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    Kim, HyunGoo R. Angelaki, Dora E. and DeAngelis, Gregory C. 2016. The neural basis of depth perception from motion parallax. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, Vol. 371, Issue. 1697, p. 20150256.

    Schiller, Peter H. Kwak, Michelle C. and Slocum, Warren M. 2012. Visual and auditory cue integration for the generation of saccadic eye movements in monkeys and lever pressing in humans. European Journal of Neuroscience, Vol. 36, Issue. 4, p. 2500.

    Fesi, Jeremy D. Yannes, Michael P. Brinckman, Danielle D. Norcia, Anthony M. Ales, Justin M. and Gilmore, Rick O. 2011. Distinct cortical responses to 2D figures defined by motion contrast. Vision Research, Vol. 51, Issue. 19, p. 2110.

    Schiller, Peter H. Slocum, Warren M. Jao, Brian and Weiner, Veronica S. 2011. The integration of disparity, shading and motion parallax cues for depth perception in humans and monkeys. Brain Research, Vol. 1377, p. 67.

    Beer, Anton L. Watanabe, Takeo Ni, Rui Sasaki, Yuka and Andersen, George J. 2009. 3D surface perception from motion involves a temporal-parietal network. European Journal of Neuroscience, Vol. 30, Issue. 4, p. 703.

    Nadler, Jacob W. Angelaki, Dora E. and DeAngelis, Gregory C. 2008. A neural representation of depth from motion parallax in macaque visual cortex. Nature, Vol. 452, Issue. 7187, p. 642.

    Schiller, Peter H. Slocum, Warren M. and Weiner, Veronica S. 2007. How the parallel channels of the retina contribute to depth processing. European Journal of Neuroscience, Vol. 26, Issue. 5, p. 1307.

    Shen, Zhi-Ming Xu, Wei-Feng and Li, Chao-Yi 2007. Cue-invariant detection of centre-surround discontinuity by V1 neurons in awake macaque monkey. The Journal of Physiology, Vol. 583, Issue. 2, p. 581.

    Maeda, T. Ando, H. and Sugimoto, M. 2005. IEEE Proceedings. VR 2005. Virtual Reality, 2005.. p. 289.


Neural responses to relative speed in the primary visual cortex of rhesus monkey

  • AN CAO (a1) and PETER H. SCHILLER (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 March 2003

Relative motion information, especially relative speed between different input patterns, is required for solving many complex tasks of the visual system, such as depth perception by motion parallax and motion-induced figure/ground segmentation. However, little is known about the neural substrate for processing relative speed information. To explore the neural mechanisms for relative speed, we recorded single-unit responses to relative motion in the primary visual cortex (area V1) of rhesus monkeys while presenting sets of random-dot arrays moving at different speeds. We found that most V1 neurons were sensitive to the existence of a discontinuity in speed, that is, they showed higher responses when relative motion was presented compared to homogenous field motion. Seventy percent of the neurons in our sample responded predominantly to relative rather than to absolute speed. Relative speed tuning curves were similar at different center–surround velocity combinations. These relative motion-sensitive neurons in macaque area V1 probably contribute to figure/ground segmentation and motion discontinuity detection.

Corresponding author
Address correspondence and reprint requests to: An Cao, Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, E25-634, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. E-mail:
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Visual Neuroscience
  • ISSN: 0952-5238
  • EISSN: 1469-8714
  • URL: /core/journals/visual-neuroscience
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