On the basis of cortical and subcortical connections and architectonics, inferior temporal (IT) cortex of squirrel monkeys consists of a caudal region, ITC, with dorsal (ITCd) and ventral (ITCv) subdivisions; a rostral region, ITR; and possibly a third region intermediate to ITC and ITR, IT1 (Weller & Steele, 1992; Steele & Weller, 1993). The present study qualitatively and quantitatively examined the terminal arborizations of 26 axons in ITR and IT1 labeled by injections of biocytin or, in one case, horseradish peroxidase, in ITCv. The majority of axons gave rise to a single terminal arbor, with a small number branching into two overlapping or nearby arbors. Presumptive terminal specializations consisted of rounded, bead-like swellings, most often located en passant. All axons terminated in layer 4 of cortex, and most had additional terminations in layers 3 and 5. The total extent of each axon's terminal arbor was 125–750 μm dorsoventrally (mean = 360.6 μm) and 150–725 μm anteroposteriorly (mean = 328.1 μm; all values uncorrected for shrinkage). In most axons, especially those with larger terminal fields, boutons were not uniformly distributed, but formed 2–4 clumps (mean = 2.2), with a mean width of 149 μm, separated by narrower regions of fewer boutons. Based on a cluster analysis of characteristics of the 26 axons, axons projecting from caudal (ITCv) to rostral (ITR or IT1) IT cortex of squirrel monkeys comprised three groups that we called Type I, Type II, and Type III. Type I axons, the smallest in areal extent of terminal arbor, terminated predominantly in dorsal ITR. Type III axons, largest in areal extent, and Type II axons, intermediate in areal extent, terminated in ventral ITR and throughout IT1. The three classes of axons may correspond to different types of visual information entering rostral IT cortex. The clumping of boutons suggests that individual axons terminate in limited patches within their terminal fields.