Hostname: page-component-5d59c44645-jb2ch Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-03-03T20:13:14.524Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Nephropathogenic avian infectious bronchitis viruses

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  18 September 2007

G. Meulemans
Affiliation:
Veterinary and Agrochemical Research Centre, 99 Groeselenberg, 1180 Brussels, Belgium
T.P. van den Berg
Affiliation:
Veterinary and Agrochemical Research Centre, 99 Groeselenberg, 1180 Brussels, Belgium
Get access

Abstract

Avian infectious bronchitis (IB) is a major cause of economic loss to the poultry industry. The disease, which has been identified in many areas of the world, primarily affects the respiratory tract of – usually young – domestic fowl. However, in addition to their common affinity for the respiratory tract, IB virus strains differ in their tropism for such other target organs as the female reproductive system or the alimentary tract and kidneys. The names now normally given to the disease are ‘infectious bronchitis nephritis’, ‘IB nephritis’ and ‘NIB’. These reflect its inflammatory nature and the organ primarily affected. The pathogenicity of IB virus strains varies and the severity of a disease outbreak is also influenced by the age of the birds and by environmental/management factors. In young broilers, which appear to be the type of stock most affected, the main symptoms of nephritis IB are generally the sudden occurrence of mild respiratory signs which tend to decline within a week. This is followed by a rapid rise in mortality causing the loss of 5–25% of the birds over the ensuing 10 days or so. The birds tend to die abruptly. Gross lesions are mainly confined to the kidneys. The kidney parenchyma of affected chickens is pale, swollen and mottled; tubules and urethras are distended with uric acid crystals. In pullets IB nephritis occurs principally in modern hybrid laying stocks shortly after the onset of egg production when, for several weeks, mortality is typically around 0.4% per week. Post mortem lesions resemble those found in broilers but usually visceral urate deposits are also present. Diagnosis of nephritis IB needs to include detection of IB viral antigen using immunofluorescence on frozen kidney sections and/or viral isolation and identification of IBV following standard techniques. Vaccination with the commonly used IB vaccines such as the H120 strain affords only limited protection against nephritis IB. Attention is drawn to the need for further research.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 1998

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Afanador, G. and Roberts, J.R. (1994) Effect of nephropathogenic infectious bronchitis viruses on renal function in young male broiler chickens. British Poultry Science 35: 445456Google Scholar
Albassam, M.A., Winterfield, R.W. and Thacker, H.L. (1986) Comparison of the nephropathogenicity of four strains of infectious bronchitis virus. Avian Diseases 30: 468476Google Scholar
Ambali, A.G. and Jones, R.C. (1990) Early pathogenesis in chicks of infection with an enterotropic strain of infectious bronchitis virus. Avian Diseases 34: 809817Google Scholar
Animas, S.B., Otsuki, K., Hanayama, M., Sanekata, T. and Tsubokura, M. (1994a) Experimental infection with avian infectious bronchitis virus (Kagoshima-34 strain) in chicks at different ages. Journal of Veterinary Medical Scierice 56: 443447Google Scholar
Animas, S.B., Otsuki, K., Tsubokura, M. and Cook, J.K.A. (1994b) Comparison of the susceptibility of chicks of different ages to infection with nephrosis/nephritis-causing strains of infectious bronchitis virus. Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 56: 449453Google Scholar
Brown, T.P., Glisson, J.R., Rosales, G., Villegas, P. and Davis, R.B. (1987) Studies on avian urolithiasis associated with an infectious bronchitis virus. Avian Diseases 31: 629636Google Scholar
Butcher, G.D., Winterfield, R.W. and Shapiro, D.P. (1989) An outbreak of nephropathogenic H13 infectious bronchitis in commercial broilers. Avian Diseases 33: 823826Google Scholar
Butcher, G.D., Winterfield, R.W. and Shapiro, D.P. (1990) Pathogenesis of H13 nephropathogenic infectious bronchitis virus. Avian Diseases 34: 916921Google Scholar
Cavanagh, D. and Naqi, S.A. (1997) Infectious bronchitis. In: Diseases of Poultry (Calnek, B.W., Ed), Jowa State University Press, pp 511526Google Scholar
Chandra, M. (1987) Comparative nephropathogenicity of different strains of infectious bronchitis in chickens. Poultry Science 66: 954959Google Scholar
Chandra, M. (1988) Comparative nephropathogenicity of infectious bronchitis virus in bursectomized and non bursectomized chickens. American Journal of Veterinary Research 49: 831834Google Scholar
Chandra, M., Singh, G.K. and Singh, B. (1980) Isolation of infectious bronchitis, infectious bursa1 disease and avian adenoviruses from chickens with nephritis-nephrosis syndrome. Zentralblatt Veterinarmedizin (B) 27: 352359Google Scholar
Chen, B.Y. and Itakura, C. (1996) Cytopathology of chick renal epithelial cells experimentally infected with avian infectious bronchitis virus. Avian Pathology 25: 675690Google Scholar
Chong, K.T. and Apostolov, K. (1982) The pathogenesis of nephritis in chickens induced by infectious bronchitis virus. Journal of Comparative Pathology 92: 199211Google Scholar
Chubb, R.C. (1973) The effectiveness of vaccination against the Australian infectious bronchitis nephritis virus before two weeks of age. Veterinary Record 93: 249252Google Scholar
Chubb, R.C. (1974) Effect of the suppression of circulating antibody on resistance to the Australian avian infectious bronchitis virus. Research in Veterinary Science 17: 169173Google Scholar
Chubb, R.C., Wells, B.A. and Cumming, R.B. (1976) Some immunological aspects of a recent Australian isolate of infectious bronchitis virus. Australian Veterinary Journal 52: 378381Google Scholar
Condron, R.J. and Marshall, A.T. (1985) Pathogenesis of infectious bronchitis nephritis. 2. Studies of water and electrolyte balance in colostomised chickens. Avian Pathology 14: 509520Google Scholar
Cowen, B.S., Wideman, R.F., Rothenbacher, H. and Braune, M.O. (1987) An outbreak of avian urolithiasis on a large commercial egg farm. Avian Diseases 31: 392397Google Scholar
Cumming, R.B. (1962) The aetiology of uraemia of chickens. Australian Veterinary Journal 38: 554Google Scholar
Cumming, R.B. (1963) Infectious avian nephrosis (uraemia) in Australia. Australian Veterinary Journal 39: 145147Google Scholar
Cumming, R.B. (1969) The control of avian infectious bronchitis/nephrosis in Australia. Australian Veterinary Journal 45: 200203Google Scholar
Cumming, R.B. (1971) Infectious bronchitis nephrosis. Proceedings of the 19th World Veterinay congress,Mexico City487490Google Scholar
Duée, J.P. (1986) Coronavirose des poulets et des reproducteurs dans le Nord de la France. L'Aviculteur 466: 5558Google Scholar
Elhouadfi, M. and Jones, R.C. (1985) Isolation of avian infectious bronchitis viruses in Morocco including an enterotropic variant. Veterinary Record 116: 445Google Scholar
Froyman, R., Derijcke, J., Meulemans, G. and Vandermeersch, R. (1985) Infectious bronchitis-associated nephritis in broilers. Vlaams Diergeneeskundig Tijdschrift 54: 7883Google Scholar
Fulton, R.M., Reed, W.M. and Thacker, H.L. (1993) Cellular responses of the respiratory tract of chickens to infection with Massachusetts 41 and Australian T infectious bronchitis viruses. Avian Diseases 37: 951960Google Scholar
Gilchrist, P.T. and Sinkovic, B. (1964) Proceedings Australian Poultry Sciences Convention,Surfers Paradise, p. 48Google Scholar
Gilchrist, P.T. and Sinkovic, B. (1967) Proceedings Australian Poultry Sciences Convention,Surfers Paradise, p. 45Google Scholar
Glahn, R.P., Wideman, R.F. and Cowen, B.S. (1988) Effect of Gray strain infectious bronchitis virus and high dietary calcium on renal function of Single Comb White Leghorn pullets at 6, 10, and 18 weeks of age. Poultry Science 67: 12501263Google Scholar
Glahn, R.P., Wideman, R.F. and Cowen, B.S. (1989) Order of exposure to high dietary calcium and Gray strain infectious bronchitis virus alters renal function and the incidence of urolithiasis. Poultry Science 68: 11931204Google Scholar
Goryo, M., Immure, T. and Itakura, C. (1984) Concurrence of nephrosis-nephritis due to infectious bronchitis virus and infectious bursa1 disease in broiler chickens. Avian Pathology 13: 191200Google Scholar
Hirai, K. and Shimakura, S. (1971) Isolation and characteristics of avian nephrosis-inducing infectious bronchitis virus (coronavirus). Japanese journal of Veterinary Science 33: 209216Google Scholar
Hu, J.H., Xie, X.Y., Zhang, Y.M. and Jin, P.F. (1996) The isolation and identification of avian infectious bronchitis virus-nephrosis form. Journal of Shanghai Agricultural College 14: 122126Google Scholar
Ignjatovic, J. (1988) Epidemiology of infectious bronchitis in Australia. In: Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Infectious Bronchitis (Kaleta, E.F. and Heffels-Redman, U., Eds), pp. 8488Google Scholar
Iritani, Y. and Takigami, S. (1995) Comparative characteristics among infectious bronchitis viruses isolated from broiler chickens with nephritis. Joumal of the japan Veterinary Medical Association 48: 7578Google Scholar
Itakura, C. and Kawai, Y. (1972) Pathology of spontaneous cases of avian transmissible tubulonephrosis. Japanese Journal of Veterinary Science 34: 6169Google Scholar
Janse, E.M., Roozelaar, D.V. and Koch, G. (1994) Leukocyte subpopulations in kidney and trachea of chickens infected with infectious bronchitis virus. Avian Pathology 23: 513523Google Scholar
Julian, R.J. and Willis, N.G. (1969) The nephrosis-nephritis syndrome in chickens caused by a Holte strain of infectious bronchitis virus. Canudian Journal of Veterinary Research 10: 1819Google Scholar
Kinde, H., Daft, B.M., Castro, A.E., Bickford, A.A., Gelb, J. Jr. and Reynolds, B. (1991) Viral pathogenesis of a nephropathropic infectious bronchitis virus isolated from commercial pullets. Avian Diseases 35: 415421Google Scholar
Krauss, H. and Peeters, G. (1968) Nachweis eines Virusstammes der infektiösen Bronchitis mit Nierenaffimtät in Westdeutschland. Deutsche Tierärztliche Wochenschrift 75: 375Google Scholar
Lambrechts, C., Pensaert, M. and Ducatelle, R. (1993) Challenge experiments to evaluate cross-protection induced at the trachea and kidney level by vaccine strains and Belgian nephropathogenic isolates of avian infectious bronchitis virus. Avian Pathology 22: 577590Google Scholar
Lin, Z., Kato, A., Kudou, Y., Umeda, K. and Ueda, S. (1991) Typing of recent infectious bronchitis virus isolates causing nephritis in chicken. Archives of Virology 120: 145149Google Scholar
McDonald, J.W. and McMartin, D.A. (1976) Observations of the effects of the H52 and H120 strains of infectious bronchitis in domestic fowls. Avian Pathology 5: 157173Google Scholar
McDonald, J.W., Randall, C.J. and McMartin, D.A. (1980) An inverse age resistance of chicken kidneys to infectious bronchitis virus. Avian Pathology 9: 245259Google Scholar
McDonald, J.W., Randall, C.J., McMartin, D.A., Dagless, M.D. and Gazdzinski, P. (1981) Active and passive immunisation against nephritis induced by an avian infectious bronchitis virus. Avian Pathology 10: 121129Google Scholar
Meulemans, G., Antoine, O. and Halen, P. (1978) Préparation d'antisérums conjugués à la fluorescéine pour le diagnostic des principaux virus aviaires. Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire 122: 4550Google Scholar
Meulemans, G., Carlier, M.C., Gonze, M.Petit, P. and Vandenbroeck, M. (1987) Incidence, characterisation and prophylaxis of nephropathogenic avian infectious bronchitis viruses. Veterinary Record 120: 205206Google Scholar
Minarik, P., Dyml, E. and Petr, O. (1967) Infekcni nefritida drubeze. Veterinarstvi 17: 118122Google Scholar
Monreal, G., Pohl, R. and Schulze, H.W. (1974) Gleichzeitiges Auftreten von infektiöser Bursitis und infektiöser Bronchitis mit Nephritis-Nephrose Syndrom. Zentralblatt der Veterin´rmedizin 21B: 1421Google Scholar
Nauwinck, H. and Pensaert, M. (1988) Studies on the pathogenesis of infections with a nephropathogenic variant of infectious bronchitis virus in chickens. In: Proceedings of the II International Symposium on Infectious Bronchitis (Kaleta, E.E. and Heffels-Redmann, U., Eds), pp. 113119Google Scholar
Newton, L.G. and Simmons, G.S. (1963) Avian nephritis and uraemia. Australian Veterinary Journal 39: 135139Google Scholar
Niznik, R.A., Wideman, R.F., Cowen, B.S. and Kissel, R.E. (1985) Induction of urolithiasis in Single Comb White Leghorn pullets: effect of glomerular number. Poultry Science 64: 14301437Google Scholar
Owen, R.L., Cowen, B.S., Hattel, A.L., Naqi, S.A. and Wilson, R.A. (1991) Detection of viral antigen following exposure of one-day-old chickens to the Holland 52 strain of infectious bronchitis virus. Avian Pathology 20: 663673Google Scholar
Pensaert, M. and Lambrechts, C. (1994) Vaccination of chickens against a Belgian nephropathogenic strain of infectious bronchitis virus B1648 using attenuated homologous and heterologous strains. Avian Pathology 23: 631641Google Scholar
Picault, J.P., Duee, J.P., Gillet, J.P., Cook, J.K.A., Guittet, M., Bennejean, G. and Lamande, J. (1987). Etude d'un nouveau coronavirus néphropathogène (CR-84221) isolé chez des poulets et des poules dans le nord de la France. Recueil de Médecine Vétérinaire 163: 269276Google Scholar
Pohl, R. (1974) The histopathogenesis of nephrosis nephritis syndrome. Avian Pathology 3: 113Google Scholar
Purcell, D.A., Tham, V.L. and Surman, P.G. (1976) The histopathology of infectious bronchitis in fowls infected with a nephrotropic “T” strain of virus. Australian Veterinary Journal 52: 8591Google Scholar
Ridell, C. (1987) Avian Histopatholoyy. American Association of Avian Pathology, Kennet Square, PennsylvaniaGoogle Scholar
Rinaldi, A., Crespi, A., Cervio, G. and Mandelli, G. (1966) Isolamento di un ceppo nephropatogeno del virus della bronchite infettiva del pollo. Selezione Veterinaria 7: 284289Google Scholar
Shaw, K., Britton, P. and Cavanagh, D. (1996) Sequence of the spike protein of the Belgian B1648 isolate of nephropathogenic infectious bronchitis virus. Avian Pathology 25: 607611Google Scholar
Shimakura, S. and Hirai, K. (1971) Incidence of avian nephrosis in Japan with special reference to isolation and transmission test of infective agents. Japanese Journal of Veterinary Science 33: 199205Google Scholar
Siller, W.G. (1981) Renal pathology of the fowl: a review. Avian Pathology 10: 187262Google Scholar
Tanyi, J. and Sari, I. (1970) Occurrence in Hungary of virus induced nephritis of chickens. Magyar Allatorvosok Lapja 25: 545554Google Scholar
Wideman, R.F. Jr and Cowen, B.S. (1987). Effect of dietary acidification on kidney damage caused by excess calcium and infectious bronchitis virus. Poultry Sciences 66: 626633Google Scholar
Winterfield, R.W. and Albassam, M.A. (1984) Nephropathogenicity of infectious bronchitis virus. Poultry Sciertce 63: 23582363Google Scholar
Winterfield, R.W. and Hitchner, S.B. (1962) Aetiology of an infectious nephritis-nephrosis syndrome of chickens. American Journal of Veterinary Research 23: 12731278Google Scholar
Zanella, A. and Scolari, A. (1986) Bronchite infettiva aviare. Attenuazione e controlli di innocuita ed efficacia del cepo nefropatogeno AZ-23/74. Summa 3: 205208Google Scholar
Zhang, Q.J., Shen, Z.Y., Guan, P.Y., Li, P.A. and Li, R. (1995) Isolation and identification of nephrotropic avian infectious bronchitis virus. Chinese Journal of Veterinary Medicine 21: 89Google Scholar