Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa

Short latency ocular-following responses in man

  • R.S. Gellman (a1), J.R. Carl (a2) and F.A. Miles (a2)

The ocular-following responses elicited by brief unexpected movements of the visual scene were studied in human subjects. Response latencies varied with the type of stimulus and decreased systematically with increasing stimulus speed but, unlike those of monkeys, were not solely determined by the temporal frequency generated by sine-wave stimuli. Minimum latencies (70–75 ms) were considerably shorter than those reported for other visually driven eye movements. The magnitude of the responses to sine-wave stimuli changed markedly with stimulus speed and only slightly with spatial frequency over the ranges used. When normalized with respect to spatial frequency, all responses shared the same dependence on temporal frequency (band-pass characteristics with a peak at 16 Hz), indicating that temporal frequency, rather than speed per se, was the limiting factor over the entire range examined. This suggests that the underlying motion detectors respond to the local changes in luminance associated with the motion of the scene. Movements of the scene in the immediate wake of a saccadic eye movement were on average twice as effective as movements 600 ms later: post-saccadic enhancement. Less enhancement was seen in the wake of saccade-like shifts of the scene, which themselves elicited weak ocular following, something not seen in the wake of real saccades. We suggest that there are central mechanisms that, on the one hand, prevent the ocular-following system from tracking the visual disturbances created by saccades but, on the other, promote tracking of any subsequent disturbance and thereby help to suppress post-saccadic drift. Partitioning the visual scene into central and peripheral regions revealed that motion in the periphery can exert a weak modulatory influence on ocular-following responses resulting from motion at the center. We suggest that this may help the moving observer to stabilize his/her eyes on nearby stationary objects.

Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

J.M. Allman , F. Meizin & E. McGuinness (1985). Direction and velocity-specific responses from beyond the classical receptive field in the middle temporal visual area (MT). Perception 14, 105126.

A.T. Bahill , M.R. Clark & L. Stark (1975). Glissades–eye movements generated by mismatched components of the saccadic motoneuronal control signal. Mathematical Biosciences 26, 303.

G.R. Barnes & J.W. Crombie (1985). The interaction of conflicting retinal motion stimuli in oculomotor control. Experimental Brain Research 59, 548558.

P. Brodal (1978). The corticopontine projection in the rhesus monkey. Origins and principles of organization. Brain 101, 251283.

P. Brodal (1979). The pontocerebellar projection in the rhesus monkey: an experimental study with retrograde axonal transport of horseradish peroxidase. Neuroscience 4, 193208.

D.C. Burr , J. Holt , J.R. Johnstone & J. Ross (1982). Selective depression of motion sensitivity during saccades. Journal of Physiology (London) 333, 115.

D.C. Burr & J. Ross (1982). Contrast sensitivity at high velocities. Vision Research 22, 479484.

U. Büttner & W. Waespe (1984). Purkinje cell activity in the primate flocculus during optokinetic stimulation, smooth-pursuit eye movements and VOR-suppression. Experimental Brain Research 55, 97104.

B. Cohen , V. Matsuo & T. Raphan (1977). Quantitative analysis of the velocity characteristics of optokinetic nystagmus and optokinetic after-nystagmus. Journal of Physiology (London) 270, 321344.

H. Collewijn & E.P. Tamminga (1984). Human smooth and saccadic eye movements during voluntary pursuit of different target motions on different backgrounds. Journal of Physiology (London) 351, 217250.

H. Collewijn , F. Van Der Mark & T.C. Jansen (1975). Precise recordings of human eye movements. Vision Research 15, 447450.

A.M. Derrington (1984). Spatial-frequency selectivity of remote pattern masking. Vision Research 24, 19651968.

K.H. Foster , J.P. Gaska , M. Nagler & D.A. Pollen (1985). Spatial- and temporal-frequency selectivity of neurones in visual cortical areas Vl and V2 of the macaque monkey. Journal of Physiology (London) 365, 331363.

M. Glickstein , J.L. Cohen , B. Dixon , A. Gibson , M. Hollins , E. LaBossiere & F. Robinson (1980). Corticopontine visual projections in macaque monkeys. Journal of Comparative Neurology 190, 209229.

M. Glickstein , J.G. May & B.E. Mercier (1985). Corticopontine projection in the macaque: the distribution of labeled cortical cells after large injections of horseradish peroxidase in the pontine nuclei. Journal of Comparative Neurology 235, 343359.

R.S. Harwerth & E.L. Smith (1985). Rhesus monkey as a model for normal vision of humans. American Journal of Optometry and Physiological Optics 62, 633641.

K. Hausen (1984). The lobula-complex of the fly: structure, function, and significance in visual behaviour. In Photoreception and Vision in Invertebrates, ed. M.A. Ali , pp. 523559. New York: Plenum Press.

