Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 8
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Andrade, Luciana Cristina O Souza, Givago S Lacerda, Eliza Maria CB Nazima, Maira TST Rodrigues, Anderson R Otero, Liudmila M Pena, Francineide PS Silveira, Luiz Carlos L and Côrtes, Maria Izabel T 2014. Influence of retinopathy on the achromatic and chromatic vision of patients with type 2 diabetes. BMC Ophthalmology, Vol. 14, Issue. 1,

    Bimler, David L. Paramei, Galina V. Feitosa-Santana, Claudia Oiwa, Nestor Norio and Ventura, Dora Fix 2014. Saturation-specific pattern of acquired colour vision deficiency in two clinical populations revealed by the method of triads. Color Research & Application, Vol. 39, Issue. 2, p. 125.

    Shi, Liheng Ko, Michael L. Huang, Cathy Chia-Yu Park, So-Young Hong, Min-Pyo Wu, Chaodong and Ko, Gladys Y.-P. 2014. Chicken Embryos as a Potential New Model for Early Onset Type I Diabetes. Journal of Diabetes Research, Vol. 2014, p. 1.

    Feitosa-Santana, Claudia Bimler, David L. Paramei, Galina V. Oiwa, Nestor N. Barboni, Mirella T. S. Costa, Marcelo F. Silveira, Luiz C. L. and Ventura, Dora F. 2010. Color-space distortions following long-term occupational exposure to mercury vapor. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics, Vol. 30, Issue. 5, p. 724.

    Feitosa-Santana, Claudia Paramei, Galina V. Nishi, Mauro Gualtieri, Mirella Costa, Marcelo F. and Ventura, Dora F. 2010. Color vision impairment in type 2 diabetes assessed by the D-15d test and the Cambridge Colour Test. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics, Vol. 30, Issue. 5, p. 717.

    O’Neill-Biba, M. Sivaprasad, S. Rodriguez-Carmona, M. Wolf, J. E. and Barbur, J. L. 2010. Loss of chromatic sensitivity in AMD and diabetes: a comparative study. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics, Vol. 30, Issue. 5, p. 705.

    Bimler, David and Kirkland, John 2009. Colour-space distortion in women who are heterozygous for colour deficiency. Vision Research, Vol. 49, Issue. 5, p. 536.

    Petrofsky, Jerrold Scott and Cuneo, Maria 2007. Correlation Between Gait, Balance, and Age When People Are Standing and Walking in Normal, Subdued, and No Light Conditions. Physical & Occupational Therapy In Geriatrics, Vol. 26, Issue. 3, p. 23.


Color space distortions in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

  • CLAUDIA FEITOSA-SANTANA (a1) (a2), NESTOR N. OIWA (a1) (a3), GALINA V. PARAMEI (a4), DAVID BIMLER (a5), MARCELO F. COSTA (a1) (a2), MARCOS LAGO (a1) (a2), MAURO NISHI (a6) and DORA F. VENTURA (a1) (a2)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 September 2006

Color vision impairment was examined in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) without retinopathy. We assessed the type and degree of distortions of individual color spaces. DM2 patients (n = 32), and age-matched controls (n = 20) were tested using the Farnsworth D-15 and the Lanthony D-15d tests. In addition, subsets of caps from both tests were employed in a triadic procedure (Bimler & Kirkland, 2004). Matrices of inter-cap subjective dissimilarities were estimated from each subject's “odd-one-out” choices, and processed using non-metric multidimensional scaling. Two-dimensional color spaces, individual and group (DM2 patients; controls), were reconstructed, with the axes interpreted as the R/G and B/Y perceptual opponent systems. Compared to controls, patient results were not significant for the D-15 and D-15d. In contrast, in the triadic procedure the residual distances were significantly different compared to controls: right eye, P = 0.021, and left eye, P = 0.022. Color space configurations for the DM2 patients were compressed along the B/Y and R/G dimensions. The present findings agree with earlier studies demonstrating diffuse losses in early stages of DM2. The proposed method of testing uses color spaces to represent discrimination and provides more differentiated quantitative diagnosis, which may be interpreted as the perceptual color system affected. In addition, it enables the detection of very mild color vision impairment that is not captured by the D-15d test. Along with fundoscopy, individual color spaces may serve for monitoring early functional changes and thereby to support a treatment strategy.

Corresponding author
Address correspondence and reprint requests to: Claudia Feitosa Santana, Depto. Psicologia Experimental, Instituto de Psicologia, Universidade de São Paulo, Av. Professor Mello Moraes, 1721 Bloco A Sala D-9-05508-900 São Paulo, SP, Brasil. E-mail:
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

Barton, F.B., Fong, D.S., Knatterud, G.L., & ETDRS Research Group. (2004). Classification of Farnsworth-Munsell 100-Hue Test Results in the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study. American Journal of Ophthalmology138, 119124.

Bimler, D.L., Kirkland, J., & Jacobs, R. (2000). Colour-vision tests considered as a special case of multidimensional scaling. Color Research & Application25, 160169.

Bowman, K.J. (1982). A method for quantitative scoring of the Farnsworth panel D-15. Acta Ophthalmologica Copenhagen60, 907916.

Bresnick, G.H., Condit, R.S., Palta, M., Korth, K., Groo, A., & Syrjala, S. (1985). Association of hue discrimination loss and diabetic retinopathy. Archives of Ophthalmology103, 13171324.

Farnsworth, D. (1943). The Farnsworth-Munsell 100-hue and dichotomous tests for color vision. Journal of the Optical Society of America33, 568578.

Fong, D.S., Barton, F.B., & Bresnick, G.H. (1999). Impaired color vision associated with diabetic retinopathy: Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study Report No. 15. American Journal of Ophthalmology128, 612617.

Geller, A. (2001). A table of color distance scores for quantitative scoring of the Lanthony Desaturate color vision test. Neurotoxicology and Teratology23, 265267.

Helm, C.R. (1964). Multidimensional ratio scaling analysis of perceived color relations. Journal of the Optical Society of America54, 256262.

Helm, C.R. & Tucker, R. (1962). Individual differences in the structure of color perception. American Journal of Psychology75, 437444.

Ismail, G.M. & Whitaker, D. (1998). Early detection of changes in visual function in diabetes mellitus. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics18, 312.

Kurtenbach, A., Flögel, W., & Erb, C. (2002). Anomaloscope matches in patients with diabetes mellitus. Graefes Archives for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology240, 7984.

Lanthony, P. (1978). The desaturated panel D-15. Documenta Ophthalmologica46, 185189.

Paramei, G.V., Izmailov, C.A., & Sokolov, E.N. (1991). Multidimensional scaling of large chromatic differences by normal and color-deficient subjects. Psychological Science2, 244248.

Shepard, R.N. & Cooper, L.A. (1992). Representations of colors in the blind, color-blind, and normally sighted. Psychological Science3, 97104.

Trick, G.L., Burde, R.M., Gordon, M.O., Santiago, J.V., & Kilo, C. (1988). The relationship between hue discrimination and contrast sensitivity deficits in patients with diabetes mellitus. Ophthalmology95, 693698.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Visual Neuroscience
  • ISSN: 0952-5238
  • EISSN: 1469-8714
  • URL: /core/journals/visual-neuroscience
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *