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Twins Early Development Study: A Genetically Sensitive Investigation into Behavioral and Cognitive Development from Infancy to Emerging Adulthood

  • Kaili Rimfeld (a1), Margherita Malanchini (a1) (a2), Thomas Spargo (a1), Gemma Spickernell (a1), Saskia Selzam (a1), Andrew McMillan (a1), Philip S. Dale (a3), Thalia C. Eley (a1) and Robert Plomin (a1)...


The Twins Early Development Study (TEDS) is a longitudinal twin study that recruited over 16,000 twin-pairs born between 1994 and 1996 in England and Wales through national birth records. More than 10,000 of these families are still engaged in the study. TEDS was and still is a representative sample of the population in England and Wales. Rich cognitive and emotional/behavioral data have been collected from the twins from infancy to emerging adulthood, with data collection at first contact and at ages 2, 3, 4, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18 and 21, enabling longitudinal genetically sensitive analyses. Data have been collected from the twins themselves, from their parents and teachers, and from the UK National Pupil Database. Genotyped DNA data are available for 10,346 individuals (who are unrelated except for 3320 dizygotic co-twins). TEDS data have contributed to over 400 scientific papers involving more than 140 researchers in 50 research institutions. TEDS offers an outstanding resource for investigating cognitive and behavioral development across childhood and early adulthood and actively fosters scientific collaborations.


Corresponding author

Author for correspondence: Kaili Rimfeld, Email:


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Rimfeld et al. supplementary material
Figure S1 and Tables S1-S4

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