Skip to main content

Availability, quality and utilisation of oil seed meals produced in the Middle East and North Africa regions

  • N.J. DAGHIR (a1) and M.R. MURTADA (a1)

The population of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region was 432 million in 2007 and it is estimated that in 2050 this figure will rise to 692 million inhabitants. The poultry industry in the MENA region depends heavily on imported soybeans and soybean meals. About 8.5 million metric tons of soybean meal (SBM) are needed for the production of poultry meat and eggs every year, based on the production of about 8.2 million tons of poultry meat and 3.7 million tons of eggs. Poultry feed prices are consistently increasing because of dependence on imported soybean meal. Hence, it is essential to find sustainable alternative protein sources. Several countries in the region produce sizeable amounts of oil seed meals that can partially or fully replace soybean meal in poultry rations. Nearly 5 million tons of cottonseed meal (CSM), peanut meal, sesame meal, sunflower meal and rapeseed meal are produced yearly in this region. The neighbouring countries of India, Pakistan and Sudan produce over 36 million tons of these meals. This study focused on these five meals in relation to amounts produced, quality and possible levels of use in various poultry rations. Data will be presented on availability, constraints of these meals as replacements for SBM, economic feasibility, and methods of improvement for possible utilisation at higher levels. Oil seed meal digestibility, quality, naturally occurring toxins, antimetabolites, mycotoxins, nutrient imbalances, and prices play a major role in determining the use of these meals for the production of poultry meat and eggs.

Corresponding author
Corresponding author:
Hide All

This paper was presented in part at the 5th Mediterranean Poultry Summit, October 20-25, 2016.

Hide All
ABDULRASHID, M., JOSEPH, Z.O., MOHAMMED, A. and ADAMU, H.Y. (2013) Response of broiler chickens fed cottonseed meal based diets. International Journal of Advanced Agriculture Research 1: 62-65.
AFTAB, U. (2009) Utilisation of alternative protein meals with or without multiple-enzyme supplementation in broilers fed low-energy diets , Journal of Applied Poultry Research 18: 292-296.
AHMED, A., ZULKIFLI, I., FARJAM, A.S., ABDULLAH, N. and LIANG, J.B. (2014) Extrusion enhances metabolisable energy and ileal amino acids digestibility of canola meal for broiler chickens. Italian Journal of Animal Science 13: 3032.
ALAGAWANY, M., FARAG, M.R., ABD EL-HACK, M.E. and DHAMA, K. (2015) The practical application of sunflower meal in poultry nutrition. Advances in Animal and Veterinary Sciences 3: 634-648.
ALI, S.A., ABDALLA, H.O. and ABASAID, M.A. (2011) Sunflower meal as an alternative protein source to groundnut meal in laying hens ration. Egyptian Journal of Poultry Science 31: 745-753.
ALJUOBORI, A., ZULKIFLI, I., SOLEIMANI, A.F., ABDULLAH, N., LIANG, J.B. and MUJAHID, A. (2016) Higher inclusion rate of canola meal under high ambient temperature for broiler chickens. Poultry Science 95: 1326-1331.
AMERAH, A.M., VAN DE BELT, K. and VAN DER KLIS, J.D. (2015) Effect of different levels of rapeseed meal and sunflower meal and enzyme combination on the performance, digesta viscosity and carcass traits of broiler chickens fed wheat-based diets. Animal 9: 1131-1137.
AN, B.K., JUNG, J.H., OH, S.T., KANG, C.W., LEE, K.W. and LEE, S.R. (2016) Effects of diets with graded levels of canola meal on the growth performance meat qualities, relative organ weights and blood characteristics of broiler chickens. Revista Brasileir de Ciencia Avicola 18: 351-356.
ARAÚJO, W.A.G., ALBINO, L.F.T., ROSTAGNO, H.S., PESSOA, G.B.S., CRUZ, S.C.S., LELIS, G.R., CARNEIRO, P.R.O. and VIEIRA, R.A. (2015) Sunflower meal and supplementation of an enzyme complex in layer diets. Revista Brasileir de Ciencia Avicola 17: 363-370.
BAHRAINI, Z., SALARI, S., SARI, M., FAYAZI, J. and BEHGAR, M. (2017) Effect of radiation on chemical composition and protein quality of cottonseed meal. Animal Science Journal 88: 1425-1435.
BAJJALIEH, N. (2004) Proteins from oilseeds. In FAO Animal Production and Health Proceedings (FAO). FAO.
BATAL, A., DALE, N. and CAFÉ, M. (2005) Nutrient composition of peanut meal. Journal of Applied Poultry Research 14: 254-257.
BATONON-ALAVO, D.I., FARUK, M.U., LESCOAT, P., WEBER, G.M. and BASTIANELLI, D. (2015) Inclusion of sorghum, millet and cottonseed meal in broiler diets: a meta-analysis of effects on performance. Animal 9: 1120-1130.
BRYDEN, W.L. and LI, X. (2003) Estimating amino acid availability from digestibility coefficients: application to poultry diets. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition 12: 13.
CHEVA-ISARAKUL, B. and TANGTAWEEWIPAT, S. (1993) Sesame meal as a SBM substitute in poultry diets: laying hens. AJAS 6: 253-258.
COSTA, E.F., MILLER, B.R., PESTI, G.M., BAKALLI, R.I. and EWING, H.P. (2001) Studies on feeding peanut meal as a protein source for broiler chickens. Poultry Science 80: 306-313.
DAGHIR, N.J. (2008) Feedstuffs used in hot regions in Poultry production in Hot Climates, Published by CAB International, pp. 160-196.
DAGHIR, N.J., ULLAH, M.F. and ROTTENSTEN, K. (1967) Lysine supplementation of sesame meal broiler rations. Tropical Agriculture, Trinidad and Tobago 44: 235-242.
DE MORAIS OLIVEIRA, V.R., DE ARRUDA, A.M.V., SILVA, L.N.S., DE SOUZA, J.B.F., DE QUEIROZ, J.P.A.F., DA SILVA MELO, A. and HOLANDA, J.S. (2016) Sunflower meal as a nutritional and economically viable substitute for soybean meal in diets for free-range laying hens. Animal Feed Science and Technology 220:103-108.
DE VRIES, S., PUSTJENS, A.M., KABEL, M.A., KWAKKEL, R.P. and GERRITS, W.J.J. (2014) Effects of processing technologies and pectolytic enzymes on degradability of nonstarch polysaccharides from rapeseed meal in broilers. Poultry science 93: 589-598.
DHAKAL, H.R., SAH, R., KARKI, D.N., YADAV, J.L. and TIWARI, M.R. (2015) Replacement effects of soybean meal with different levels of sunflower meal with or without enzyme on performance of Cobb-500 broilers. Nepalese Journal of Agricultural Sciences 13: 29-37.
DIARRA, S.S. and USMAN, B.A. (2008) Performance of laying hens fed graded levels of soaked sesame (Sesamum indicum) seed meal as a source of methionine. International Journal of Poultry Science 7: 323-327.
FAO (2014) FAOSTAT database collections. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome. Access date: 2016-03-20. Url:
FARRAN, M.T., UWAYJAN, M.G., MISKI, A.M.A., AKHDAR, N.M. and ASHKARIAN, V.M. (2000) Performance of broilers and layers fed graded levels of sesame hull. The Journal of Applied Poultry Research 9: 453-459.
GAMBOA, D.A., CALHOUN, M.C., KUHLMANN, S.W., HAQ, A.U. and BAILEY, C.A. (2001) Use of expander cottonseed meal in broiler diets formulated on a digestible amino acid basis. Poultry Science 80: 789-794.
GOPINGER, E., XAVIER, E.G., ELIAS, M.C., CATALAN, A.A.S., CASTRO, M.L.S., NUNES, A.P. and ROLL, V.F.B. (2014) The effect of different dietary levels of canola meal on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and gut morphology of broiler chickens. Poultry Science 93: 1130-1136.
GORSKI, M.F. (2015) Nutritional evaluation of canola meal produced from a new variety of canola seeds in broiler chickens and laying hens (Doctoral dissertation, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign).
HASHEMI, S.M. and BEIKI, M. (2014) The effect of canola meal processing by heat, moisture and ammonium bicarbonate on metabolisable energy and nitrogen retention in broiler chicken. Journal of Animal and Poultry Sciences 3: 110-116.
JACOB, J. (2015) Feeding sesame meal to poultry. Available at:
KALMENDAL, R., ELWINGER, K., HOLM, L. and TAUSON, R. (2011) High-fibre sunflower cake affects small intestinal digestion and health in broiler chickens. British Poultry Science 52: 86-96.
KANA, J.R., GNONLONFIN, B.G.J., HARVEY, J., WAINAINA, J., WANJUKI, I., SKILTON, R.A. and TEGUIA, A. (2013) Assessment of aflatoxin contamination of maize, peanut meal and poultry feed mixtures from different agroecological zones in Cameroon. Toxins 5: 884-894.
KHAJALI, F. and SLOMINSKI, B.A. (2012) Factors that affect the nutritive value of canola meal for poultry. Poultry Science 91: 2564-2575.
HE, T., ZHANG, H.J., WANG, J., WU, S.G., YUE, H.Y. and QI, G.H. (2015) Application of low-gossypol cottonseed meal in laying hens’ diet. Poultry Science 94: 2456-2463.
LAUDADIO, V., CECI, E., LASTELLA, N.M.B. and TUFARELLI, V. (2014) Effect of feeding low-fiber fraction of air-classified sunflower (Helianthus annus L.) meal on laying hen productive performance and egg yolk cholesterol. Poultry Science 93: 2864-2869.
MAHMOUD, K.Z., OBEIDAT, B.S. and ISHMAIS, M.A. (2015) Roasted sesame hulls improve broiler performance without affecting carcass characteristics. Italian Journal of Animal Science 14: 3957.
MAMPUTU, M. and BUHR, R.J. (1995) Effect of substituting sesame meal for soybean meal on layer and broiler performance. Poultry science 74: 672-684.
MOGHADDAM, H.N., ARSHAMI, J. and IRANIAN, A.G. (2016) Nutritional value of sunflower meal. Oilseeds Focus 2: 18-21.
MUSHTAQ, T., SARWAR, M., AHMAD, G., NISA, M.U. and JAMIL, A. (2006) The influence of exogenous multienzyme preparation and graded levels of digestible lysine in sunflower meal-based diets on the performance of young broiler chicks two weeks posthatching. Poultry Science 85: 2180-2185.
MUSHTAQ, T., SARWAR, M., AHMAD, G., MIRZA, M.A., AHMAD, T., NOREEN, U., MUSHTAQ, M.M.H. and KAMRAN, Z. (2009) Influence of sunflower meal based diets supplemented with exogenous enzyme and digestible lysine on performance, digestibility and carcass response of broiler chickens. Animal Feed Science and Technology 149: 275-286.
MUTUCUMARANA, R.K., RAVINDRAN, V., RAVINDRAN, G. and COWIESON, A.J. (2014) Measurement of true ileal digestibility and total tract retention of phosphorus in corn and canola meal for broiler chickens. Poultry Science 93: 412-419.
NAGALAKSHMI, D., RAO, S.V.R., PANDA, A.K. and SASTRY, V.R. (2007) Cottonseed meal in poultry diets: a review. The Journal of Poultry Science 44: 119-134.
OECD/FAO (2016) Oilseeds and Oilseed Products, in OECD-FAO Agricultural Outlook 2 016-2025, OECD Publishing, Paris.
ONIMISI, P.A., KAHUWAI, C., MOSES, O. and OLADIPO, M.F. (2016) Utilisation of enzyme supplemented groundnut cake based diets by laying hens. Nigerian Journal of Animal Production 43: 185-191.
ONUNKWO, D.N., AGUSI, D.O. and OKORO, I.C. (2015) The effects of hydraulic extracted sesame seed cake on the performance and egg quality characteristics of laying hens. International journal of livestock Research 5: 38-46.
PESTI, G.M., BAKALLI, R.I., DRIVER, J.P., STERLING, K.G., HALL, L.E. and BELL, E.M. (2003) Comparison of peanut meal and soybean meal as protein supplements for laying hens. Poultry Science 82: 1274-1280.
PIENIAZEK, J., STIPANOVIC, R., PUCKHABER, L., WEDEGAERTNER, T., FARNELL, M., BYRD, J. and LEE, J. (2015) Pressed, dehulled cottonseed meal: Effect on growth performance in broiler diets and retention of gossypol in tissues. European Poultry Science 79: 1-9.
QI, M., SUN, L., GUO, J., LIU, J., DUAN, Y., WANG, X., ZENG, C., QI, D. and ZHANG, N. (2017) Abnormal characteristics of eggs laid by hens fed with high levels of cottonseed meal. The Journal of Applied Poultry Research 26: 122-129.
RAHIMIAN, Y., TABATABAIE, S.N., TOGHIANI, M., VALIOLLAHI, S.M.R., KHEIRI, F., RAFIEE, A. and MIRI, Y. (2014) Effect of use cumulative levels of sesame (Sesamum Indicum-L) meal with phytase enzyme on performance of broiler chicks. International Journal of Information, Business and Management 6: 10.
RAMA RAO, S.V., RAJU, M.V.L.N., PANDA, A.K., POONAM, N.S., SUNDER, G.S. and SHARMA, R.P. (2008) Utilisation of sesame (Sesamum indicum) seed meal in broiler chicken diets. British Poultry Science 49: 81-85.
SHARMA, M., GUPTA, S.K. and MONDAL, A.K. (2012) Production and trade of major world oil crops, in: GUPTA, S. (Ed.) Technological Innovations in Major World Oil Crops, Volume 1 (Springer, New York, NY).
SHI, S.R., LU, J., TONG, H.B., ZOU, J.M. and WANG, K.H. (2012) Effects of graded replacement of soybean meal by sunflower seed meal in laying hen diets on hen performance, egg quality, egg fatty acid composition, and cholesterol content. The Journal of Applied Poultry Research 21: 367-374.
SUN, H., TANG, J.W., FANG, C.L., YAO, X.H., WU, Y.F., WANG, X. and FENG, J. (2013a) Molecular analysis of intestinal bacterial microbiota of broiler chickens fed diets containing fermented cottonseed meal. Poultry Science 92: 392-401.
SUN, H., TANG, J.W., YAO, X.H., WU, Y.F., WANG, X. and FENG, J. (2013b) Effects of dietary inclusion of fermented cottonseed meal on growth, cecal microbial population, small intestinal morphology, and digestive enzyme activity of broilers. Tropical Animal Health and Production 45: 987-993.
ŚWIĄTKIEWICZ, S., ARCZEWSKA-WŁOSEK, A. and JÓZEFIAK, D. (2016) The use of cottonseed meal as a protein source for poultry: an updated review. World's Poultry Science Journal 72: 473-484.
TOGHYANI, M., GIRISH, C.K., WU, S.B., IJI, P.A. and SWICK, R.A. (2017) Effect of elevated dietary amino acid levels in high canola meal diets on productive traits and cecal microbiota population of broiler chickens in a pair-feeding study. Poultry Science 96: 1268-1279.
UN POPULATION DIVISION (2007) World Population Prospects: The 2006 Revision;, accessed April 10, 2016: table A2.
USDA (2017) Oilseeds: world market and trade. Available at:
UWAYJAN, M.G., AZAR, E.J. and DAGHIR, N.J. (1983) Sunflower seed in laying hen rations. Poultry Science 62: 1247-1253.
YUAN, C., SONG, H.H., ZHANG, X.Y., JIANG, Y.J., ZHANG, A.T., AZZAM, M.M. and ZOU, X.T. (2014) Effect of expanded cottonseed meal on laying performance, egg quality, concentrations of free gossypol in tissue, serum and egg of laying hens. Animal Science Journal 85: 549-554.
ZATARI, I.M. and SELL, J.L. (1990) Sunflower meal as a component of fat-supplemented diets for broiler chickens. Poultry Science 69: 1503-1507.
ZHANG, F. and ADEOLA, O. (2017) Energy values of canola meal, cottonseed meal, bakery meal, and peanut flour meal for broiler chickens determined using the regression method. Poultry Science 96: 397-404.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

World's Poultry Science Journal
  • ISSN: 0043-9339
  • EISSN: 1743-4777
  • URL: /core/journals/world-s-poultry-science-journal
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *



Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 5
Total number of PDF views: 36 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 306 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 8th December 2017 - 21st August 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.