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A New Brezhnev Doctrine: The Restructuring of International Relations

  • R. Judson Mitchell (a1)
Abstract

Contemporary Soviet doctrine on international relations emphasizes changes in the relationships of both domestic and world political structures; all the processes of restructuring are said to be “organically” interconnected. An extensive reconceptualization of domestic processes of social change has provided ideological legitimation for elites in the highly bureaucratized Soviet system. Meanwhile, according to Soviet spokesmen, the world correlation of forces has shifted decisively in favor of the U.S.S.R. Because of this change in the world balance, the Soviets claim the power to set the rules in international relations. The new Brezhnev Doctrine projects the U.S.S.R. as the center of the world, largely determining the direction and pace of political change. The Soviet leaders view detente in terms of rational acceptance by the “imperialist camp” of unavoidable processes of restructuring favorable to the “socialist camp.”

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1 Lebedev, N., “The USSR's Effort to Restructure International Relations,” International Affairs, No. 1 (January 1976), 34.

2 See Triska, Jan F. and Finley, David D., Soviet Foreign Policy (New York: Macmillan 1968), 108–15, for a discussion of the problems in the construction of such a general model. Triska and Finley also offer an imaginative framework for inquiry in this area of research.

3 Constantine Olgin, “Recent Doctrinal Adjustments in Soviet Philosophy,” Radio Liberty Dispatch, July 12, 1973; Konstantinov, F. V., “Sovremenni problemi marksistoleninskoi filosofii i zadachi filosofskoi obshestvennosti” [Contemporary Problems of Marxist-Leninist Philosophy and the Tasks of the Philosophical Association], Voprosy Filosofii, No. 1 (January 1972), 2539.Althusser, Cf. Louis, Lenin and Philosophy (New York: Monthly Review Press 1971), 1519, 66–67. All translations are by the present author unless otherwise noted.

4 Gilison, , The Soviet Image of Utopia (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press 1975).

5 Jacoby, , The Bureaucratization of the World (Berkeley: University of California Press 1973), 123–36.

6 Kassof, , “The Administered Society: Totalitarianism Without Terror,” World Politics, XVI (July 1964), 558–75.

7 Rigby, , “Traditional, Market, and Organizational Societies and the USSR,” World Politics, XVI (July 1964), 539–57.

8 Meyer, , “Theories of Convergence,” in Johnson, Chalmers, ed., Change in Communist Systems (Stanford: Stanford University Press 1970), 327.

9 Brzezinski, , “The Soviet Political System: Transformation or Degeneration,” in Brzezinski, , ed., Dilemmas of Change in Soviet Politics (New York: Columbia University Press 1969), 134.

10 See speech by Suslov, Mikhail A., Pravda, October 23, 1974, pp. 1–2.

11 Izvestia, September 5, 1974, p. 1; Maj. Gen. Volkonogov, D., “The Ideological Struggle in Conditions of Detente,” Kommunist vooruzhennykh sil, No. 3 (February 1977), 923; trans, in Current Digest of the Soviet Press, XXIX (March 2, 1977), 5.

12 24th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union: Documents (Moscow: Novosti 1971), 87, 126, 226; Brezhnev's speech to the 11th Hungarian Party Congress, Pravda, March 19, 1975, pp. 1–2; Brezhnev's speech to the 25th CPSU Congress, Pravda, February 25, 1976, p. 10; editorial, “Leninskoe edinstvo partii i naroda” [Leninist Unity of Party and People], Kommunist, No. 6 (April 1975), 10.

13 Viktorov, A., “XXV S'ezd KPSS—tvorcheskii razvitie teoriia” [25th CPSU Congress: Creative Development of Theory], Pravda, March 27, 1976, p. 2.

14 Gilison (fn. 4), chap. 3.

15 Yegerov, A. G., “Partiia nauchnogo kommunizma” [The Party of Scientific Communism], Kommunist, No. 2 (February 1973), 4849; Afanasyev, V. G., “V. I. Lenin o nauchnom upravlenni obshestvom” [V. I. Lenin on the Scientific Direction of Society], Voprosy Filosofii, No. 1 (January 1974), 1729; Warsaw, Brezhnev's speech, Pravda, July 22, 1974, p. 1.

16 Yegerov (fn. 15), 36–55; Grigoryan, B., “Problema cheloveka v marksisto-leninskoi filosofii” [The Problem of the Individual in Marxist-Leninist Philosophy], Kommunist, No. 3 (February 1975), 4858.

17 Yegerov (fn. 15), 53–54.

18 Fedoseev, P., “Vozrastanie roli partii-zakonomernost stroitelstva sotzialisma i kommunizma” [Growth in the Role of the Party-Revolutionary Law of Socialist and Communist Construction], Kommunist, No. 15 (October 1971), 7291; Pavlov, G., “Vozrastanie roli partii i otvetstvennosti kommunistov” [Growth in the Role of the Party and the Responsibility of Communists], Kommunist, No. 4 (March 1972), 1425, esp. 15.

19 A. Viktorov (fn. 13), 3.

20 TASS, March 17, 1976.

21 Gililov, , “Vospitatelnaya missiia kommunistov” [The Educational Mission of Communists], Kommunist, No. 15 (October 1975), 102–12.

22 A. Interview with Leonid Zamyatin, Moscow Domestic Service, March 23, 1976; Lebedev (fn. 1), 8.

23 Zagladin, V., “Internatzionalisme—znamia Kommunist” [Internationalism: Communist Banner], Pravda, April 20, 1976, p. 3.

24 Viktorov (fn. 13), 3.

25 Sanakoyev, Sh., “Capitalism, A Society Without a Future,” International Affairs, No. 8 (August 1976), 9.

26 Zakharov, Y., “International Cooperation and the Battle of Ideas,” International Affairs, No. 1 (January 1976), 86.

27 Organisyan, Y., “Proletarian Internationalism and the Present Day,” Sovetskaya Belorussia, June 8, 1976, p. 3; trans, in Foreign Broadcast Information Service, June 17, 1976.

28 New York Times, April 6, 1976, pp. 1, 14.

29 Pravda, February 25, 1976, p. 1.

30 TASS, June 29, 1976.

31 See Rakowska-Harmstone, Teresa, “Socialist Internationalism and Eastern Europe—A New Stage,” Survey, No. 22 (Winter 1976), 3854; Kozin, B., “The Drawing Together of the Socialist Countries—An Objective Regularity,” International Affairs, No. 10 (October 1976), 1421.

32 Gililov (fn. 21), 102–12; Viktorov (fn. 13), 2–3.

33 Timofeyev, T. T., “Leninskii klassovi analiz i sovremenni revizionizm” [Leninist Class Analysis and Contemporary Revisionism], Voprosy Filosofii, No. 5 (May 1974), 3144.

34 Izvestia, July 13, 1974, pp. 3–4.

35 Speech by Suslov, Mikhail A. to the USSR Academy of Sciences, Pravda, March 18, 1976, p. 2.

36 Pravda, February 25, 1976, p. 3.

37 TASS, March 17, 1976.

38 Lebedev (fn. 1), 6.

39 Pravda, June 15, 1974, p. 1.

40 Kommunist (fn. 12), 6.

41 Grechko, A. A., “Glavnoi roli KPSS v stroeni armiie razvitie sotzialisticheskem obshestve” [The Main Role of the CPSU in Building the Army of Developed Socialist Society], Voprosy Istorii KPSS, No. 5 (April 1974), 3047.

42 Sovetskaya Rossiya, February 23, 1976, p. 1.

43 Gromyko, , “Programma mira v deistvii” [The Peace Program in Action], Kommunist, No. 14 (September 1975), 5.

44 Sanakoyev, Sh., “Socialist Foreign Policy: Coordination and Effectiveness,” International Affairs, No. 6 (June 1971), 10.

45 Pravda, December 27, 1975, p. 1.

46 Zakharov (fn. 26), 92.

47 Kapchenko, N., “Socialist Foreign Policy and the Restructuring of International Relations,” International Affairs, No. 4 (April 1975), 8.

48 Zakharov (fn. 26), 87.

49 Pravda, October 15, 1975, p. 1.

50 Pravda, February 25, 1976, p. 3.

51 Suslov, M. A., “Kommunisticheskoe dvizhenie v avangarde borbi za mir, sotzialnoe i natzionalnoe osvobozhdenie” [The Communist Movement in the Avantgarde Struggle for Peace, Socialism, and National Liberation], Kommunist, No. 11 (July 1975), 310.

52 Pravda, August 6, 1975, p. 3; cited in Donaldson, Robert H., “U.S.S.R. Profile,” in Staar, Richard F., ed., Yearbook, on International Communist Affairs, 1976 (Stanford: Hoover Institution Press 1976), 66.

53 Pravda, February 25, 1976, p. 4.

54 See Zhurkin, V., “Detente and International Conflicts,” International Affairs, No. 7 (July 1974), 90.

55 See speech by Suslov, Mikhail A. to the USSR Academy of Sciences, Pravda, March 18, 1976, p. 1; Timofeyev, T., “Razvitie rabochii klassa i sovremennik ideologicheskii borba” [Development of the Working Class and the Contemporary Ideological Struggle], Pravda, January 17, 1976, pp. 34; Rodionov, P., “An Ardent Fighter for Communism,” Pravda, March 10, 1976, p. 6; trans, in Foreign Broadcast Information Service, March 15, 1976.

56 See Brezhnev's speech to the 25th CPSU Congress, Pravda, February 25, 1976, p. 4.

57 Izvestia, April 23, 1976, p. 1.

58 Zakharov (fn. 26), 91.

59 Stepanov, V., “The Restructuring of International Economic Relations,” International Affairs, No. 8 (August 1976), 2731.

60 Ibid., 28.

61 Ibid., 30.

62 Kapchenko (fn. 47), 7.

63 Interview with Zamyatin, Leonid M., Moscow Domestic Television Service, March 23, 1976; trans, in Foreign Broadcast Information Service, April 2, 1976.

64 Pravda, February 20, 1976, p. 1.

65 Izvestia, April 23, 1976, p. 2; cf. Pravda, February 20, 1977, p. 1.

66 Sovetskaya Kultura, February 20, 1976, p. 3.

67 Pravda, April 18, 1976, p. 1.

68 Pravda, February 1, 1976, p. 1; February 5, 1976, p. 2; May 14, 1976, p. 1.

69 Izvestia, August 14, 1976, p. 3.

70 Pravda, April 8, 1976, p. 1.

71 Pravda, May 5, 1976, p. 1.

72 Cf. Gilison (fn. 4), chap. 5.

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