H. Ikeda & M.J. Wright (1975). Spatial and temporal properties of “sustained” and “transient” neurones in area 17 of the cat's visual cortex. Experimental Brain Research 22, 363383.

Z.A. Kapoula , D.A. Robinson & T.C. Hain (1986). Motion of the eye immediately after a saccade. Experimental Brain Research 61, 386394.

E.L. Keller & N.S. Khan (1986). Smooth-pursuit initiation in the presence of a textured background in monkey. Vision Research 26, 943955.

E. Kowler & R.M. Steinman (1981). The effect of expectations on slow oculomotor control, III: Guessing unpredictable target displacements. Vision Research 21, 191203.

J. Kruger , B. Fischer & R. Barth (1975). The shift-effect in retinal ganglion cells of the rhesus monkey. Experimental Brain Research 23, 443446.

T. Langer , A.F. Fuchs , C.A. Scudder & M.C. Chubb (1985). Afferents to the flocculus of the cerebellum in the rhesus macaque as revealed by retrograde transport of horseradish peroxidase. Journal of Comparative Neurology 235, 125.

A.G. Leventhal , R.W. Rodieck & B. Dreher (1981). Retinal ganglion cell classes in cat and Old World monkey: morphology and central projections. Science 213, 11391142.

J.H.R. Maunsell & W.T. Newsome (1987). Visual processing in monkey extrastriate cortex. Annual Review of Neuroscience 10, 363401.

H. Noda (1986). Mossy fibers sending retinal-slip, eye, and head velocity signals to the flocculus of the monkey. Journal of Physiology (London) 379, 3960.

H. Noda & D.A. Suzuki (1979). Processing of eye-movement signals in the flocculus of the monkey. Journal of Physiology (London) 294, 349364.

H. Noda & T. Warabi (1986). Discharges of Purkinje cells in monkey's flocculus during smooth-pursuit eye movements and visual stimulus movements. Experimental Neurology 93, 390403.

J.S. Pointer & R.F. Hess (1989). The contrast-sensitivity gradient across the human visual field: with emphasis on the low spatial-frequency range. Vision Research 29, 11331151.

W. Reichardt (1987). Evaluation of optical motion information by movement detectors. Journal of Comparative Physiology 161, 533547.

C.M. Schor & V. Narayan (1981). The influence of field size upon the spatial-frequency response of optokinetic nystagmus. Vision Research 21, 985994.

U. Schwarz , C. Busettini & F.A. Miles (1989). Ocular responses to linear motion are inversely proportional to viewing distance. Science 245, 13941396.

S. Shioiri & P. Cavanagh (1989). Saccadic suppression of low-level motion. Vision Research 29, 915928.

D.A. Suzuki & E.L. Keller (1984). Visual signals in the dorsolateral pontine nucleus of the alert monkey: their relationship to smooth-pursuit eye movements. Experimental Brain Research 53, 473478.

S. Takemori & B. Cohen (1974). Loss of visual suppression of vestibular nystagmus after flocculus lesions. Brain Research 72, 213224.

P. Thier , W. Koehler & U.W. Buettner (1988). Neuronal activity in the dorsolateral pontine nucleus of the alert monkey modulated by visual stimuli and eye movements. Experimental Brain Research 70, 496512.

D.J. Tolhurst & J.A. Movshon (1975). Spatial and temporal contrast sensitivity of striate cortical neurones. Nature (London) 257, 674675.

F.C. Volkmann (1986). Human visual suppression. Vision Research 26, 14011416.

F.C. Volkmann , L.A. Riggs , K.D. White & R.K. Moore (1978). Contrast sensitivity during saccadic eye movements. Vision Research 18, 11931199.

W. Waespe & B. Cohen (1983). Flocculectomy and unit activity in the vestibular nuclei during visual-vestibular interactions. Experimental Brain Research 51, 2335.

W. Waespe , B. Cohen & T. Raphan (1983). Role of the flocculus and paraflocculus in optokinetic nystagmus and visual-vestibular interactions: effects of lesions. Experimental Brain Research 50, 933.

W. Waespe , D. Rudinger & M. Wolfensberger (1985). Purkinje cell activity in the flocculus of vestibular neurectomized and normal monkeys during optokinetic nystagmus (OKN) and smooth-pursuit eye movements. Experimental Brain Research 60, 243262.

R.B. Weber & R.B. Daroff (1971). The metrics of horizontal saccadic eye movements in normal humans. Vision Research 11, 921928.

R.B. Weber & R.B. Daroff (1972). Corrective movements following refixation saccades: type and control system analysis. Vision Research 12, 467475.

J. Yamada & H. Noda (1987). Afferent and efferent connections of the oculomotor cerebellar vermis in the macaque monkey. Journal of Comparative Neurology 265, 224241.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Visual Neuroscience
  • ISSN: 0952-5238
  • EISSN: 1469-8714
  • URL: /core/journals/visual-neuroscience
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *



Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 5 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 112 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 28th June 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.