Skip to main content

The TWIN-E Project in Emotional Wellbeing: Study Protocol and Preliminary Heritability Results Across Four MRI and DTI Measures

  • Justine M. Gatt (a1) (a2), Mayuresh S. Korgaonkar (a1), Peter R. Schofield (a3) (a4), Anthony Harris (a1) (a2), C. Richard Clark (a5), Karen L. Oakley (a1) (a2), Kaushik Ram (a1) (a2), Hope Michaelson (a1), Sarsha Yap (a1), Melinda Stanners (a5), Vikki Wise (a5) and Leanne M. Williams (a1) (a2)...

Despite the significant advancements being made in the neurogenetics for mental health, the identification and validation of potential endophenotype markers of risk and resilience remain to be confirmed. The TWIN-E study (The Twin study in Wellbeing using Integrative Neuroscience of Emotion) aims to validate endophenotype markers of mental health across cognitive, brain, and autonomic measures by testing the heritability, clinical plausibility, and reliability of each of these measures in a large adult twin cohort. The specific gene and environmental mechanisms that moderate prospective links between endophenotype-phenotype markers and the final outcome of wellbeing will also be identified. TWIN-E is a national prospective study with three phases: I) baseline testing on a battery of online questionnaires and cognitive tasks, and EEG, MRI, and autonomic testing; II) 12-month follow-up testing on the online assessments; and III) randomized controlled trial of brain training. Minimum target numbers include 1,500 male/female twins (18–65 years) for the online assessments (Phase I and II), 300 twins for the EEG testing component, and 244 twins for the MRI testing component. For Phase III, each twin out of the pair will be randomized to either the treatment or waitlist control group to test the effects of brain training on mental health over a 30-day period, and to confirm the gene–environment and endophenotype contributions to treatment response. Preliminary heritability results are provided for the first 50% of the MRI subgroup (n = 142) for the grey matter volume, thickness, and surface area measures, and white matter diffuse tensor imaging fractional anisotropy.

Corresponding author
address for correspondence: Dr Justine Gatt, Brain Dynamics Centre, Westmead Millennium Institute, University of Sydney Medical School-Westmead, Westmead Hospital, Westmead NSW 2145, Australia. E-mail:
Hide All
Baaré, W. F. C., Hulshoff Pol, H. E., Boomsma, D. I., Posthuma, D., de Geus, E. J. C., Schnack, H. G., van Haren, N. E. M., van Oel, C. J., & Kahn, R. S. (2001). Quantitative genetic modeling of variation in human brain morphology. Cerebral Cortex, 11, 816824.
Beauregard, M., Lévesque, J., & Bourgouin, P. (2001). Neural correlates of conscious self-regulation of emotion. The Journal of Neuroscience, 21, 16.
Block, J., & Kremen, A. M. (1996). IQ and ego-resiliency: Conceptual and empirical connections and separateness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70, 349361.
BRISC and WebNeuro assessment manual (v. 1.7). (2010). Sydney and San Francisco: Brain Resource Ltd.
Brouwer, R. M., Mandl, R. C. W., Peper, J. S., van Baal, G. C. M., Kahn, R. S., Boomsma, D. I., & Hulshoff Pol, H. E. (2010). Heritability of DTI and MTR in nine-year-old children. NeuroImage, 53, 10851092.
Burmeister, M., McInnis, M. G., & Zöllner, S. (2008). Psychiatric genetics: Progress amid controversy. Nature Reviews Genetics, 9, 527540.
Chiang, M-C., McMahon, K. L., de Zubicaray, G. I., Martin, N. G., Hickie, I., Toga, A. W., Wright, M. J., & Thompson, P. M. (2011). Genetics of white matter development: A DTI study of 705 twins and their siblings aged 12 to 29. NeuroImage, 54, 23082317.
Cohen, R. A., Paul, R. H., Stroud, L. L., Gunstad, J. J., Hitsman, B. L., McCaffery, J. J., Hitsman, B., Niaura, R., Clark, C. R., McFarlane, A., Bryant, R., Gordon, E., & Williams, L. M. (2006). Early life stress and adult emotional experience: An international perspective. International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine, 36, 3552.
de Zubicaray, G. I., Chiang, M-C., McMahon, K. L., Shattuck, D. W., Toga, A. W., Martin, N. G., Wright, M. J., & Thompson, P. M. (2008). Meeting the challenges of neuroimaging genetics. Brain Imaging and Behavior, 2, 258263.
Diener, E., Emmons, R. A., Larsen, R. J., & Griffin, S. (1985). The Satisfaction with Life Scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 49, 7175.
Duttweiler, P. C. (1984). The Internal Control Index: A newly developed measure of locus of control. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 44, 209221.
Fischl, B., van der Kouwe, A., Destrieux, C., Halgren, E., Segonne, F., Salat, D. H., Busa, E., Seidman, L. J., Goldstein, J., Kennedy, D., Caviness, V., Makris, N., Rosen, B., & Dale, A. M. (2004). Automatically parcellating the human cerebral cortex. Cerebral Cortex, 14, 1122.
Fredrickson, B., Tugade, M., Waugh, C., & Larkin, G. (2003). What good are positive emotions in crises? A prospective study of resilience and emotions following the terrorist attacks on the United States on September 11th, 2001. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 84, 365376.
Gatt, J. M., Clark, C. R., Kemp, A. H., Liddell, B. J., Dobson-Stone, C., Kuan, S., Schofield, P. R., & Williams, L. M. (2007). A genotype-endophenotype-phenotype path model of depressed mood: Integrating cognitive and emotional markers. Journal of Integrative Neuroscience, 6, 75104.
Gatt, J. M., Kuan, S., Dobson-Stone, C., Paul, R. H., Joffe, R. T., Kemp, A. H., Gordon, E., Schofield, P. R., & Williams, L. M. (2008). Association between BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and trait depression is mediated via resting EEG alpha band activity. Biological Psychology, 79, 275284.
Gatt, J. M., Nemeroff, C. B., Dobson-Stone, C., Kuan, S. A., Paul, R. H., Bryant, R. A., Schofield, P. R., Gordon, E., Kemp, A. H., & Williams, L. M. (2009). Interactions between BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and early life stress predict brain and arousal pathways to syndromal depression and anxiety. Molecular Psychiatry, 14, 681695.
Gatt, J. M., Nemeroff, C. B., Schofield, P. R., Paul, R. H., Clark, C. R., Gordon, E., & Williams, L. M. (2010a). Early life stress combined with HTR3A and BDNF Val66Met genotypes impacts emotional brain and arousal correlates of risk for depression. Biological Psychiatry, 68, 818824.
Gatt, J. M., Williams, L. M., Schofield, P. R., Dobson-Stone, C., Paul, R. H., Grieve, S., Clark, C. R., Gordon, E., & Nemeroff, C. B. (2010b). Impact of the HTR3A gene with early life trauma on emotional brain networks and depressed mood. Depression and Anxiety, 27, 752759.
Geschwind, D. H., Miller, B. L., DeCarli, C., & Carmelli, D. (2002). Heritability of lobar brain volumes in twins supports genetic models of cerebral laterality and handedness. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 99, 31763181.
Goldsmith, H. H. (1991). A zygosity questionnaire for young twins: A research note. Behavior Genetics, 21, 257269.
Gordon, E. (2003). Integrative Neuroscience. Neuropsychopharmacology, 28, S28.
Gordon, E., Barnett, K. J., Cooper, N. J., Tran, N., & Williams, L. M. (2008). An ‘integrative neuroscience’ platform: Application to profiles of negativity and positivity bias. Journal of Integrative Neuroscience, 7, 345366.
Gordon, E., & Williams, L. M. (2010). Personalized medicine and integrative neuroscience: Towards consensus markers for disorders of brain health. In Gordon, E. & Koslow, S. H. (Eds.), Personalized medicine, healthcare and integrative neuroscience. New York: Oxford University Press.
Gottesman, I., & Gould, T. D. (2003). The endophenotype concept in psychiatry: Etymology and strategic intentions. American Journal of Psychiatry, 160, 636645.
