 19, 344348.
Shoaie, S., Ghaffari, P., Kovatcheva-Datchary, P., Mardinoglu, A., Sen, P., Pujos-Guillot, E., … Nielsen, J. (2015). Quantifying diet-induced metabolic changes of the human gut microbiome. Cell Metabolism, 22, 320331.
Skytthe, A., Christiansen, L., Kyvik, K. O., Bodker, F. L., Hvidberg, L., Petersen, I., … Christensen, K. (2013). The Danish Twin Registry: Linking surveys, national registers, and biological information. Twin Research and Human Genetics, 16, 104111.
Skytthe, A., Kyvik, K., Bathum, L., Holm, N., Vaupel, J. W., & Christensen, K. (2006). The Danish Twin Registry in the new millennium. Twin Research and Human Genetics, 9, 763771.
Slack, E., Hapfelmeier, S., Stecher, B., Velykoredko, Y., Stoel, M., Lawson, M. A., … Macpherson, A. J. (2009). Innate and adaptive immunity cooperate flexibly to maintain host-microbiota mutualism. Science, 325, 617620.
Souren, N. Y., Gerdes, L. A., Lutsik, P., Gasparoni, G., Beltrán, E., … Walter, J. (2019). DNA methylation signatures of monozygotic twins clinically discordant for multiple sclerosis. Nature Communications, 10, 2094.
Spector, T. D., & Williams, F. M. (2006). The UK Adult Twin Registry (TwinsUK). Twin Research and Human Genetics, 9, 899906.
Stefan, M., Zhang, W., Concepcion, E., Yi, Z., & Tomer, Y. (2014). DNA methylation profiles in type 1 diabetes twins point to strong epigenetic effects on etiology. Journal of Autoimmunity, 50, 3337.
Stewart, J. A., Chadwick, V. S., & Murray, A. (2005). Investigations into the influence of host genetics on the predominant eubacteria in the faecal microflora of children. Journal of Medical Microbiology, 54, 12391242.
Sumathipala, A., Yelland, L., Green, D., Shepherd, T., Jayaweera, K., Ferreira, P., & Craig, J. M. (2018). Twins as participants in randomized controlled trials: A review of published literature. Twin Research and Human Genetics, 21, 5156.
Svendsen, A. J., Gervin, K., Lyle, R., Christiansen, L., Kyvik, K., Junker, P., … Tan, Q. (2016). Differentially methylated DNA regions in monozygotic twin pairs discordant for rheumatoid arthritis: An epigenome-wide study. Frontiers in Immunology, 7, 510.
Tarr, I. S., McCann, E. P., Benyamin, B., Peters, T. J., Twine, N. A., Zhang, K. Y., … Williams, K. L. (2019). Monozygotic twins and triplets discordant for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis display differential methylation and gene expression. Scientific Reports, 9, 8254.
Teschendorff, A. E., & Zheng, S. C. (2017). Cell-type deconvolution in epigenome-wide association studies: A review and recommendations. Epigenomics, 9, 757768.
Teucher, B., Skinner, J., Skidmore, P. M., Cassidy, A., Fairweather-Tait, S. J., Hooper, L., … MacGregor, A. J. (2007). Dietary patterns and heritability of food choice in a UK female twin cohort. Twin Research and Human Genetics, 10, 734748.
Thaiss, C. A., Zmora, N., Levy, M., & Elinav, E. (2016). The microbiome and innate immunity. Nature, 535, 6574.
Tremaroli, V., & Backhed, F. (2012). Functional interactions between the gut microbiota and host metabolism. Nature, 489, 242249.
Tsai, P. C., Van Dongen, J., Tan, Q., Willemsen, G., Christiansen, L., Boomsma, D. I., … Bell, J. T. (2015). DNA methylation changes in the IGF1R gene in birth weight discordant adult monozygotic twins. Twin Research and Human Genetics, 18, 635646.
Turnbaugh, P. J., Ley, R. E., Hamady, M., Fraser-Liggett, C. M., Knight, R., & Gordon, J. I. (2007). The human microbiome project. Nature, 449, 804810.
Turnbaugh, P. J., Quince, C., Faith, J. J., McHardy, A. C., Yatsunenko, T., Niazi, F., … Gordon, J. I. (2010). Organismal, genetic, and transcriptional variation in the deeply sequenced gut microbiomes of identical twins. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 107, 75037508.
Ulff-Møller, C. J., Asmar, F., Liu, Y., Svendsen, A. J., Busato, F., Grønbaek, K., Tost, J., & Jacobsen, S. (2018). Twin DNA methylation profiling reveals flare-dependent interferon signature and B cell promoter hypermethylation in systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis & Rheumatology, 70, 878890.
van Dongen, J., Nivard, M. G., Baselmans, B. M., Zilhão, N. R., Ligthart, L., BIOS Consortium, … Boomsma, D. I. (2015). Epigenome-wide association study of aggressive behavior. Twin Research and Human Genetics, 18, 686698.
Wang, J., Van Den Berg, D., Hwang, A. E., Weisenberger, D., Triche, T., Nathwani, B. N., … Cozen, W. (2019). DNA methylation patterns of adult survivors of adolescent/young adult Hodgkin lymphoma compared to their unaffected monozygotic twin. Leukemia & Lymphoma, 60, 14291437.
Wang, L., Zhang, J., Duan, J., Gao, X., Zhu, W., Lu, X., … Liu, J. (2014). Programming and inheritance of parental DNA methylomes in mammals. Cell, 157, 979991.
Webster, A. P., Plant, D., Ecker, S., Zufferey, F., Bell, J. T., Feber, A., … Worthington, J. (2018). Increased DNA methylation variability in rheumatoid arthritis-discordant monozygotic twins. Genome Medicine, 10, 64.
Wei, L., Liu, B., Tuo, J., Shen, D., Chen, P., Li, Z., … Nussenblatt, R. B. (2012). Hypomethylation of the IL17RC promoter associates with age-related macular degeneration. Cell Reports, 2, 11511158.
Weksberg, R., Shuman, C., Caluseriu, O., Smith, A. C., Fei, Y. L., Nishikawa, J., … Squire, J. (2002). Discordant KCNQ1OT1 imprinting in sets of monozygotic twins discordant for Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. Human Molecular Genetics, 11, 13171325.
Wolber, L. E., Steves, C. J., Tsai, P. C., Deloukas, P., Spector, T. D., Bell, J. T., & Williams, F. M. (2014). Epigenome-wide DNA methylation in hearing ability: New mechanisms for an old problem. PLoS One, 9, e105729.
Wong, C. C., Meaburn, E. L., Ronald, A., Price, T. S., Jeffries, A. R., Schalkwyk, L. C., … Mill, J. (2014). Methylomic analysis of monozygotic twins discordant for autism spectrum disorder and related behavioural traits. Molecular Psychiatry, 19, 495503.
Wong, C. C., Parsons, M. J., Lester, K. J., Burrage, J., Eley, T. C., Mill, J., … Gregory, A. M. (2015). Epigenome-Wide dna methylation analysis of monozygotic twins discordant for diurnal preference. Twin Research and Human Genetics, 18, 662669.
Xie, H., Guo, R., Zhong, H., Feng, Q., Lan, Z., Qin, B., … Jia, H. (2016). Shotgun Metagenomics of 250 Adult twins reveals genetic and environmental impacts on the gut microbiome. Cell Systems, 3, 572584 e573.
Yu, J. C., Khodadadi, H., & Baban, B. (2019). Innate immunity and oral microbiome: A personalized, predictive, and preventive approach to the management of oral diseases. EPMA Journal, 10, 4350.
Yuan, W., Xia, Y., Bell, C. G., Yet, I., Ferreira, T., Ward, K. J., … Spector, T. D. (2014). An integrated epigenomic analysis for type 2 diabetes susceptibility loci in monozygotic twins. Nature Communications, 5, 5719.
Yuan, Y. (2017). Study of global DNA methylation in monozygotic twins with cerebral palsy. Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 30, S1467S1473.
Zimmermann, M., Zimmermann-Kogadeeva, M., Wegmann, R., & Goodman, A. L. (2019). Mapping human microbiome drug metabolism by gut bacteria and their genes. Nature, 570, 462467.
Zink, F., Magnusdottir, D. N., Magnusson, O. T., Walker, N. J., Morris, T. J., Sigurdsson, A., … Stefansson, K. (2018). Insights into imprinting from parent-of-origin phased methylomes and transcriptomes. Nature Genetics, 50, 15421552.


Related content

Powered by UNSILO

Twin Registries Moving Forward and Meeting the Future: A Review

  • Paul N. Baird (a1) and Pirro Hysi (a2) (a3)


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.