This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.
Rok Ajulu . 2002. “Politicised Ethnicity, Competitive Politics and Conflict in Kenya: A Historical Perspective.” African Studies 61, no. 2: 251–68.
Richard Banégas . 2003. La démocratie à pas de caméléon: transition et imaginaires politiques au Bénin [Democracy at Chameleon's Pace: Transition and Political Imaginary in Benin]. Paris, France: Karthala.
Virginie Baudais , and Enrico Sborgi . 2008. “The Presidential and Parliamentary Elections in Mali, April and July 2007.” Electoral Studies 27, no. 4: 769–73.
Linda Beck . 1997. “Senegal's ‘Patrimonial Democrats’: Incremental Reform and the Obstacles to the Consolidation of Democracy.” Canadian Journal of African Studies 31, no. 1: 1–31.
Linda Beck . 2001. “Reining in the Marabouts? Democratization and Local Governance in Senegal.” African Affairs 100, no. 401: 601–21.
Linda Beck . 2008. Brokering Democracy in Africa: The Rise of Clientelist Democracy in Senegal. New York, N.Y.: Palgrave Macmillan.
Lucy Behrman . 1970. Muslim Brotherhoods and Politics in Senegal. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.
Catherine Boone . 2003. Political Topographies of the African State: Territorial Authority and Institutional Choice. New York, N.Y.: Cambridge University Press.
Kanchan Chandra . 2006. “What Is Ethnicity and Does It Matter?” Annual Review of Political Science 9: 397–424.
Naomi Chazan . 1982. “Ethnicity and Politics in Ghana.” Political Science Quarterly 97, no. 3: 461–85.
Donal Cruise O'Brien .1975. Saints and Politicians: Essays in the Organization of a Senegalese Peasant Society. New York, N.Y.: Cambridge University Press.
Samuel Decalo . 1970. “Full Circle in Dahomey.” African Studies Review 13, no. 3: 445–57.
Momar-Coumba Diop , Mamadou Diouf , and A. Diaw . 2000. “Le Baobab a été déracine: L'alternance au Sénégal.” Politique Africaine 78: 157–79.
Dennis Galvan . 2001. “Political Turnover and Social Change in Senegal.” Journal of Democracy 12, no. 3: 51–62.
Anirudh Krishna . 2011. “Gaining Access to Public Services and the Democratic State in India: Institutions in the Middle.” Studies in Comparative International Development 46, no. 1: 98–117.
René Lemarchand , and Keith Legg . 1972. “Political Clientelism and Development: A Preliminary Analysis.” Comparative Politics 4, no. 2: 149–78.
Beatriz Magaloni . 2006. Voting for Autocracy: Hegemonic Party Survival and Its Demise in Mexico. New York, N.Y.: Cambridge University Press.
Cédric Mayrargue . 2006. “Yayi Boni, un president inattendu?” Politique Africaine 102: 155–72.
Fiona McLaughlin . 1995. “Haalpulaar Identity as a Response to Wolofization.” African Languages and Cultures 8, no. 2: 153–68.
Gerard Padró i Miquel . 2007. “The Control of Politicians in Divided Societies: The Politics of Fear.” Review of Economic Studies 74: 1259–1274.
Amy Patterson . 2002. “The Impact of Senegal's Decentralization on Women in Local Governance.” Canadian Journal of African Studies 36, no. 3: 490–529.
Daniel Posner . 2003. “The Colonial Origins of Ethnic Cleavages: The Case of Linguistic Divisions in Zambia.” Comparative Politics 35, no. 2: 127–46.
Daniel Posner . 2005. Institutions and Ethnic Politics in Africa. New York, N.Y.: Cambridge University Press.
Jennifer Seely . 2007. “The Presidential Election in Benin, March 2006.” Electoral Studies 26, no. 1: 196–231.
Nicholas van de Walle . 2007. “Meet the New Boss, Same as the Old Boss? The Evolution of Political Clientelism in Africa.” In Herbert Kitschelt and Steven Wilkinson , eds., Patrons, Clients and Policies. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Ineke Van Kessel , and Barbara Oomen . 1997. “One Chief, One Vote: The Revival of Traditional Authorities in Post-Apartheid South Africa.” African Affairs 96, no. 385: 561–85.
Pedro Vicente , and Leonard Wantchekon . 2009. “Clientelism and Vote Buying: Lessons from Field Experiments in African Elections.” Oxford Review of Economic Policy 25, no. 2: 292–305.
Leonardo Villalón . 1995. Islamic Society and State Power in Senegal. New York, N.Y.: Cambridge University Press.
Harry West , and Scott Kloeck-Jenson . 1999. “Betwixt and Between: ‘Traditional Authority’ and Democratic Decentralization in Post-War Mozambique.” African Affairs 98, no. 393: 455–84.
Steven Wilkinson . 2004. Votes and Violence: Electoral Competition and Ethnic Riots in India. New York, N.Y.: Cambridge University Press.
Susanna Wing . 2008. Constructing Democracy in Transitioning Societies of Africa: Constitutionalism and Deliberation in Mali. New York, N.Y.: Palgrave Macmillan.