Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa

Evaluation of the nitrogen content in poultry manure

  • K.H. Nahm (a1)
Abstract

Proper estimation of the nitrogen (N) content of poultry manure and proper manure handling are necessary to ensure that application rates minimize emissions from the manure and nitrate leaching into the cropland. Uric acid and undigested proteins are the two main N components in poultry manure that cause ammonia emissions and nitrate leaching in the ground water. The ammonia that is applied to cropland may be 50 to 90% of total N, depending upon the way the manure has been stored or treated. Ammonia and hydrogen sulphide contents have been proven to be useful alternative measures of odour reduction. The order of importance in influencing ammonia formation is : litter pH > temperature > moisture content. Total fixation of ammonia was achieved below pH 4 and temperatures down 10°C are necessary to have a negative effect on degradation and volatilisation. Adsorbants such as sawdust and straw enable the capture some of the readily available N and enable the microbial population to start immobilizing N. The organic fraction of poultry manure had a C/N ratio that varied from 1 to 27:1. Most of the N (approximately 60 – 70%) excreted in poultry manure is in the form of uric acid and urea. Total N, total Kjeldahl N (TKN), organic N, ammonium, nitrate and nitrite are significantly correlated with the amount of N mineralised as well as the fraction of organic N mineralised during incubation. Some useful equations are: Inorganic N (IN) = ammonium + nitrate + nitrite; Total N (TN) = TKN + nitrate + nitrite; Organic N = TKN – ammonium or TN – (ammonium + uric acid) or TN – IN; Available N (AN) = Inorganic N + 0.4 × organic N; Predicted available N (PAN) = 80% Inorganic N + 60% Organic N.

Copyright
References
Hide All
Alexander M. (1977) Nitrification. In: Introduction to Soil Microbiology (2nd Edition). John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, NY, USA. pp 225250.
Baidoo S.K. (2000) Environmental impacts of swine, poultry nutrition discussed. Feedstuffs (06 26): 1215.
Barbarika A., Sikora L.J. and Colacicco D. (1985) Factors affecting the mineralization of nitrogen in sewage sludge applied to soils. Soil Science Society of America Journal 49: 14031406.
Beck J., Kack M., Hentschel A., Csehi K. and Jungbluth T. (1997) Ammonia emissions from composting animal wastes in reactors and windows. In: Voermans J.A.M., Monteny G.J. (Eds.), Ammonia and Odour Emission from Animal Production Facilities, International Conference Proceedings. Vinkeloord, The Netherlands: Dutch Society of Agricultural Engineering. pp 381388
Bitzer C.C. and Sims J.T. (1988) Estimating the availability of nitrogen in poultry manure through laboratory and field studies. Journal of Environmental Quality 17: 4754.
Bremmer J.M. (1965) Inorganic forms of nitrogen. In: Methods of soil Analysis. (Black C.A. et al. Eds.), Agronomy No. 9, Part 2. Madison, Wisconsin, USA. pp 11791237.
Burnett W.E. and Dondero N.C. (1969) Microbiological and chemical changes in poultry manure associated with decomposition and odour generation. In: Proceedings of Cornell University Conference of Agriculture Waste Management,Rochester, NY, USA. pp 271–274.
Canh T.T., Aarnink A.J.A., