Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

S-cone psychophysics

  • HANNAH E. SMITHSON (a1)

Abstract

We review the features of the S-cone system that appeal to the psychophysicist and summarize the celebrated characteristics of S-cone mediated vision. Two factors are emphasized: First, the fine stimulus control that is required to isolate putative visual mechanisms and second, the relationship between physiological data and psychophysical approaches. We review convergent findings from physiology and psychophysics with respect to asymmetries in the retinal wiring of S-ON and S-OFF visual pathways, and the associated treatment of increments and decrements in the S-cone system. Beyond the retina, we consider the lack of S-cone projections to superior colliculus and the use of S-cone stimuli in experimental psychology, for example to address questions about the mechanisms of visually driven attention. Careful selection of stimulus parameters enables psychophysicists to produce entirely reversible, temporary, “lesions,” and to assess behavior in the absence of specific neural subsystems.

Copyright

Corresponding author

Address correspondence to: Hannah E. Smithson, Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK. E-mail: hannah.smithson@psy.ox.ac.uk

References

Hide All
Ahnelt, P.K. & Kolb, H. (2000). The mammalian photoreceptor mosaic-adaptive design. Progress in Retinal and Eye Research 19, 711777.
Anderson, R.S., Coulter, E., Zlatkova, M.B. & Demirel, S. (2003). Short-wavelength acuity: Optical factors affecting detection and resolution of blue-yellow sinusoidal gratings in foveal and peripheral vision. Vision Research 43, 101107.
Barboni, M.T.S., da Costa, M.F., Moura, A.L.D., et al. (2008). Visual field losses in workers exposed to mercury vapor. Environmental Research 107, 124131.
Beirne, R.O., Mcllreavy, L. & Zlatkova, M.B. (2008). The effect of age-related lens yellowing on Farnsworth-Munsell 100 hue error score. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics 28, 448456.
Blake, Z., Land, T. & Mollon, J. (2008). Relative latencies of cone signals measured by a moving vernier task. Journal of Vision 8(16):16, 111.
Bompas, A., Sterling, T., Rafal, R.D. & Sumner, P. (2008). Naso-temporal asymmetry for signals invisible to the retinotectal pathway. Journal of Neurophysiology 100, 412421.
Bompas, A. & Sumner, P. (2008). Sensory sluggishness dissociates saccadic, manual, and perceptual responses: An S-cone study. Journal of Vision 8(8):10, 113.
Bompas, A. & Sumner, P. (2009). Oculomotor distraction by signals invisible to the retinotectal and magnocellular pathways. Journal of Neurophysiology 102, 23872395.
Boynton, R.M. (1978). Discriminations that depend upon blue cones. In Frontiers in Visual Science, ed. Cool, S.J. & Smith, E.L., pp. 154164. New York and Berlin: Springer-Verlag.
Boynton, R.M. & Kaiser, P.K. (1978). Temporal analog of minimally distinct border. Vision Research 18, 111113.
Brainard, D.H. & Stockman, A. (2009). Colorimetry. In The Optical Society of America Handbook of Optics: Vision and Vision Optics (3rd ed.) ed. Bass, M., DeCusatis, C., Enoch, J., Lakshminarayanan, V., Li, G., Macdonald, C., Mahajan, V. & van Stryland, E., Vol. III New York: McGraw Hill.
Brindley, G.S., du Croz, J.J. & Rushton, W.A.H (1966). Flicker fusion frequency of blue-sensitive mechanism of colour vision. Journal of Physiology-London 183, 497500.
Calkins, D.J. (2001). Seeing with S cones. Progress in Retinal and Eye Research 20, 255287.
Calkins, D.J. & Sterling, P. (1996). Absence of spectrally specific lateral inputs to midget ganglion cells in primate retina. Nature 381, 613615.
Cavonius, C.R. & Estevez, O. (1975). Contrast sensitivity of individual color mechanisms of human vision. Journal of Physiology-London 248, 649662.
Cole, G.R., Hine, T. & Mcilhagga, W. (1993). Detection mechanisms in L-cone, M-cone, and S-cone contrast space. Journal of the Optical Society of America A – Optics Image Science and Vision 10, 3851.
Conway, B. (2013). Color signals through dorsal and ventral visual pathways. Visual Neuroscience 31, 197209.
