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  • Cited by 6
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    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Mitchell, Jude F. and Leopold, David A. 2015. The marmoset monkey as a model for visual neuroscience. Neuroscience Research, Vol. 93, p. 20.

    Solomon, Samuel G. and Rosa, Marcello G. P. 2014. A simpler primate brain: the visual system of the marmoset monkey. Frontiers in Neural Circuits, Vol. 8,

    Hong, Sang Wook Tong, Frank and Seiffert, Adriane E. 2012. Direction-selective patterns of activity in human visual cortex suggest common neural substrates for different types of motion. Neuropsychologia, Vol. 50, Issue. 4, p. 514.

    Pavan, Andrea Alexander, Iona Campana, Gianluca and Cowey, Alan 2011. Detection of first- and second-order coherent motion in blindsight. Experimental Brain Research, Vol. 214, Issue. 2, p. 261.

    Chung, Susana T.L. Li, Roger W. and Levi, Dennis M. 2008. Learning to identify near-threshold luminance-defined and contrast-defined letters in observers with amblyopia. Vision Research, Vol. 48, Issue. 27, p. 2739.

    Kato, Masaharu de Wit, Tessa C.J. Stasiewicz, Dorota and von Hofsten, Claes 2008. Sensitivity to second-order motion in 10-month-olds. Vision Research, Vol. 48, Issue. 10, p. 1187.


Processing of first-order motion in marmoset visual cortex is influenced by second-order motion

  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 October 2006

We measured the responses of single neurons in marmoset visual cortex (V1, V2, and the third visual complex) to moving first-order stimuli and to combined first- and second-order stimuli in order to determine whether first-order motion processing was influenced by second-order motion. Beat stimuli were made by summing two gratings of similar spatial frequency, one of which was static and the other was moving. The beat is the product of a moving sinusoidal carrier (first-order motion) and a moving low-frequency contrast envelope (second-order motion). We compared responses to moving first-order gratings alone with responses to beat patterns with first-order and second-order motion in the same direction as each other, or in opposite directions to each other in order to distinguish first-order and second-order direction-selective responses. In the majority (72%, 67/93) of cells (V1 73%, 45/62; V2 70%, 16/23; third visual complex 75%, 6/8), responses to first-order motion were significantly influenced by the addition of a second-order signal. The second-order envelope was more influential when moving in the opposite direction to the first-order stimulus, reducing first-order direction sensitivity in V1, V2, and the third visual complex. We interpret these results as showing that first-order motion processing through early visual cortex is not separate from second-order motion processing; suggesting that both motion signals are processed by the same system.

Corresponding author
Address correspondence and reprint requests to: Nick Barraclough, University of Hull, Department of Psychology, East Yorkshire HU6 7RX, United Kingdom. E-mail:
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Visual Neuroscience
  • ISSN: 0952-5238
  • EISSN: 1469-8714
  • URL: /core/journals/visual-neuroscience
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