Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa

The gap effect is exaggerated in parafovea

  • MARINA DANILOVA (a1) and JOHN MOLLON (a2)
Abstract

In central vision, the discrimination of colors lying on a tritan line is improved if a small gap is introduced between the two stimulus fields. Boynton et al. (1977) called this a “positive gap effect.” They found that the effect was weak or absent for discriminations based on the ratio of the signals of long-wave and middle-wave cones; and even for tritan stimuli, the gap effect was weakened when forced choice or brief durations were used. We here describe measurements of the gap effect in the parafovea. The stimuli were 1 deg of visual angle in width and were centered on an imaginary circle of radius 5 deg. They were brief (100 ms), and thresholds were measured with a spatial two-alternative forced choice. Under these conditions we find a clear gap effect, which is of similar magnitude for both the cardinal chromatic axes. It may be a chromatic analog of the crowding effect observed for parafoveal perception of form.

Copyright
Corresponding author
Address correspondence and reprint requests to: Marina Danilova, Pavlov Institute of Physiology, Nab. Makarova 6, St. Petersburg 199034, Russia. E-mail: dan@pavlov.infran.ru
References
Hide All

REFERENCES

Bouma, H. (1970). Interaction effects in parafoveal letter recognition. Nature 226, 177178.
Boynton, R.M., Hayhoe, M.M., & MacLeod, D.I.A. (1977). The gap effect: Chromatic and achromatic visual discrimination as affected by field separation. Optica Acta 24, 159177.
Brindley, G.S. (1954). The summation areas of human colour-receptive mechanisms at increment threshold. Journal of Physiology 124, 400408.
Cottaris, N.P. & De Valois, R.L. (1998). Temporal dynamics of chromatic tuning in macaque primary visual cortex. Nature 395, 896900.
Dacey, D.M. & Lee, B.B. (1994). The “blue-on” opponent pathway in primate retina originates from a distinct bistratified ganglion cell type. Nature 367, 731735.
Dacey, D.M., Peterson, B.B., & Robinson, F.R. (2002). Identification of an S-cone opponent OFF pathway in the macaque monkey retina: Morphology, physiology and possible circuitry. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science 43, E-Abstract 2983.
Danilova, M.V. & Mollon, J.D. (2003). Comparison at a distance. Perception 32, 395414.
Danilova, M.V. & Mollon, J.D. (2006). The comparison of spatially separated colours. Vision Research 46, 823836.
Eskew, R.T. (1989). The gap effect revisited: Slow changes in chromatic sensitivity as affected by luminance and chromatic borders. Vision Research 29, 717729.
Eskew, R.T. & Boynton, R.M. (1987). Effects of field area and configuration on chromatic and border discrimination. Vision Research 27, 18351844.
Eskew, R.T., Stromeyer, C.F., Picotte, C.J., & Kronauer, R.E. (1991). Detection uncertainty and the facilitation of chromatic detection by luminance contours. Journal of the Optical Society of America A 8, 394403.
Gouras, P. (1984). Colour vision. In Progress in Retinal Research, ed. Osbourne, N.N. & Chader, G.J., pp. 227261. Oxford: Pergamon.
Hess, R.F. & Jacobs, R.J. (1979). A preliminary report of acuity and contour interactions across the amblyope's visual field. Vision Research 19, 14031408.
Hilz, R.L., Huppmann, G., & Cavonius, C.R. (1974). Influence of luminance contrast on hue discrimination. Journal of the Optical Society of America 64, 763766.
Kosslyn, S.M., Ball, T.M., & Reiser, B.J. (1978). Visual images preserve metric spatial information: Evidence from studies of image scanning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 4, 4760.
Krauskopf, J., Williams, D.R., & Heeley, D.W. (1982). Cardinal directions of color space. Vision Research 22, 11231131.
Le Grand, Y. (1933). Sur la précision en photométrie visuelle. Revue d'optique théoretique et instrumentale 12, 145159.
Levi, D.M., Hariharan, S., & Klein, S.A. (2002). Suppressive and facilitatory spatial interactions in peripheral vision: Peripheral crowding is neither size invariant nor simple contrast masking. Journal of Vision 2, 167177.
Liebmann, S. (1927). Über das Verhalten farbiger Formen bei Helligkeitsgleichheit von Figur und Grund. Dissertation. Philosophischen Fakultät. Berlin, Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität.
MacLeod, D.I.A. & Boynton, R.M. (1979). Chromaticity diagram showing cone excitation by stimuli of equal luminance. Journal of the Optical Society of America 69, 11831186.
Malkin, F. & Dinsdale, A. (1972). Colour discrimination studies in ceramic wall-tiles. In Color Metrics, ed. Vos, J.J., Friele, L.F.C. & Walraven, P.L., pp. 238253. Soesterberg: Institute for Perception TNO.
McKeefry, D.J., Parry, N.R.A., & Murray, I.J. (2003). Simple reaction times in color space: The influence of chromaticity, contrast, and cone opponency. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science 44, 22672276.
Mollon, J.D., Estévez, O., & Cavonius, C.R. (1990). The two subsystems of colour vision and their rôles in wavelength discrimination. In Vision: Coding and Efficiency, ed. Blakemore, C., pp. 119131. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Montag, E.D. (1997). Influence of boundary information on the perception of color. Journal of the Optical Society of America A 14, 9971006.
Parkes, L., Lund, J., Angelucci, A., Solomon, J.A., & Morgan, M. (2001). Compulsory averaging of crowded orientation signals in human vision. Nature Neuroscience 4, 739744.
Pelli, D.G., Palomares, M., & Majaj, N.J. (2004). Crowding is unlike ordinary masking: Distinguishing feature integration from detection. Journal of Vision 4, 11361169.
Regan, B.C. & Mollon, J.D. (1997). The relative salience of the cardinal axes of colour space in normal and anomalous trichromats. In Colour Vision Deficiencies, vol. 13, Cavonius, C.R., pp. 261270. Dordrecht: Kluwer.
Regan, B.C., Reffin, J.P., & Mollon, J.D. (1994). Luminance noise and the rapid determination of discrimination ellipses in colour deficiency. Vision Research 34, 12791299.
Rentschler, I. & Fiorentini, A. (1974). Meridional anisotropy of psychophysical spatial interactions. Vision Research 14, 14671473.
Sankeralli, M.J. & Mullen, K.T. (2001). Bipolar or rectified chromatic detection mechanisms. Visual Neuroscience 18, 127135.
Sharpe, L.T. & Wyszecki, G. (1976). Proximity factor in color-difference evaluations. Journal of the Optical Society of America 66, 4049.
Smith, V.C. & Pokorny, J. (1975). Spectral sensitivity of the foveal cone photopigments between 400 and 500 nm. Vision Research 15, 161171.
Smithson, H.E. & Mollon, J.D. (2004). Is the S-opponent chromatic sub-system sluggish? Vision Research 44, 29192929.
Stiles, W.S. (1949). Increment thresholds and the mechanisms of colour vision. Documenta Ophthalmologica 3, 138163.
Stockman, A. & Sharpe, L.T. (2000). The spectral sensitivities of the middle- and long-wavelength-sensitive cones derived from measurements in observers of known genotype. Vision Research 40, 17111737.
Tansley, B.W. & Boynton, R.M. (1976). A line, not a space, represents visual distinctness of borders formed by different colors. Science 191, 954957.
Traub, A.C. & Balinkin, I. (1961). Proximity factor in the Judd color difference formula. Journal of the Optical Society of America 51, 755760.
Vassilev, A., Mihaylova, M.S., Racheva, K., Zlatkova, M., & Anderson, R. (2003). Spatial summation of S-cone ON and OFF signals: Effects of retinal eccentricity. Vision Research 43, 28752884.
Walsh, J.W.T. (1958). Photometry. London: Constable.
West, M., Spillmann, L., Cavanagh, P., Mollon, J., & Hamlin, S. (1996). Susanne Liebmann in the critical zone. Perception 25, 14511495.
Wetherill, G.B. & Levitt, H. (1965). Sequential estimation of points on a psychometric function. British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology 18, 110.
Wolford, G. & Chambers, L. (1984). Contour interaction as a function of retinal eccentricity. Perception and Psychophysics 36, 457460.
Wyszecki, G. & Stiles, W.S. (1982). Color Science. New York: Wiley.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Visual Neuroscience
  • ISSN: 0952-5238
  • EISSN: 1469-8714
  • URL: /core/journals/visual-neuroscience
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 1
Total number of PDF views: 4 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 95 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 22nd October 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.