Skip to main content
×
Home

Market Reforms and Water Wars

Abstract

Responses to the imposition of market-oriented economic policies have varied. This article asks two questions: (1) How can we better understand when marketization will or will not prompt resistance? And (2) when people do mobilize, why are some movements broad-based while others draw on particular segments of society? The author argues that these questions can best be answered by focusing not only on the political contexts and resources available to potential social movements, but also on what is perceived to be at stake during marketization. These perceptions influence mobilization processes and the kinds of groups available for mobilization. When people understand markets as threatening to material wellbeing, as well as to widely shared community relationships, understandings, and commitments, heightened feelings of group belonging can contribute to broad-based mobilization. The author develops this argument through analysis of the broad-based, widespread movement that emerged to protest water privatization in Cochabamba, Bolivia, in 1999 and 2000. In the context of a history of agriculture, irrigation, drought, and conflict, water helped to produce and reproduce imagined communities of nation, region, and ethnic group, as well as quotidian communities revolving around the routine production and consumption of water. These meanings help to explain the dynamics of the resistance that emerged.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Market Reforms and Water Wars
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Market Reforms and Water Wars
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Market Reforms and Water Wars
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
References
Hide All
Agüero Felipe, and Stark Jeffrey, eds. 1998. Fault Lines of Democracy in Post-Transition Latin America. Coral Gables, Fla.: North-South Center Press/University of Miami. Distributed by Lynne Rienner Publishers.
Albro Robert. 2005. “The Water is Ours, Carajo! Deep Citizenship in Bolivia's Water War.” In June Nash, ed., Social Movements: An Anthropological Reader. Malden, Mass.: Blackwell Publishing.
Aminzade Ronald. 2001. Silence and Voice in the Study of Contentious Politics. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Anderson Benedict R. O'G. 1991. Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism, rev. and extended ed. London, UK: Verso.
Arce Moises, and Bellinger Paul T. Jr. 2007. “Low Intensity Democracy Revisited: The Effects of Economic Liberalization on Political Activity in Latin America.” World Politics 60, no. 1 (October): 97121.
Assies Willem. 2003. “David versus Goliath in Cochabamba: Water Rights, Neoliberalism and the Revival of Social Protest in Bolivia.” Latin American Perspectives 30, no. 3 (May): 1436.
Auyero Javier. 2007. Routine Politics and Violence in Argentina: The Gray Zone of State Power. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Bakker Karen J. 2003. An Uncooperative Commodity: Privatizing Water in England and Wales. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Benford Robert, and Snow David. 2000. “Framing Processes and Social Movements: An Overview and Assessment.” Annual Review of Sociology 26, August: 611–39.
Bourdieu Pierre, and Thompson John B.. 1991. Language and Symbolic Power. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.
Brubaker Rogers. 2004. Ethnicity without Groups. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.
Bustamante Rocío, Peredo Elizabeth, and Udaeta María Esther. 2005. “Women in the ‘Water Wars’ in the Cochabamba Valleys.” In Bennett Vivienne, Dávila-Poblete Sonia, and Rico María Nieves, eds., Opposing Currents: The Politics of Water and Gender in Latin America. Pittsburgh, Pa.: University of Pittsburgh Press.
Butler Judith. 1997. Excitable Speech: A Politics of the Performative. New York, N.Y.: Routledge.
Calhoun Craig. 1991. “The Problem of Identity in Collective Action.” In Huber Joan, ed., Macro–Micro Linkages in Sociology. Newbury Park, Calif: Sage.
Comaroff Jean, and Comaroff John L.. 1990. Ethnicity, Inc. Chicago, Ill.: University of Chicago Press.
Cramer Walsh Katherine. 2012. “Putting Inequality in Its Place: Rural Consciousness and the Power of Perspective.” American Political Science Review 106, no. 3: 517–32.
Crespo Flores Carlos. 2003. Water Privatisation Policies and Conflicts in Bolivia: The Water War in Cochabamba (1999–2000). Oxford, UK: Oxford Brookes University.
Cusicanqui Silvia Rivera. 1990. “Liberal Democracy and Ayllu Democracy in Bolivia: The Case of the Northern Potosí.” Journal of Development Studies 26, no. 4: 97121.
Dunkerley James. 1984. Rebellion in the Veins: Political Struggle in Bolivia, 1952–82. London, UK: Verso.
Eckstein Susan, and Wickham-Crowley Timothy P.. 2003. Struggles for Social Rights in Latin America. New York, N.Y.: Routledge.
Edelman Murray J. 1971. Politics as Symbolic Action: Mass Arousal and Quiescence. Chicago, Ill.: Academic Press.
Fraser Nancy. 2013. “A Triple Movement? Parsing the Political Crisis after Polanyi.” New Left Review 81 (May-June): 119–32.
Friedman Jonathan. 1990. “Being in the World: Globalization and Localization.” Theory, Culture, and Society 7, no. 2: 311–28.
Gamson William A. 1992. Talking Politics. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
García Alberto, García Fernando, and Quintón Luz. 2003. La “Guerra del Agua”: Abril de 2000, la crisis de la política en Bolivia [The “water war:” April 2000, the crisis of politics in Bolivia]. La Paz, Bolivia: Fundación Programa de Investigación Estratégica en Bolivia.
George Alexander L., and Bennett Andrew. 2005. Case Studies and Theory Development in the Social Sciences. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.
Gerring John. 2007. Case Study Research: Principles and Practices. New York, N.Y: Cambridge University Press.
Gill Lesley. 2000. Teetering on the Rim: Global Restructuring, Daily Life, and the Armed Retreat of the Bolivian State. NewYork,N.Y: Columbia University Press.
Goffman Erving. 1974. Frame Analysis: An Essay on the Organization of Experience. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.
Goodwin Jeff, and Jasper James M.. 2004. Rethinking Social Movements: Structure, Meaning, and Emotion. Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
Gould Deborah B. 2009. Moving Politics: Emotion and ACT UP's Fight against AIDS. Chicago, Ill.: University of Chicago Press.
Gould Roger V. 1995. Insurgent Identities: Class, Community, and Protest in Paris from 1848 to the Commune. Chicago, Ill.: University of Chicago Press.
Gudeman Stephen. 2001. The Anthropology of Economy: Community, Market, and Culture. Maiden, Mass.: Blackwell.
Instituto Naciónal de Estadísticas. 2006. “Cochabamba: Estadisticas e Indica-dores de Pobreza Según Sección Municipal, 2001.” [Cochabamba: Statistics and Indicators of Poverty According to Municipal Section, 2001] Available at http://www.ine.gov.bo, accessed February 20, 2007.
Kosek Jake. 2006. Understories: The Political Life of Forests in Northern New Mexico. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press.
Kurtz Marcus J. 2004. “The Dilemmas of Democracy in the Open Economy: Lessons from Latin America.” World Politics 56, no. 2 (January): 262–302.
Larson Brooke. 1998. Cochabamba, 1550–1900: Colonialism and Agrarian Transformation in Bolivia, exp. ed. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press.
Laurie Nina, and Marvin Simon. 1999. “Globalisation, Neoliberalism, and Negotiated Development in the Andes: Water Projects and Regional Identity in Cochabamba, Bolivia.” Environment and Planning A 31, no. 8 (August): 1401–15.
Lofland John. 1996. Social Movement Organizations: Guide to Research on Insurgent Realities. New York, N.Y.: Aldine de Gruyter.
Loveman Mara. 1998. “High-Risk Collective Action: Defending Human Rights in Chile, Uruguay, and Argentina.” American Journal of Sociology 104, no. 2 (September): 477525.
McAdam Doug. 1999. Political Process and the Development of Black Insurgency, 1930–1970 2nded. Chicago, Ill.: University of Chicago Press.
McAdam Doug, McCarthy John D., and Zald Mayer N.. 1996. Comparative Perspectives on Social Movements: Political Opportunities, Mobilizing Structures, and Cultural Framings. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
McAdam Doug, Tarrow Sidney G., and Tilly Charles. 2001. Dynamics of Contention. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Noakes John A., and Johnston Hank. 2005. “Frames of Protest: A Road Map to a Perspective.” In Johnston Hank and Noakes John A., eds., Frames of Protest: Social Movements and the Framing Perspective. Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield.
Olivera Oscar. 2004. Cochabamba! Water War in Bolivia. Cambridge, Mass.: South End Press.
Ostrom Elinor. 1990. Governing the Commons: The Evolution of Institutions for Collective Action. Cambridge, UK, and New York, N.Y.: Cambridge University Press.
Oxhorn Philip, and Ducatenzeiler Graciela. 1998. What Kind of Democracy? What Kind of Market? Latin America in the Age of Neoliberalism. University Park, Pa.: Pennsylvania State University Press.
Parkinson Sarah. 2013. “Organizing Rebellion: Re-thinking High Risk Mobilization and Social Networks in War.” American Political Science Review 107, no. 3 (August): 418–32.
Pearlman Wendy. 2013. “Emotions and the Microfoundations of the Arab Uprisings.” Perspectives on Politics 11, no. 2 (June): 387–409.
Peredo Carmen, Flores Carlos Crespo, and Fernández Omar. 2004. Los regantes de Cochabamba en laguerra del agua: Presión socialy negociacón[The irrigators of Cochabamba in the water war: social pressure and negotiation]. Cochabamba, Bolivia: Centro de Estudios Superiores Universitarios-Universidad Mayor de San Simón.
Perreault Tom. 2008. “Custom and Contradiction: Rural Water Governance and the Politics of Usos y Costumbres in Bolivia's Irrigators’ Movement.” Annals of the Association of American Geographers 98, no. 4 (September): 834–54.
Polanyi Karl. 2001. The Great Transformation: The Political and Economic Origins of Our Time, 2nd ed. Boston, Mass.: Beacon Press.
Rabinow Paul, and Sullivan William M.. 1987. Interpretive Social Science:A Second Look. Berkeley, Calif: University of California Press.
Rioja Vasquez Oswaldo. 2002. La Guerra del Agua. Documentary. Cochabamba, Bolivia.
Schelling Thomas C. 1960. The Strategy of Conflict. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.
Schwartz-Shea Peregrine, and Yanow Dvora. 2012. Interpretive Research Design: Concepts and Processes. New York, N.Y: Routledge.
Scott James C. 1976. The Moral Economy of the Peasant: Rebellion and Subsistence in Southeast Asia. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press.
Shultz Jim. 2003. “Bolivia: The Water War Widens.” NACLA Report on the Americas 36, no. 3 (January-February): 34–37.
Silva Eduardo. 2009. Challenging Neoliberalism in Latin America. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Simmons Erica. 2014. “Grievances Do Matter in Mobilization.” Theory and Society 43, no. 5: 513–36.
Small Mario. 2009. ‘“How Many Cases Do I Need?’ On Science and the Logic of Case Selection in Field-Based Research.” Ethnography 10, no. 1 (March): 538.
Snow David A., and Benford Robert. 1988. “Ideology, Frame Resonance, and Participant Mobilization.” International Social Movement Research 1, no. 1: 197217.
Snow David A., and Benford Robert. 1992. “Master Frames and Cycles of Protest.” In Morris Aldon D. and Mueller Carol McClurg, eds., Frontiers in Social Movement Theory. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press.
Snow David A., Burke Rochford E., Worden Steven, and Benford Robert. 1986. “Frame Alignment Processes, Micromobilization, and Movement Participation.” American Sociological Review 51, no. 4 (August): 464–81.
Snow David A., and Soule Sarah A.. 2010. A Primer on Social Movements. New York, N.Y.: W.W.Norton.
Spronk Susan J. 2007. “Roots of Resistance to Urban Water Privatization in Bolivia: The ‘New Working Class,’ the Crisis of Neoliberalism, and Public Services.” International Labor and Working-Class History 71, no. 1 (Spring): 8–28.
Tarrow Sidney G. 1998. Power in Movement: Social Movements and Contentious Politics, 2nd ed. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Thompson E. P. 1971. “The Moral Economy of the English Crowd in the Eighteenth Century.” Past & Present, no. 50 (February): 76–136.
Tönnies Ferdinand. 1988. Community & Society. New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction Books.
Wedeen Lisa. 2002. “Conceptualizing Culture: Possibilities for Political Science.” American Political Science Review 96, no. 4 (December): 713–28.
Wedeen Lisa. 2008. Peripheral Visions: Publics, Power, and Performance in Yemen. Chicago, Ill.: University of Chicago Press.
Wedeen Lisa. 2009. “Ethnography as Interpretive Enterprise.” In Schatz Edward, ed., Political Ethnography: What Immersion Contributes to the Study of Power. Chicago: University of Chicago Press: 75–93
Yashar Deborah J. 2005. Contesting Citizenship in Latin America: The Rise of Indigenous Movements and the Postliberal Challenge. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

World Politics
  • ISSN: 0043-8871
  • EISSN: 1086-3338
  • URL: /core/journals/world-politics
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 253 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 924 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 25th November 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.