Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa

Diurnal control of rod function in the chicken

  • Frank Schaeffel (a1), Baerbel Rohrer (a1), Eberhart Zrenner (a1) and Thomas Lemmer (a2)

We studied rod function in the chicken by recording corneal electroretinograms (ERGs). The following experiments were performed to demonstrate rod function during daytime: (1) determining the dark-adaptation function; (2) measuring the spectral sensitivity by a a–b-wave amplitude criterion in response to monochromatic flickering light of different frequencies ranging from 6.5–40.8 Hz (duty cycle 1: I); (3) analyzing the response vs. log stimulus intensity (V–log I) function in order to reveal a possible two phase process; and (4) determining the spectral sensitivity function either in a non-dark adapted state or after dark adaptation of the animals for I and 24 h. None of these experiments demonstrated clear evidence of rod function during daytime. On the other hand, we found rods histologically by light- and electron microscopy. Therefore, we repeated our ERG recordings during the night (between midnight and 3:00 A.M.). Without previous dark adaptation, rod function could be seen immediately in the same experiments described above. The result shows that, in the chicken, rods are turned on endogenously during the night but are scarcely functional during the day.

Hide All
Armington J.C. & Thiede F.C. (1956). Electroretinal demonstration of a Purkinje shift in the chicken eye. American Journal of Physiology 186, 258262.
Armington J.C. & Crampton G.H. (1958). Comparison of the spectral sensitivity at the eye and the optic tectum of the chicken. American Journal of Opthalmotogy 46, 7287.
Barlow R.B. (1990). Long- and short-term adaptation of visual sensitivity in Limulus. Proceedings of the International Society of Eye Research 6, 327.
Bowmaker J.K. & Knowles A. (1977). The visual pigments and oil droplets of the chicken retina. Vision Research 17, 755764.
Bowmaker J.K. & Martin G.R. (1978). Visual pigments and color vision in a nocturnal bird (Strix aluco), the tawny owl. Vision Research 18, 11251130.
Chen D.M. & Goldsmith T.H. (1984). Appearance of a Purkinje shift in the developing retina of the chick. Journal of Experimental Zoology 229, 265271.
Dearry A. & Barlow R. (1987). Circadian rythms in the green sunfish retina. Journal of General Physiology 89, 745.
Ehrlich D. (1981). Regional specialization of the chick retina as revealed by size and density of neurons in the ganglion cell layer. Journal of Comparative Neurology 195, 643657.
Fager L.Y. & Fager R.S. (1981). Chicken blue and chicken violet, short-wavelength sensitive visual pigments. Vision Research 21, 581586.
Fulton A., Fite K.V. & Bengston L. (1983). Retinal degeneration in the delayed amelotic (DAM) chicken: an electroretinographic study. Current Eye Research 2, 757763.
Gowardowski V.I. & Zueva L.V. (1977). Visual pigments of chicken and pigeon. Vision Research 17, 537543.
Hamm H.E. & Menaker M. (1980). Retinal rythms in chicks: circadian variation in melatonin and serotonin N-acetyltransferase activity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the U.S.A. 77, 49985002.
Kirschfeld K. (1982). Carotinoid pigments: their possible role in protecting against photooxidation in eyes and photoreceptor cells. Proceedings of the Royal Society B (London) 216, 7185.
Meyer D.B. & May H.C. (1973). The topographical distribution of rods and cones in the adult chicken retina. Experimental Eye Research 17, 347355.
Meyer D.B. (1960). Application of the periodic acid-Schiff technique to whole chick embryos. Stain Technology 35, 8389.
Morris V.B. (1970). Symmetry in a receptor mosaic demonstrated in the chick from the frequencies, spacing, and arrangement of the types of retinal receptor. Journal of Comparative Neurology 140, 359398.
Morris V.B. (1987). An afoveate area centralis in the chick retina. Journal of Comparative Neurology 210, 198203.
Oishi T. (1984). Circadian mitotic rhythm in chick corneal endothelium. Journal of Interdisciplinic Cycle Research 15, 281288.
Pettigrew J.D., Wallman J. & Wildsoet C.F. (1990). Saccadicoscillations facilitate ocular perfusion from the avian pecten. Nature 343, 362363.
Porciatti V., Fontanesi G. & Bagnoli P. (1989). The electroretinogram of the little owl (Athene noctua). Vision Research 29, 16931698.
Sato T., Yoneyama T., Kim H.K. & Suzuki T.A. (1987). Effect of dopamine and haloperidole on the c wave and light peak of light-induced responses in the chick eye. Documenta Opthalmologica 65, 8795
Schaeffel F., Howland H.C., & Farkas L. (1986). Natural accommodation in the growing chicken. Vision Research 26, 19771993.
Schaeffel F., Glasser A. & Howland H.C. (1988). Accommodation, refractive error, and eye growth in chickens. Vision Research 28, 639657.
Schaeffel F., Troilo D., Wallman J. & Howland H.C. (1990). Developing eyes that lack accommodation grow to compensate for imposed defocus. Visual Neuroscience 4, 177183.
Schaeffel F. & Rowland H.C. (1991). Properties of visual feed backloops controlling eye growth and refractive state in the chicken. Vision Research 4, 717734.
van Norren D. (1975). Two short wavelength-sensitive cone systems in the pigeon, chicken, and daw. Vision Research 15, 11641166.
Wallman J. & Adams J.I. (1987). Developmental aspects of experimental myopia in chicks. Vision Research 27, 11391163.
Walls G.L. (1942). The Vertebrate Eye and Its Adaptive Radiation. Bloomfield Hills, Michigan: Cranbrook Institute of Science.
Wioland N., Rudolf G. & Bonaventure N. (1987). lodate poisoning of the retina. A highly species-dependent process. Electrophysiological evidences. Clinical Vision Sciences 3, 1927.
Wortel J.F., Rugenbrink H. & Nuboer J.F.W. (1987). The photopic spectral sensitivity of the dorsal and ventral retina of the chicken. Journal of Comparative Physiology A 160, 151154.
Yen L. & Fager R.S. (1984). Chromatographic resolution of the rod pigment from the four cone pigments of the chicken retina. Vision Research 24, 15551562.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Visual Neuroscience
  • ISSN: 0952-5238
  • EISSN: 1469-8714
  • URL: /core/journals/visual-neuroscience
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *



Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 4 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 117 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 21st October 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.