Gratton, G., Coles, M. G. H., & Donchin, E. (1983). A new method for off-line removal of ocular artifact. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 55, 468484.
Grieve, S. M., Korgaonkar, M. S, Clark, R. C., & Williams, L. M. (2011). Regional heterogeneity in limbic maturational changes: Evidence from integrating cortical thickness, volumetric and diffusion tensor imaging measures. NeuroImage, 55, 868.
Gross, J. J., & John, O. P. (2003). Individual differences in two emotion regulation processes: Implications for affect, relationships, and well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85, 348362.
Hasler, G., Drevets, W. C., Manji, H. K., & Charney, D. S. (2004). Discovering endophenotypes for major depression. Neuropsychopharmacology, 29, 17651781.
Hickie, I., Hadzi-Pavlovic, D., Scott, E., Davenport, T., Koschera, A., & Naismith, S. (1998). SPHERE: A national depression project. Australasian Psychiatry, 6, 248250.
Holmes, T. H., & Rahe, R. H. (1967). The Social Readjustment Rating Scale. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 11, 213218.
Holzinger, K. J. (1929). The relative effect of nature and nurture influences on twin differences. The Journal of Educational Psychology, 20, 241248.
Hulshoff Pol, H. E., Schnack, H. G., Posthuma, D., Mandl, R. C. W., Baare ´, W. F., van Oel, C., van Haren, N. E., Collins, D. L., Evans, A. C., Amunts, K., Bürgel, U., Zilles, K., de Geus, E., Boomsma, D. I., & Kahn, R. S. (2006). Genetic contributions to human brain morphology and intelligence. The Journal of Neuroscience, 26, 1023510242.
Hynes, C. A., Baird, A. A., & Grafton, S. T. (2006). Differential role of the orbital frontal lobe in emotional versus cognitive perspective-taking. Neuropsychologia, 44, 374383.
Insel, T. R., & Cuthbert, B. N. (2009). Endophenotypes: Bridging genomic complexity and disorder heterogeneity. Biological Psychiatry, 66, 988989.
Insel, T., Cuthbert, B., Garvey, M., Heinssen, R., Pine, D. S., Quinn, K., Sanislow, C., & Wang, P. (2010). Research domain criteria (RDoC): Toward a new classification framework for research on mental disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry, 167, 748751.
Jaeggi, S. M., Buschkuehl, M., Jonides, J. & Perrig, W. J. (2008). Improving fluid intelligence with training on working memory. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 105, 68296833.
Jasper, H. A. (1958). The ten twenty electrode system of the international federation. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 10, 371375.
Kessler, R. C., Barber, C., Beck, A. L., Berglund, P. A., Cleary, P. D., McKenas, D., Pronk, N., Simon, G., Stang, P., Üstün, T. U., & Wang, P. (2003). The World Health Organization Health and Work Performance Questionnaire (HPQ). Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 45, 156174.
Kochunov, P., Glahn, D. C., Lancaster, J., Winkler, A., Karlsgodt, K., Olvera, R. L., Curran, J. E., Carless, M. A., Dyer, T. D., Almasy, L., Duggirala, R., Fox, P. T., Blangero, J. (2011). Blood pressure and cerebral white matter share common genetic factors in Mexican Americans. Hypertension, 57, 330335.
Kochunov, P., Glahn, D. C., Lancaster, J. L., Winkler, A. M., Smith, S., Thompson, P. M., Almasy, L., Duggirala, R., Fox, P. T., & Blangero, J. (2010). Genetics of microstructure of cerebral white matter using diffusion tensor imaging. NeuroImage, 53, 11091116.
Kremen, W. S., Prom-Wormley, E., Panizzon, M. S., Eyler, L. T., Fischl, B., Neale, M. C., Franz, C. E., Lyons, M. J., Pacheco, J., Perry, M. E., Stevens, A., Schmitt, J. E., Grant, M. D., Seidman, L. J., Thermenos, H. W., Tsuang, M. T., Eisen, S. A., Dale, A. M., & Fennema-Notestine, C. (2010). Genetic and environmental influences on the size of specific brain regions in midlife: The VETSA MRI study. NeuroImage, 49, 12131223.
Lenroot, R. K., Schmitt, J. E., Ordaz, S. J., Wallace, G. L., Neale, M. C., Lerch, J. P., Kendler, K. S., Evans, A. C., & Giedd, J. N. (2009). Differences in genetic and environmental influences on the human cerebral cortex associated with development during childhood and adolescence. Human Brain Mapping, 30, 163174.
Loehlin, J. C. (1996). The Cholesky approach: A cautionary note. Behavior Genetics, 26, 6569.
Lovibond, P. F. (1998). Long-term stability of depression, anxiety and stress syndromes. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 107, 520526.
Lovibond, P. F., & Lovibond, S. H. (1995). The structure of negative emotional states: Comparison of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) with the Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 33, 335343.
Magnus, P., Bergm, K., & Nance, W. E. (1983). Predicting zygosity in Norwegian twin pairs born 1915–1960. Clinical Genetics, 24, 103112.
Mahncke, H. W, Connor, B. B., Appelman, J., Ahsanuddin, O. N., Hardy, J. L., Wood, R. A., Joyce, N. M., Boniske, T., Atkins, S. M., & Merzenich, M. M. (2006). Memory enhancement in healthy older adults using a brain plasticity-based training program: A randomized, controlled study. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 103, 1252312528.
Maislin, G., Pack, A. I., Kribbs, N. B., Smith, P. L., Schwartz, A. R., Kline, L. R., Schwab, R. J., & Dinges, D. F. (1995). A survey screen for prediction of apnea. Sleep, 18, 158166.
Mathersul, D., Palmer, D., Gur, R. C., Gur, R. E., Cooper, N., Gordon, E., & Williams, L. M. (2009). Explicit identification and implicit recognition of facial emotions: II. Identifying core domains and relationships with general cognition. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 31, 278291.
McCrae, R. R., & CostaP. T., Jr. P. T., Jr. (2004). A contemplated revision of the NEO Five-Factor Inventory. Personality and Individual Differences, 36, 587596.
McFarlane, A., Clark, C. R., Bryant, R. A., Williams, L. M., Niaura, R., Paul, R. H., Hitsman, B. L., Stroud, L., Alexander, D. M., & Gordon, E. (2005). The impact of early life stress on psychophysiological, personality and behavioral measures in 740 nonclinical subjects. Journal of Integrative Neuroscience, 4, 2740.
Mori, S., Oishi, K., Jiang, H., Jiang, L., Li, X., Akhter, K., Hua, K., Faria, A. V., Mahmod, A., Woods, R., Toga, A. W., Pike, B., Rosa Neto, P., Evans, A., Zhang, J., Huang, H., Miller, M. I., van Zijl, P. C. M., & Mazziotta, J. (2008). Stereotaxic white matter atlas based on diffusion tensor imaging in an ICBM template. Neuroimage, 40, 570582.
Murphy, B., Herrman, H., Hawthorne, G., Pinzone, T., & Evert, H. (2000). Australian WHOQoL instruments: User's manual and interpretation guide. Melbourne, Australia: Australian WHOQoL Field Study Centre.
Neale, M. C., & Maes, H. H. M. (2004). Methodology for genetics studies of twins and families. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic.
O'Connor, M., Cooper, N. J., Williams, L. M., DeVarney, S., & Gordon, E. (2010). Neuroleadership and the productive brain. Neuroleadership Journal, 3, 3742.
Panizzon, M. S., Fennema-Notestine, C., Eyler, L. T., Jernigan, T. L., Prom-Wormley, E., Neale, M., Jacobson, K., Lyons, M. J., Grant, M. D., Franz, C. E., Xian, H., Tsuang, M., Fischl, B., Seidman, L., Dale, A., & Kremen, W. S. (2009). Distinct genetic influences on cortical surface area and cortical thickness. Cerebral Cortex, 19, 27282735.
Parker, G., Roussos, J., Hadzi-Pavlovic, D., Mitchell, P., Wilhelm, P., Wilhelm, K., & Austin, M.-P. (1997). The development of a refined measure of dysfunctional parenting and assessment of its relevance in patients with affective disorders. Psychological Medicine, 27, 11931203.
Paul, R. H., Gunstad, J, Cooper, N., Williams, L. M., Clark, C. R., Cohen, R. A., Lawrence, J. J., & Gordon, E. (2007). Cross-cultural assessment of neuropsychological performance and electrical brain function measures: Additional validation of an international brain database. International Journal of Neuroscience, 117, 549–68.
Paul, R. H., Haque, O., Gunstad, J., Tate, D. F., Grieve, S. M., Hoth, K., Brickman, A. M., Cohen, R., Lange, K., Jefferson, A. L., MacGregor, K. L., & Gordon, E. (2005a). Subcortical hyperintensities impact cognitive function among a select subset of healthy elderly. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 20, 697704.
Paul, R. H., Lawrence, J., Williams, L. M., Clark, R. C., Cooper, N., & Gordon, E. (2005b). Preliminary validity of ‘IntegNeuro’: A new computerized and standardized battery of neurocognitive tests. International Journal of Neuroscience, 115, 15491567.
Posthuma, D., De Geus, E. J. C., Baaré, W. F. C., Hulshoff Pol, H. E., Kahn, R. S., & Boomsma, D. I. (2002). The association between brain volume and intelligence is of genetic origin. Nature Neuroscience, 5, 8384.
Purcell, S. (2002). Variance components models for gene-environment interaction in twin analysis. Twin Research, 5, 554571.
Sanders, B., & Becker-Lausen, E. (1995). The measurement of psychological maltreatment: Early data on the Child Abuse and Trauma Scale. Child Abuse and Neglect, 19, 315323.
Schmitt, J. E., Lenroot, R. K., Wallace, G. L., Ordaz, S., Taylor, K. N., Kabani, N., Greenstein, D., Lerch, J. P., Kendler, K. S., Neale, M. C., & Giedd, J. N. (2008). Identification of genetically mediated cortical networks: A multivariate study of pediatric twins and siblings. Cerebral Cortex, 18, 17371747.
Schofield, P. R., Williams, L. M., Paul, R. H., Gatt, J. M., Brown, K., Luty, A., Cooper, N., Grieve, S., Dobson-Stone, C., Kuan, S. A., & Gordon, E. (2009). Disturbances in selective information processing associated with the BDNFVal66Met polymorphism: Evidence from cognition, the P300 and fronto-hippocampal systems. Biological Psychology, 80, 176188.
Silverstein, S. M., Berten, S., Olson, P., Paul, R., Williams, L. M., Cooper, N., & Gordon, E. (2007). Development and validation of a world-wide-web-based neurocognitive assessment battery: WebNeuro. Behavior Research Methods, 39, 940949.
Smith, S. M., Jenkinson, M., Woolrich, M. W., Beckmann, C. F., Behrens, T. E., Johansen-Berg, H., Bannister, P. R., De Luca, M., Drobnjak, I., Flitney, D. E., Niazy, R. K., Saunders, J., Vickers, J., Zhang, Y., De Stefano, N., Brady, J. M., & Matthews, P. M. (2004). Advances in functional and structural MR image analysis and implementation as FSL. Neuroimage, 23, S208219.
Stromswold, K. (2001). The heritability of language: A review and metaanalysis of twin, adoption, and linkage studies. Language, 77, 647723.
Sullivan, E. V., Pfefferbaum, A., Swan, G. E., & Carmelli, D. (2001). Heritability of hippocampal size in elderly twin men: Equivalent influence from genes and environment. Hippocampus, 11, 754762.
Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology and the North American Society of Pacing Electrophysiology. (1996). Heart rate variability: Standards of measurement, physiological interpretation and clinical use. Circulation, 93, 10431065.
Trzepacz, P. T., & Baker, R. (1993). The psychiatric mental status examination. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Visscher, P. M. (2004). Power of the classical twin design revisited. Twin Research, 7, 505512.
Wacker, J., & Gatt, J. M. (2010). Resting posterior versus frontal delta/theta EEG activity is associated with extraversion and the COMT Val158Met polymorphism. Neuroscience Letters, 478, 8892.
Williams, L. M., Gatt, J. M., Grieve, S. M., Dobson-Stone, C., Paul, R. H., Gordon, E., & Schofield, P. R. (2010a). COMT Val108/158Met polymorphism effects on emotional brain function are modulated by level of awareness and associated with negativity biases. NeuroImage, 53, 918925.
Williams, L. M., Gatt, J. M., Hatch, A., Palmer, D. M., Nagy, M., Rennie, C., Cooper, N. J., Morris, C., Grieve, S., Dobson-Stone, C., Schofield, P., Clark, C. R., Gordon, E., Arns, M., & Paul, R. H. (2008). The integrate model of emotion, thinking and self regulation: An application to the ‘paradox of aging’. Journal of Integrative Neuroscience, 7, 367404.
Williams, L. M., Gatt, J. M., Schofield, P. R., Olivieri, G., Peduto, A., & Gordon, E. (2009a). ‘Negativity bias’ in risk for depression and anxiety: Brain-body fear circuitry correlates, 5-HTT-LPR and early life stress. NeuroImage, 47, 804814.
Williams, L. M., Kemp, A., Felmingham, K., Liddell, B., Palmer, D., Bryant, R. A. (2007). Neural biases to covert and overt signals of fear: Dissociation by trait anxiety and depression. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 10, 15951608.
Williams, L. M., Mathersul, D., Palmer, D. M., Gur, R. C., Gur, R. E., & Gordon, E. (2009b). Explicit identification and implicit recognition of facial emotions: I. Age effects in males and females across 10 decades. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 31, 257277.
Williams, L. M., Nagy, M. T., Docherty, J., & Gordon, E. (2010b). Emotion, thinking, and brain synchrony in schizophrenia: An integrative model. Mind & Brain, The Journal of Psychiatry, 1, 8799.
Williams, L. M., Phillips, M. L., Brammer, M. J., Skerrett, D., Lagopoulos, J., Rennie, C., Bahramali, H., Olivieri, G., David, A. S., Peduto, A., & Gordon, E. (2001). Arousal dissociates amygdala and hippocampal fear responses: Evidence from simultaneous fMRI and skin conductance recording. NeuroImage, 14, 10701079.
Williams, L. M., Rush, A. J., Koslow, S. H., Wisniewski, S. R., Cooper, N. J., Nemeroff, C. B., Schatzberg, A. F., & Gordon, E. (2011). International study to predict optimized treatment for depression (iSPOT-D), a randomized clinical trial: Rationale and protocol. Trials, 12, 117.
Williams, L. M., Tsang, T. W., Clarke, S., & Kohn, M. (2010c). An ‘integrative neuroscience’ perspective on ADHD: Linking cognition, emotion, brain and genetic measures with implications for clinical support. Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics, 10, 16071621.
Willis, S. L., Tennstedt, S. L., Marsiske, M., Ball, K., Elias, J., Koepke, K. M., Morris, J. N., Rebok, G. W., Unverzagt, F. W., Stoddard, A. M., & Wright, E. (2006). Long-term effects of cognitive training on everyday functional outcomes in older adults. Journal of the American Medical Association, 296, 28052814.
Winkler, A. M., Kochunov, P., Blangero, J., Almasy, L., Zilles, K., Fox, P. T., Duggirala, R., & Glahn, D. C. (2010). Cortical thickness or grey matter volume? The importance of selecting the phenotype for imaging genetics studies. NeuroImage, 53, 11351146.
World Health Organization Group. (1998). Development of the World Health Organization WHOQOL-BREF quality of life assessment. Psychological Medicine, 28, 551558.
Wright, I. C., Sham, P., Murray, R. M., Weinberger, D. R., & Bullmore, E. T. (2002). Genetic contributions to regional variability in human brain structure: Methods and preliminary results. NeuroImage, 17, 256271.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Twin Research and Human Genetics
  • ISSN: 1832-4274
  • EISSN: 1839-2628
  • URL: /core/journals/twin-research-and-human-genetics
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *


Type Description Title
Supplementary materials

Gatt Supplementary Material

 Word (227 KB)
227 KB


Altmetric attention score