Cowey, A., Stoerig, P. & Bannister, M. (1994). Retinal ganglion-cells labeled from the pulvinar nucleus in macaque monkeys. Neuroscience 61, 691705.
Curcio, C.A., Allen, K.A., Sloan, K.R. (1991). Distribution and morphology of human cone photoreceptors stained with anti-blue opsin. Journal of Comparative Neurology 312, 610624.
Dacey, D.M., Crook, J.D. & Packer, O.S. (2013). Distinct synaptic mechanisms create parallel S-ON and S-Off color opponent pathways in the primate retina. Visual Neuroscience 31, 139151.
Dacey, D.M., Lee, B.B., Stafford, D.K., Pokorny, J. & Smith, V.C. (1996). Horizontal cells of the primate retina: Cone specificity without spectral opponency. Science 271, 656659.
Danilova, M.V. & Mollon, J.D. (2010). Parafoveal color discrimination: A chromaticity locus of enhanced discrimination. Journal of Vision 10(1):4, 19.
Danilova, M.V. & Mollon, J.D. (2012 a). Cardinal axes are not independent in color discrimination. Journal of the Optical Society of America A – Optics Image Science and Vision 29, A157A164.
Danilova, M.V. & Mollon, J.D. (2012 b). Foveal color perception: Minimal thresholds at a boundary between perceptual categories. Vision Research 62, 162172.
de Monasterio, F.M. (1978). Properties of ganglion-cells with atypical receptive-field organization in retina of macaques. Journal of Neurophysiology 41, 14351449.
de Monasterio, F.M., Schein, S.J. & Mccrane, E.P. (1981). Staining of blue-sensitive cones of the macaque retina by a fluorescent dye. Science 213, 12781281.
DeMarco, P.J., Smith, V.C. & Pokorny, J. (1994). Effect of sawtooth polarity on chromatic and luminance detection. Visual Neuroscience 11, 491499.
Derrington, A.M., Krauskopf, J. & Lennie, P. (1984 Dec). Chromatic mechanisms in lateral geniculate-nucleus of macaque. Journal of Physiology-London 357, 241265.
Dorris, M.C., Pare, M. & Munoz, D.P. (1997). Neuronal activity in monkey superior colliculus related to the initiation of saccadic eye movements. Journal of Neuroscience 17, 85668579.
Eisner, A. & Macleod, D.I.A. (1980). Blue-sensitive cones do not contribute to luminance. Journal of the Optical Society of America 70, 121123.
Eskew, R.T. (2009). Higher order color mechanisms: A critical review. Vision Research 49, 26862704.
Eskew, R.T., Newton, J.R. & Giulianini, F. (2001). Chromatic detection and discrimination analyzed by a Bayesian classifier. Vision Research 41, 893909.
Eskew, R.T. Jr., McLellan, J.S. & Giulianini, F. (1999). Chromatic detection and discrimination. In Color Vision: From Genes to Perception, ed. Gegenfurtner, K. & Sharpe, L.T., pp. 345368. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Feitosa-Santana, C., Barboni, M.T.S., Oiwa, N.N. (2008). Irreversible color vision losses in patients with chronic mercury vapor intoxication. Visual Neuroscience 25, 487491.
Felius, J. & Swanson, W.H. (2003). Effects of cone adaptation on variability in S-cone increment thresholds. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science 44, 41404146.
Felsten, G., Benevento, L.A. & Burman, D. (1983). Opponent-color responses in macaque extrageniculate visual pathways - The lateral pulvinar. Brain Research 288, 363367.
Field, G.D., Sher, A., Gauthier, J.L. (2007). Spatial properties and functional organization of small bistratified ganglion cells in primate retina. Journal of Neuroscience 27, 1326113272.
Gegenfurtner, K.R. & Kiper, D.C. (1992). Contrast detection in luminance and chromatic noise. Journal of the Optical Society of America A – Optics Image Science and Vision 9, 18801888.
Glezer, V.D. (1965). The receptive fields of the retina. Vision Research 5, 497525.
Greenstein, V.C., Hood, D.C., Ritch, R., Steinberger, D. & Carr, R.E. (1989). S (blue) cone pathway vulnerability in retinitis pigmentosa, diabetes and glaucoma. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science 30, 17321737.
Haegerstrom-Portnoy, G., Hewlett, S.E. & Barr, S.A.N. (1989). S cone loss with aging. Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceeding Series 52, 345352.
Hammond, B.R., Wooten, B.R. & Snodderly, D.M. (1997). Individual variations in the spatial profile of human macular pigment. Journal of the Optical Society of America A – Optics Image Science and Vision 14, 11871196.
Hansen, T. & Gegenfurtner, K.R. (2013). Higher order color mechanisms: Evidence from noise-masking experiments in cone contrast space. Journal of Vision 13(1):26, 121.
Hess, R.F., Mullen, K.T. & Zrenner, E. (1989). Human photopic vision with only short wavelength cones: Post-receptoral properties. Journal of Physiology-London 417, 151172.
Hunt, D.M. & Peichl, L. (2013). S cones: Evolution, retinal distribution, development, and spectral sensitivity. Visual Neuroscience 31, 115138.
Ikeda, M. (1965). Temporal summation of positive and negative flashes in visual system. Journal of the Optical Society of America 55, 15271533.
Ikeda, M. (1986). Temporal impulse-response. Vision Research 26, 14311440.
Ives, H.E. (1912). Studies in the photometry of lights of different colours. I. Spectral luminosity curves obtained by the equality of brightness photometer and flicker photometer under similar conditions. Philosophical Magazine Series 6, 149188.
Jacobs, G.H. (1993). The distribution and nature of color-vision among the mammals. Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society 68, 413471.
Jonides, J. (1981). Voluntary vs automatic control over the mind’s eye’s movement. In Attention and Performance IX, ed. Long, J.B. & Baddeley, A.D., pp. 187203. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Jusuf, P.R., Martin, P.R. & Grunert, U. (2006). Random wiring in the midget pathway of primate retina. Journal of Neuroscience 26, 39083917.
Kelly, D.H. (1974). Spatio-temporal frequency characteristics of color-vision mechanisms. Journal of the Optical Society of America 64, 983990.
Klug, K., Tsukamoto, Y., Sterling, P. & Schein, S.J. (1993). Blue cone off-midget ganglion-cells in macaque. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science 34, 986.
Knoblauch, K., Saunders, F., Kusuda, M. (1987). Age and illuminance effects in the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-Hue test. Applied Optics 26, 14411448.
Krauskopf, J., Williams, D.R. & Heeley, D.W. (1982). Cardinal directions of color space. Vision Research 22, 11231131.
Krauskopf, J., Williams, D.R., Mandler, M.B. & Brown, A.M. (1986). Higher-order color mechanisms. Vision Research 26, 2332.
Krauskopf, J. & Zaidi, Q. (1986). Induced desensitization. Vision Research 26, 759762.
Kremers, J., Lee, B.B., Pokorny, J. & Smith, V.C. (1993). Responses of macaque ganglion-cells and human observers to compound periodic wave-forms. Vision Research 33, 19972011.
Kustov, A.A. & Robinson, D.L. (1996). Shared neural control of attentional shifts and eye movements. Nature 384, 7477.
Laties, A.M. & Zrenner, E. (2002). Viagra(R) (sildenafil citrate) and ophthalmology. Progress in Retinal and Eye Research 21, 485506.
Lee, B.B., Kremers, J. & Yeh, T. (1998). Receptive fields of primate retinal ganglion cells studied with a novel technique. Visual Neuroscience 15, 161175.
Lee, B.B., Martin, P.R. & Valberg, A. (1989). Nonlinear summation of M-cone and L-cone inputs to phasic retinal ganglion-cells of the macaque. Journal of Neuroscience 9, 14331442.
Lee, J. & Stromeyer, C.F. (1989). Contribution of human short-wave cones to luminance and motion detection. Journal of Physiology-London 413, 563593.
Lee, R.J., Mollon, J.D., Zaidi, Q. & Smithson, H.E. (2009). Latency characteristics of the short-wavelength-sensitive cones and their associated pathways. Journal of Vision 9(12):5, 117.
Leh, S.E., Mullen, K.T. & Ptito, A. (2006). Absence of S-cone input in human blindsight following hemispherectomy. European Journal of Neuroscience 24, 29542960.
Leh, S.E., Ptito, A., Schonwiesner, M., Chakravarty, M.M. & Mullen, K.T. (2010). Blindsight mediated by an S-cone-independent collicular pathway: An fMRI study in hemispherectomized subjects. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 22, 670682.
Lennie, P., Haake, P.W. & Williams, D.R. (1991). The design of chromatically opponent receptive fields. In Computational Models of Visual Processing, ed. Landy, M.S. & Movshon, J.A., pp. 7182. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Lennie, P., Pokorny, J. & Smith, V.C. (1993). Luminance. Journal of the Optical Society of America A – Optics Image Science and Vision 10, 12831293.
Macleod, D.I.A. & Boynton, R.M. (1979). Chromaticity diagram showing cone excitation by stimuli of equal luminance. Journal of the Optical Society of America 69, 11831186.
Macleod, D.I.A. & He, S. (1993). Visible flicker from invisible patterns. Nature 361, 256258.
Malpeli, J.G. & Schiller, P.H. (1978). Lack of blue Off-center cells in visual-system of monkey. Brain Research 141, 385389.
Marrocco, R.T. & Li, R.H. (1977). Monkey superior colliculus: Properties of single cells and their afferent inputs. Journal of Neurophysiology 40, 844860.
Marshak, D. W., & Mills, S. L. (2013). Short-wavelength cone-opponent retinal ganglion cells in mammals. Visual Neuroscience 31, 165175.
Marshall, J. (1987). The aging retina: Physiology or pathology. Eye-Transactions of the Ophthalmological Societies of the United Kingdom 1, 282295.
Martin, P.R. & Lee, B.B. (2013). Distribution and specificity of S-cone (“blue cone”) signals in subcortical visual pathways. Visual Neuroscience 31, 177187.
McKeefry, D.J., Parry, N.R.A. & Murray, I.J. (2003). Simple reaction times in color space: The influence of chromaticity, contrast, and cone opponency. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science 44, 22672276.
McLellan, J.S. & Eskew, R.T. (2000). ON and OFF S-cone pathways have different long-wave cone inputs. Vision Research 40, 24492465.
McLellan, J.S., Marcos, S., Prieto, P.M. & Burns, S.A. (2002). Imperfect optics may be the eye’s defence against chromatic blur. Nature 417, 174176.
Metha, A.B. & Lennie, P. (2001). Transmission of spatial information in S-cone pathways. Visual Neuroscience 18, 961972.
Miyagishima, K.J., Grunert, U., & Li, W. (2013). Processing of S-cone signals in the inner plexiform layer of the mammalian retina. Visual Neuroscience 31, 153163.
Mollon, J.D. (1982 a). Color vision. Annual Review of Psychology 33, 4185.
Mollon, J.D. (1982 b). A taxonomy of tritanopias. Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series 33, 87101.
Mollon, J.D. (1982 c). What is odd about the short-wavelength mechanism and why is it disproportionately vulnerable to acquired damage? Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series 33, 145149.
Mollon, J.D. (1989). Tho she kneeld in that place where they grew… The uses and origins of primate color-vision. Journal of Experimental Biology 146, 2138.
Mollon, J.D. & Krauskopf, J. (1973). Reaction-time as a measure of temporal response properties of individual color mechanisms. Vision Research 13, 2740.
Mollon, J.D. & Polden, P.G. (1975). Colour illusion and evidence for interaction between colour mechanisms. Nature 258, 421422.
Moreland, J.D. & Bhatt, P. (1984). Retinal distribution of macular pigment. In Colour Vision Deficiencies VII, ed. Verriest, G., pp. 127132. The Hague: Dr W Junk Publishers.
Olivier, E., Dorris, M.C. & Munoz, D.P. (1999). Lateral interactions in the superior colliculus, not an extended fixation zone, can account for the remote distracter effect. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22, 694695.
Organisciak, D.T. & Vaughan, D.K. (2010). Retinal light damage: Mechanisms and protection. Progress in Retinal and Eye Research 29, 113134.
Pokorny, J., Smith, V.C. & Lutze, M. (1987). Aging of the human lens. Applied Optics 26, 14371440.
Pokorny, J., Smithson, H. & Quinlan, J. (2004). Photostimulator allowing independent control of rods and the three cone types. Visual Neuroscience 21, 263267.
Polden, P.G. & Mollon, J.D. (1980). Reversed effect of adapting stimuli on visual sensitivity. Proceedings of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences 210, 235272.
Posner, M.I. (1980 Feb). Orienting of attention. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 32, 325.
Pugh, E.N. & Mollon, J.D. (1979). A theory of the pi-1 and pi-3 color mechanisms of Stiles. Vision Research 19, 293312.
Pulos, E., Teller, D.Y. & Buck, S.L. (1980). Infant color-vision - A search for short-wavelength-sensitive mechanisms by means of chromatic adaptation. Vision Research 20, 485493.
Racheva, K. & Vassilev, A. (2008). Sensitivity to stimulus onset and offset in the S-cone pathway. Vision Research 48, 11251136.
Rafal, R., Henik, A. & Smith, J. (1991). Extrageniculate contributions to reflex visual orienting in normal humans: a temporal hemifield advantage. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 3, 322328.
Redmond, T., Zlatkova, M.B., Vassilev, A., Garway-Heath, D.F. & Anderson, R.S. (2013). Changes in Ricco’s area with background luminance in the S-cone pathway. Optometry and Vision Science 90, 6674.
Reid, R.C. & Shapley, R.M. (1992). Spatial structure of cone inputs to receptive-fields in primate lateral geniculate-nucleus. Nature 356, 716718.
Reid, R.C. & Shapley, R.M. (2002). Space and time maps of cone photoreceptor signals in macaque lateral geniculate nucleus. Journal of Neuroscience 22, 61586175.
Ripamonti, C., Woo, W.L., Crowther, E. & Stockman, A. (2009). The S-cone contribution to luminance depends on the M- and L-cone adaptation levels: Silent surrounds? Journal of Vision 9(3):10, 116.
Rizzolatti, G., Riggio, L., Dascola, I. & Umilta, C. (1987). Reorienting attention across the horizontal and vertical meridians: Evidence in favor of a premotor theory of attention. Neuropsychologia 25, 3140.
Sankeralli, M.J. & Mullen, K.T. (1996). Estimation of the L, M-, and S-cone weights of the postreceptoral detection mechanisms. Journal of the Optical Society of America A – Optics Image Science and Vision 13, 906915.
Schefrin, B.E., Werner, J.S., Plach, M., Utlaut, N. & Switkes, E. (1992). Sites of age-related sensitivity loss in a short-wave cone pathway. Journal of the Optical Society of America A – Optics Image Science 9, 355363.
Schiller, P.H. & Malpeli, J.G. (1977). Properties and tectal projections of monkey retinal ganglion-cells. Journal of Neurophysiology 40, 428445.
Schwartz, S.H. (1996). Spectral sensitivity as revealed by isolated step onsets and step offsets. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics 16, 5863.
Shinomori, K., Spillmann, L. & Werner, J.S. (1999). S-cone signals to temporal OFF-channels: asymmetrical connections to postreceptoral chromatic mechanisms. Vision Research 39, 3949.
Shinomori, K. & Werner, J.S. (2008). The impulse response of S-cone pathways in detection of increments and decrements. Visual Neuroscience 25, 341347.
Shinomori, K. & Werner, J.S. (2012). Aging of human short-wave cone pathways. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 109, 1342213427.
Smith, V.C., Lee, B.B., Pokorny, J., Martin, P.R. & Valberg, A. (1992). Responses of macaque ganglion-cells to the relative phase of heterochromatically modulated lights. Journal of Physiology-London 458, 191221.
Smithson, H.E. & Mollon, J.D. (2001). Forward and backward masking with brief chromatic stimuli. Color Research and Application 26, S165S169.
Smithson, H.E. & Mollon, J.D. (2004). Is the S-opponent chromatic sub-system sluggish? Vision Research 44, 29192929.
Smithson, H.E., Sumner, P. & Mollon, J.D. (2003). How to find a tritan line. In Normal and Defective Colour Vision, ed. Mollon, J.D., Pokorny, J. & Knoblauch, K., pp. 279287. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Sparks, D.L. (1986). Translation of sensory signals into commands for control of saccadic eye-movements - Role of primate superior colliculus. Physiological Reviews 66, 118171.
Sterling, P. (1973 May). Quantitative mapping with electron-microscope: Retinal terminals in superior colliculus. Brain Research 54, 347354.
Stiles, W.S. (1949). Increment thresholds and the mechanisms of colour vision. Documenta Ophthalmologica 3, 138165.
Stiles, W.S. (1959). Color vision - The approach through increment-threshold sensitivity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 45, 100114.
Stockman, A. & Brainard, D.H. (2009). Color vision mechanisms. In The Optical Society of America Handbook of Optics, Vol. 3, Vision and Vision Optics (3rd ed.), ed. Bass, M., DeCusatis, C., Enoch, J., Lakshminarayanan, V., Li, G., Macdonald, C., Mahajan, V. & Van Stryland, E., pp. 11.1–11.104. New York: McGraw Hill.
Stockman, A., Langendorfer, M., Smithson, H.E. & Sharpe, L.T. (2006). Human cone light adaptation: From behavioral measurements to molecular mechanisms. Journal of Vision 6, 11941213.
Stockman, A., Macleod, D.I.A. & Depriest, D.D. (1991). The temporal properties of the human short-wave photoreceptors and their associated pathways. Vision Research 31, 189208.
Stockman, A. & Sharpe, L.T. (1999). Cone spectral sensitivities and color matching. In Color vision: From Genes to Perception, ed. Gegenfurtner, K. & Sharpe, L.T., pp. 5387. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Stockman, A. & Sharpe, L.T. (2000 a). The spectral sensitivities of the middle- and long-wavelength-sensitive cones derived from measurements in observers of known genotype. Vision Research 40, 17111737.
Stockman, A. & Sharpe, L.T. (2000 b). Tritanopic color matches and the middle- and long-wavelength-sensitive cone spectral sensitivities. Vision Research 40, 17391750.
Stockman, A., Sharpe, L.T. & Fach, C. (1999). The spectral sensitivity of the human short-wavelength sensitive cones derived from thresholds and color matches. Vision Research 39, 29012927.
Stockman, A., Sharpe, L.T., Tufail, A., Kell, P.D., Ripamonti, C. & Jeffery, G. (2007). The effect of sildenafil citrate (Viagra (R)) on visual sensitivity. Journal of Vision 7(8):4, 115.
Stringham, N.T., Sabatinelli, D. & Stringham, J.M. (2013). A potential mechanism for compensation in the blue - yellow visual channel. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 7:331, 16.
Stromeyer, C.F., Chaparro, A., Rodriguez, C., Chen, D., Hu, E. & Kronauer, R.E. (1998). Short-wave cone signal in the red-green detection mechanism. Vision Research 38, 813826.
Stromeyer, C.F., Eskew, R.T., Kronauer, R.E. & Spillmann, L. (1991). Temporal phase response of the short-wave cone signal for color and luminance. Vision Research 31, 787803.
Stromeyer, C.F., Kranda, K. & Sternheim, C.E. (1978). Selective chromatic adaptation at different spatial-frequencies. Vision Research 18, 427437.
Sumner, P., Adamjee, T. & Mollon, J.D. (2002). Signals invisible to the collicular and magnocellular pathways can capture visual attention. Current Biology 12, 13121316.
Sumner, P., Nachev, P., Vora, N., Husain, M. & Kennard, C. (2004). Distinct cortical and collicular mechanisms of inhibition of return revealed with S cone stimuli. Current Biology 14, 22592263.
Sun, H., Smithson, H.E., Zaidi, Q. & Lee, B.B. (2006). Do magnocellular and parvocellular ganglion cells avoid short-wavelength cone input? Visual Neuroscience 23, 441446.
Tailby, C., Cheong, S.K., Pietersen, A.N., Solomon, S.G. & Martin, P.R. (2012). Colour and pattern selectivity of receptive fields in superior colliculus of marmoset monkeys. Journal of Physiology-London 590, 40614077.
Tailby, C., Solomon, S.G., Dhruv, N.T. & Lennie, P. (2008 a). Habituation reveals fundamental chromatic mechanisms in striate cortex of macaque. Journal of Neuroscience 28, 11311139.
Tailby, C., Solomon, S.G. & Lennie, P. (2008 b). Functional asymmetries in visual pathways carrying S-cone signals in macaque. Journal of Neuroscience 28, 40784087.
Tansley, B.W. & Boynton, R.M. (1976). A Line, not a space, represents visual distinctness of borders formed by different colors. Science 191, 954957.
Tansley, B.W. & Boynton, R.M. (1978). Chromatic border perception - role of red-sensitive and green-sensitive cones. Vision Research 18, 683697.
Teller, D.Y., Peeples, D.R. & Sekel, M. (1978). Discrimination of chromatic from white-light by two-month-old human infants. Vision Research 18, 4148.
Terasaki, H., Miyake, Y., Nomura, R., Horiguchi, M., Suzuki, S. & Kondo, M. (1999). Blue-on-yellow perimetry in the complete type of congenital stationary night blindness. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science 40, 27612764.
Valberg, A. (2001). Unique hues: An old problem for a new generation. Vision Research 41, 16451657.
Valberg, A., Lee, B.B. & Tigwell, D.A. (1986). Neurons with strong inhibitory S-cone inputs in the macaque lateral geniculate-nucleus. Vision Research 26, 10611064.
Vassilev, A., Ivanov, I., Zlatkova, M.B. & Anderson, R.S. (2005). Human S-cone vision: Relationship between perceptive field and ganglion cell dendritic field. Journal of Vision 5, 823833.
Vassilev, A., Murzac, A., Zlatkova, M.B. & Anderson, R.S. (2009). On the search for an appropriate metric for reaction time to suprathreshold increments and decrements. Vision Research 49, 524529.
Vassilev, A., Zlatkova, M., Manahilov, V., Krumov, A. & Schaumberger, M. (2000). Spatial summation of blue-on-yellow light increments and decrements in human vision. Vision Research 40, 9891000.
Verdon, W. & Adams, A.J. (1987). Short-wavelength-sensitive cones do not contribute to mesopic luminosity. Journal of the Optical Society of America A – Optics and Image Science 4, 9195.
Verriest, G., Vanlaethem, J. & Uvijls, A. (1982). A new assessment of the normal ranges of the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-hue test-scores. American Journal of Ophthalmology 93, 635642.
Volbrecht, V.J. & Werner, J.S. (1987). Isolation of short-wavelength-sensitive cone photoreceptors in 4–6-week-old human infants. Vision Research 27, 469478.
Webster, M.A., Devalois, K.K. & Switkes, E. (1990). Orientation and spatial-frequency discrimination for luminance and chromatic gratings. Journal of the Optical Society of America A – Optics and Image Science 7, 10341049.
Webster, M.A. & Mollon, J.D. (1994). The influence of contrast adaptation on color appearance. Vision Research 34, 19932020.
Weiskrantz, L., Warrington, E.K., Sanders, M.D. & Marshall, J. (1974). Visual capacity in hemianopic field following a restricted occipital ablation. Brain 97, 709728.
Werner, J.S. (1996). Visual problems of the retina during ageing: Compensation mechanisms and colour constancy across the life span. Progress in Retinal and Eye Research 15, 621645.
Werner, J.S., Bieber, M.L. & Schefrin, B.E. (2000). Senescence of foveal and parafoveal cone sensitivities and their relations to macular pigment density. Journal of the Optical Society of America A – Optics Image Science and Vision 17, 19181932.
Williams, C., Azzopardi, P. & Cowey, A. (1995). Nasal and temporal retinal ganglion-cells projecting to the midbrain: Implications for blindsight. Neuroscience 65, 577586.
Williams, D.R., Collier, R.J. & Thompson, B.J. (1983). Spatial resolution of the short-wavelength mechanism. In Colour Vision: Physiology and Psychophysics, ed. Mollon, J.D. & Sharpe, L.T., pp. 487503. London: Academic.
Williams, D.R., Macleod, D.I.A. & Hayhoe, M.M. (1981). Punctate sensitivity of the blue-sensitive mechanism. Vision Research 21, 13571375.
Wisowaty, J.J. & Boynton, R.M. (1980). Temporal-modulation sensitivity of the blue mechanism: Measurements made without chromatic adaptation. Vision Research 20, 895909.
Wyszecki, G. & Stiles, W.S. (1982). Color Science: Concepts and Methods. Quantitative Data and Formulae. New York: Wiley.
Xiao, Y. (2013). Processing of the S-cone signals in the early visual cortex of primates. Visual Neuroscience 31, 189195.
Zaidi, Q. & Halevy, D. (1993). Visual mechanisms that signal the direction of color changes. Vision Research 33, 10371051.
Zele, A.J., Cao, D.C. & Pokorny, J. (2007). Threshold units: A correct metric for reaction time? Vision Research 47, 608611.
Zlatkova, M.B., Vassilev, A. & Anderson, R.S. (2008). Resolution acuity for equiluminant gratings of S-cone positive or negative contrast in human vision. Journal of Vision 8(3):9, 110.
Zrenner, E. & Gouras, P. (1981). Characteristics of the blue sensitive cone mechanism in primate retinal ganglion-cells. Vision Research 21, 16051609.

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed