Skip to main content Accessibility help

Color vision in the dog

  • Jay Neitz (a1), Timothy Geist (a1) and Gerald H. Jacobs (a1)

The color vision of three domestic dogs was examined in a series of behavioral discrimination experiments. Measurements of increment-threshold spectral sensitivity functions and direct tests of color matching indicate that the dog retina contains two classes of cone photopigment. These two pigments are computed to have spectral peaks of about 429 nm and 555 nm. The results of the color vision tests are all consistent with the conclusion that dogs have dichromatic color vision.

Hide All
Aguirre, G. (1978). Retinal degenerations in the dog, I: Rod dysplasia. Experimental Eye Research 26, 233253.
Aguirre, C., Alligood, J., O'Brien, P. & Buykmihci, N. (1982). Pathogenesis of progressive rod-cone degeneration in miniature poodles. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science 23, 610630.
Ali, M.A. & Klyne, M.A. (1985). Vision in Vertebrates. New York: Plenum Press.
Baylor, D.A., Nunn, B.J. & Schnapf, J.L. (1987). Spectral sensitivity of cones of the monkey Macaca fascicularis. Journal of Physiology 390, 145160.
Blakeslee, B., Jacobs, G.H. & Neitz, J. (1988). Spectral mechanisms in the tree squirrel retina. Journal of Comparative Physiology A 162, 773780.
Coile, D.C. (1982). A determination of critical flicker fusion as a function of light intensity in dogs using conditioned suppression. Unpublished Masters Thesis, Florida State University.
Dawis, S.M. (1981). Polynomial expressions of pigment nomograms. Vision Research 21, 14271430.
Ebrey, T.G. & Honig, B. (1977). New wavelength-dependent visual pigment nomograms. Vision Research 17, 147151.
Harwerth, R.S. & Sperling, H.G. (1971). Prolonged color blindness induced by intense spectral lights in rhesus monkeys. Science 174, 520523.
Hurvich, L.M. & Jameson, D. (1974). On the measurement of dichromatic neutral points. Acta Chromatica 2, 207216.
Jacobs, G.H. (1978). Spectral sensitivity and colour vision in the ground-dwelling sciurids: results from the golden-mantled ground squirrel and comparisons for five species. Animal Behaviour 26, 409421.
Jacobs, G.H. (1981). Comparative Color Vision. New York: Academic Press.
Jacobs, G.H. (1983). Within-species variations in visual capacity among squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus): sensitivity differences. Vision Research 23, 239248.
Jacobs, G.H. (1984). Within-species variations in visual capacity among squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus): color vision. Vision Research 24, 12671277.
Jacobs, G.H. & Neitz, J. (1986). Spectral mechanisms and color vision in the tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri). Vision Research 26, 291298.
King-Smith, P.E. & Carden, D. (1976). Luminance and opponent-color contributions to visual detection and adaptation and to temporal and spatial integration. Journal of the Optical Society of America 66, 709717.
Loop, M., Millican, C.L. & Thomas, S.R. (1987). Photopic spectral sensitivity of the cat. Journal of Physiology 382, 537553.
Massof, R.W. & Bailey, J.E. (1976). Achromatic points in protanopes and deuteranopes. Vision Research 16, 5357.
Mollon, J.D., Bowmaker, J.K., Dartnall, H.J.A. & Bird, A.C. (1984). Microspectrophotometric and psychophysical results for the same deuteranopic observer. Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series 39, 303310.
Neitz, J. & Jacobs, G.H. (1984). Electroretinogram measurements of cone spectral sensitivity in dichromatic monkeys. Journal of the Optical Society of America A 1, 11751180.
Neitz, J. & Jacobs, G.H. (1989). Spectral sensitivity of cones in an ungulate. Visual Neuroscience 2, 97100.
Odum, J.V., Bromberg, N.M. & Dawson, W.W. (1983). Canine visual acuity: retinal and cortical field potentials evoked by pattern stimulation. American Journal of Physiology 245, R637R641.
Parry, H.B. (1953). Degeneration of the dog retina, I: Structure and development of the retina of the normal dog. British Journal of Ophthalmology 37, 385404.
Pokorny, J., Smith, V.C., Verriest, G. & Pinckers, A.J.L.G. (1979). Congenital and Acquired Color Vision Defects. New York: Grune & Stratton.
Rosengren, A. (1969). Experiments on colour discrimination in dogs. Acta Zoologica Fennica 121, 319.
Schmidt, S.Y. & Aguirre, G.D. (1985). Reductions in taurine secondary to photoreceptor loss in Irish setters with rod-cone dysplasia. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science 26, 679683.
Schmidt, S.Y., Andley, U.P., Heth, C.A. & Miller, J. (1986). Deficiency in light-dependent opsin phosphorylation in Irish setters with rod-cone dysplasia. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science 27, 15511559.
Tansley, K. (1965). Vision in Vertebrates. London: Chapman & Hall.
Walls, G.L. (1942). The Vertebrate Eye and Its Adaptive Radiation. Bloomfield Hills, Michigan: The Cranbrook Institute of Science.
Wright, W.D. (1946). Researches on Normal and Defective Colour Vision. London: Henry Kimpton.
Zrenner, E. (1983). Neurophysiological Aspects of Color Vision in Primates. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Visual Neuroscience
  • ISSN: 0952-5238
  • EISSN: 1469-8714
  • URL: /core/journals/visual-neuroscience
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *



Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed