Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 18
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Lind, Olle Chavez, Johanna and Kelber, Almut 2014. The contribution of single and double cones to spectral sensitivity in budgerigars during changing light conditions. Journal of Comparative Physiology A, Vol. 200, Issue. 3, p. 197.

    Hammond, David S. and Wildsoet, Christine F. 2012. Compensation to positive as well as negative lenses can occur in chicks reared in bright UV lighting. Vision Research, Vol. 67, p. 44.

    Lind, Olle Sunesson, Tony Mitkus, Mindaugas and Kelber, Almut 2012. Luminance-dependence of spatial vision in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) and Bourke’s parrots (Neopsephotus bourkii). Journal of Comparative Physiology A, Vol. 198, Issue. 1, p. 69.

    Bueno, Juan M. Giakoumaki, Anastasia Gualda, Emilio J. Schaeffel, Frank and Artal, Pablo 2011. Analysis of the chicken retina with an adaptive optics multiphoton microscope. Biomedical Optics Express, Vol. 2, Issue. 6, p. 1637.

    Gover, Nick Jarvis, John R. Abeyesinghe, Siobhan M. and Wathes, Christopher M. 2009. Stimulus luminance and the spatial acuity of domestic fowl (Gallus g. domesticus). Vision Research, Vol. 49, Issue. 23, p. 2747.

    Ping, Yong Huang, Hai Zhang, Xin-Jun and Yang, Xiong-Li 2008. Melatonin potentiates rod signals to ON type bipolar cells in fish retina. The Journal of Physiology, Vol. 586, Issue. 11, p. 2683.

    Rucker, Frances J. and Wallman, Josh 2008. Cone signals for spectacle-lens compensation: Differential responses to short and long wavelengths. Vision Research, Vol. 48, Issue. 19, p. 1980.

    Rymer, Jodi Choh, Vivian Bharadwaj, Shrikant Padmanabhan, Varuna Modilevsky, Laura Jovanovich, Elizabeth Yeh, Brenda Zhang, Zhan Guan, Huanxian Payne, W. and Wildsoet, Christine F. 2007. The albino chick as a model for studying ocular developmental anomalies, including refractive errors, associated with albinism. Experimental Eye Research, Vol. 85, Issue. 4, p. 431.

    Peters, Jennifer L. and Cassone, Vincent M. 2005. Melatonin regulates circadian electroretinogram rhythms in a dose- and time-dependent fashion. Journal of Pineal Research, Vol. 38, Issue. 3, p. 209.

    Ren, Jason Q. and Li, Lei 2004. A circadian clock regulates the process of ERG b- and d-wave dominance transition in dark-adapted zebrafish. Vision Research, Vol. 44, Issue. 18, p. 2147.

    Mangel, Stuart C. 2001. Concepts and Challenges in Retinal Biology (Progress in Brain Research).

    Li, Tong and Howland, Howard C 2000. Modulation of constant light effects on the eye by ciliary ganglionectomy and optic nerve section. Vision Research, Vol. 40, Issue. 17, p. 2249.

    McGoogan, Jennifer M Wu, Wen Qi and Cassone, Vincent M 2000. Inter-ocular interference and circadian regulation of the chick electroretinogram. Vision Research, Vol. 40, Issue. 20, p. 2869.

    Schwahn, Hartmut N. and Schaeffel, Frank 1997. Flicker parameters are different for suppression of myopia and hyperopia. Vision Research, Vol. 37, Issue. 19, p. 2661.

    Hoffmann, Michael and Schaeffel, Frank 1996. Melatonin and deprivation myopia in chickens. Neurochemistry International, Vol. 28, Issue. 1, p. 95.

    Schaeffel, Frank Bartmann, Marieluise Hagel, Gabi and Zrenner, Eberhart 1995. Studies on the role of the retinal dopamine/melatonin system in experimental refractive errors in chickens. Vision Research, Vol. 35, Issue. 9, p. 1247.

    Wildsoet, Christine F. Howland, Howard C. Falconer, S. and Dick, K. 1993. Chromatic aberration and accommodation: their role in emmetropization in the chick. Vision Research, Vol. 33, Issue. 12, p. 1593.

    Li, Xiao-Xin Schaeffel, Frank Kohler, Konrad and Zrenner, Eberhart 1992. Dose-dependent effects of 6-hydroxy dopamine on deprivation myopia, electroretinograms, and dopaminergic amacrine cells in chickens. Visual Neuroscience, Vol. 9, Issue. 05, p. 483.


Diurnal control of rod function in the chicken

  • Frank Schaeffel (a1), Baerbel Rohrer (a1), Eberhart Zrenner (a1) and Thomas Lemmer (a2)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 June 2009

We studied rod function in the chicken by recording corneal electroretinograms (ERGs). The following experiments were performed to demonstrate rod function during daytime: (1) determining the dark-adaptation function; (2) measuring the spectral sensitivity by a a–b-wave amplitude criterion in response to monochromatic flickering light of different frequencies ranging from 6.5–40.8 Hz (duty cycle 1: I); (3) analyzing the response vs. log stimulus intensity (V–log I) function in order to reveal a possible two phase process; and (4) determining the spectral sensitivity function either in a non-dark adapted state or after dark adaptation of the animals for I and 24 h. None of these experiments demonstrated clear evidence of rod function during daytime. On the other hand, we found rods histologically by light- and electron microscopy. Therefore, we repeated our ERG recordings during the night (between midnight and 3:00 A.M.). Without previous dark adaptation, rod function could be seen immediately in the same experiments described above. The result shows that, in the chicken, rods are turned on endogenously during the night but are scarcely functional during the day.

Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

J.C. Armington & G.H. Crampton (1958). Comparison of the spectral sensitivity at the eye and the optic tectum of the chicken. American Journal of Opthalmotogy 46, 7287.

J.K. Bowmaker & A. Knowles (1977). The visual pigments and oil droplets of the chicken retina. Vision Research 17, 755764.

J.K. Bowmaker & G.R. Martin (1978). Visual pigments and color vision in a nocturnal bird (Strix aluco), the tawny owl. Vision Research 18, 11251130.

D.M. Chen & T.H. Goldsmith (1984). Appearance of a Purkinje shift in the developing retina of the chick. Journal of Experimental Zoology 229, 265271.

A. Dearry & R. Barlow (1987). Circadian rythms in the green sunfish retina. Journal of General Physiology 89, 745.

D. Ehrlich (1981). Regional specialization of the chick retina as revealed by size and density of neurons in the ganglion cell layer. Journal of Comparative Neurology 195, 643657.

L.Y. Fager & R.S. Fager (1981). Chicken blue and chicken violet, short-wavelength sensitive visual pigments. Vision Research 21, 581586.

A. Fulton , K.V. Fite & L. Bengston (1983). Retinal degeneration in the delayed amelotic (DAM) chicken: an electroretinographic study. Current Eye Research 2, 757763.

H.E. Hamm & M. Menaker (1980). Retinal rythms in chicks: circadian variation in melatonin and serotonin N-acetyltransferase activity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the U.S.A. 77, 49985002.

K. Kirschfeld (1982). Carotinoid pigments: their possible role in protecting against photooxidation in eyes and photoreceptor cells. Proceedings of the Royal Society B (London) 216, 7185.

D.B. Meyer & H.C. May (1973). The topographical distribution of rods and cones in the adult chicken retina. Experimental Eye Research 17, 347355.

D.B. Meyer (1960). Application of the periodic acid-Schiff technique to whole chick embryos. Stain Technology 35, 8389.

V.B. Morris (1970). Symmetry in a receptor mosaic demonstrated in the chick from the frequencies, spacing, and arrangement of the types of retinal receptor. Journal of Comparative Neurology 140, 359398.

V.B. Morris (1987). An afoveate area centralis in the chick retina. Journal of Comparative Neurology 210, 198203.

T. Oishi (1984). Circadian mitotic rhythm in chick corneal endothelium. Journal of Interdisciplinic Cycle Research 15, 281288.

J.D. Pettigrew , J. Wallman & C.F. Wildsoet (1990). Saccadicoscillations facilitate ocular perfusion from the avian pecten. Nature 343, 362363.

V. Porciatti , G. Fontanesi & P. Bagnoli (1989). The electroretinogram of the little owl (Athene noctua). Vision Research 29, 16931698.

T. Sato , T. Yoneyama , H.K. Kim & T.A. Suzuki (1987). Effect of dopamine and haloperidole on the c wave and light peak of light-induced responses in the chick eye. Documenta Opthalmologica 65, 8795

F. Schaeffel , H.C. Howland , & L. Farkas (1986). Natural accommodation in the growing chicken. Vision Research 26, 19771993.

F. Schaeffel , A. Glasser & H.C. Howland (1988). Accommodation, refractive error, and eye growth in chickens. Vision Research 28, 639657.

J. Wallman & J.I. Adams (1987). Developmental aspects of experimental myopia in chicks. Vision Research 27, 11391163.

G.L. Walls (1942). The Vertebrate Eye and Its Adaptive Radiation. Bloomfield Hills, Michigan: Cranbrook Institute of Science.

J.F. Wortel , H. Rugenbrink & J.F.W. Nuboer (1987). The photopic spectral sensitivity of the dorsal and ventral retina of the chicken. Journal of Comparative Physiology A 160, 151154.

L. Yen & R.S. Fager (1984). Chromatographic resolution of the rod pigment from the four cone pigments of the chicken retina. Vision Research 24, 15551562.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Visual Neuroscience
  • ISSN: 0952-5238
  • EISSN: 1469-8714
  • URL: /core/journals/visual-neuroscience
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *