Skip to main content Accessibility help

Adaptation in single units in visual cortex: The tuning of aftereffects in the temporal domain

  • A. B. Saul (a1) and M. S. Cynader (a2)

Adaptation-induced changes in the temporal-frequency tuning and direction selectivity of cat visual cortical cells were studied. Aftereffects were induced largely independent of direction. Adapting in either direction reduced responses in both directions. Aftereffects in the direction opposite that adapted were only slightly weaker than were aftereffects in the adapted direction. No cell showed any enhancement of responses to drifting test stimuli after adapting with moving gratings. Adapting in a cell's null direction usually had no effect. Dramatic differences between the adaptation characteristics of moving and stationary stimuli were observed, however.

Furthermore, aftereffects were temporal frequency specific. Temporal frequency-specific aftereffects were found in both directions: adapting in one direction induced frequency-specific effects in both directions. This bidirectionality of frequency-specific aftereffects applied to the spatial domain as well. Often, aftereffects in the direction opposite that adapted were more narrowly tuned.

In general, adaptation could shift a cell's preferred temporal frequency. Aftereffects were most prominent at high temporal frequencies when testing in the adapted direction. Aftereffects seemed to be more closely linked to temporal frequency than to velocity matching.

These results constrain models of cortical connectivity. In particular, we argue against schemes by which direction selectivity is generated by inhibiting a cell specifically when stimulated in the nonpreferred direction. Instead, we argue that cells receive bidirectional spatially and temporally tuned inputs, which could combine in spatiotemporal quadrature to produce direction selectivity.

Hide All
Adelson, E.H. & Bergen, J.R. (1985). Spatiotemporal energy models for the perception of motion. Journal of the Optical Society of America A 2, 284299.
Albrecht, D.G., Farrar, S.B. & Hamilton, D.B. (1984). Spatial contrast adaptation characteristics of neurones recorded in the cat's visual cortex. Journal of Physiology 347, 713739.
Blakemore, C. & Campbell, F.W. (1969). On the existence of neurones in the human visual system selectively sensitive to the orientation and size of retinal images. Journal of Physiology 203, 237260.
Blakemore, C, Nachmas, J. & Sutton, P. (1970). The perceived spatial frequency shift: evidence for frequency-selective neurones in the human brain. Journal of Physiology 219, 727750.
Carpenter, R.H.S. & Blakemore, C. (1973). Interaction between orientations in human vision. Experimental Brain Research 18, 287303.
Creutzfeldt, O.D., Kuhnt, U. & Benevento, L.A. (1974). An intra-cellular analysis of visual cortical neurons to moving stimuli: responses in a cooperative neuronal network. Experimental Brain Research 21, 251274.
Dealy, R.S. & Tolhurst, D.J. (1974). Is spatial adaptation an aftereffect of prolonged inhibition? Journal of Physiology 241, 261270.
Dean, A.F. (1983). Adaptation-induced alteration of the relation between response amplitude and contrast in cat striate cortical neurones. Vision Research 23, 249256.
Hammond, P., Mouat, G.S.V. & Smith, A.T. (1985). Motion aftereffects in cat striate cortex elicited by moving gratings. Experimental Brain Research 60, 411416.
Hammond, P., Mouat, G.S.V. & Smith, A.T. (1986). Motion aftereffects in cat striate cortex elicited by moving texture. Vision Research 26, 10551060.
Hammond, P., Mouat, G.S.V. & Smith, A.T. (1988). Neural correlates of motion aftereffects in cat striate cortical neurones: monocular adaptation. Experimental Brain Research 72, 120.
Hebb, D.O. (1949). The Organization of Behavior. New York: Wiley.
Heggelund, P. & Hohmann, A. (1976). Long-term retention of the “Gilinsky-effect”. Vision Research 16, 10151017.
Humphrey, A.L. & Weller, R.E. (1988). Functionally distinct groups of X cells in the lateral geniculate nucleus of the cat. Journal of Comparative Neurology 268, 429447.
Julesz, B. (1971). Foundations of Cyclopean Perception. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Levinson, E. & Sekuler, R. (1975). Inhibition and disinhibition of direction-specific mechanisms in human vision. Nature 254, 692694.
Lovegrove, W. (1976). Inhibition in simultaneous and successive contour interaction in human vision. Vision Research 16, 15191521.
Maffei, L., Berardi, N. & Bisti, S. (1986). Interocular transfer of adaptation aftereffect in neurons of area 17 and 18 of split chiasm cats. Journal of Neurophysiology 55, 966976.
Magnussen, S. & Johnsen, T. (1986). Temporal aspects of spatial adaptation. A study of the tilt aftereffect. Vision Research 26, 661672.
Mandler, M.B. (1984). Temporal-frequency discrimination above threshold. Vision Research 24, 18731880.
Marlin, S.G., Hasan, S.J. & Cynader, M.S. (1988). Direction selective adaptation in simple and complex cells in cat striate cortex. Journal of Neurophysiology 59, 13141330.
Mastronarde, D.N. (1987). Two classes of single-input X cells in cat lateral geniculate nucleus. II. Retinal inputs and the generation of receptive-field properties. Journal of Neurophysiology 57, 381413.
McCollough, C. (1965). Color adaptation of edge-detectors in the human visual system. Science 149, 11151116.
Movshon, J.A. & Lennie, P. (1979). Pattern-selective adaptation in visual cortical neurones. Nature 278, 850852.
Movshon, J.A., Bonds, A.B. & Lennie, P. (1980). Pattern adaptation in striate cortical neurons. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science (Suppl.) 21, 193.
Nakayama, K. (1985). Biological image motion processing: a review. Vision Research 25, 625660.
Ohzawa, I., Sclar, G. & Freeman, R.D. (1985). Contrast gain control in the cat's visual system. Journal of Neurophysiology 54, 651667.
Orban, G.A., Hoffmann, K.-P. & Duysens, J. (1985). Velocity selectivity in the cat visual system. I. Responses of LGN cells to moving bar stimuli: a comparison with cortical areas 17 and 18. Journal of Neurophysiology 54, 10261049.
Pantle, A. & Sekuler, R. (1969). Contrast response of human visual mechanisms sensitive to orientation and direction of motion. Vision Research 9, 397406.
Pantle, A. (1974). Motion aftereffect magnitude as a measure of the spatio-temporal response properties of direction-sensitive analyzers. Vision Research 14, 12291236.
Reichardt, W. (1961). Autocorrelation, a principle for the evaluation of sensory information by the central nervous system. In Sensory Communication, ed. Rosenblith, W.A., New York: Wiley, pp. 303317.
SAUL, A.B. (1982). Development and mechanisms of visual cortical specificity. Society for Neuroscience Abstracts 8, 296.
Saul, A.B. & Daniels, J.D. (1985). Adaptation effects from conditioning area 17 cortical units in kittens during physiological recording. Society for Neuroscience Abstracts 11, 461.
Saul, A.B. & Daniels, J.D. (1986). Modeling and simulation. II: Specificity models for visual cortex development. Journal of Electrophys-iological Techniques 13, 211231.
Saul, A.B. & Cynader, M.S. (1989). Adaptation in single units in visual cortex: the tuning of aftereffects in the spatial domain. Visual Neuroscience 2, 593607.
Sekuler, R.W. & Ganz, L. (1963). Aftereffect of seen motion with a stabilized image. Science 139, 419420.
Shadlen, M. & Carney, T. (1986). Mechanisms of human motion perception revealed by a new cyclopean illusion. Science 232, 9597.
Shapley, R.M. & Victor, J.D. (1981). How the contrast gain control modifies the frequency responses of cat retinal ganglion cells. Journal of Physiology 318, 161179.
Sillito, A.M. (1977). Inhibitory processes underlying the directional specificity of simple, complex and hypercomplex cells in the cat's visual cortex. Journal of Physiology 271, 699720.
Stecher, S., Sigel, C. & Lange, R.V. (1973). Spatial-frequency channels in human vision and the threshold for adaptation. Vision Research 13, 16911700.
Thompson, P. (1981). Velocity aftereffects: the effects of adaptation to moving stimuli on the perception of subsequently seen moving stimuli. Vision Research 21, 337345.
Thompson, P. (1983). Discrimination of moving gratings at and above detection threshold. Vision Research 23, 15331538.
Tolhurst, D.J. (1972). Adaptation to square-wave gratings: inhibition between spatial-frequency channels in the human visual system. Journal of Physiology 226, 231248.
Ullman, S. & Schechtman, G. (1982). Adaptation and gain normalization. Proceedings of the Royal Society B (London) 216, 299313.
van Santen, J.P.H. & Sperling, G. (1984). Temporal covariance model of human motion perception. Journal of the Optical Society of America A 1, 451473.
van Santen, J.P.H. & Sperling, G. (1985). Elaborated Reichardt detectors. Journal of the Optical Society of America A 2, 300321.
Vautin, R.G. & Berkley, M.A. (1977). Responses of single cells in cat visual cortex to prolonged stimulus movement: neural correlates of visual aftereffects. Journal of Neurophysiology 40, 10511065.
von der Heydt, R., Hänny, P. & Adorjani, C. (1978). Movement aftereffects in the visual cortex. Archives of Italian Biology 116, 248254.
Watson, A.B. & Ahumada, A.J. (1985). Model of human visual-motion sensing. Journal of the Optical Society of America A 2, 322342.
Wilson, H.R. (1975). A synaptic model for spatial-frequency adaptation. Journal of Theoretical Biology 50, 327352.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Visual Neuroscience
  • ISSN: 0952-5238
  • EISSN: 1469-8714
  • URL: /core/journals/visual-neuroscience
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *



Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed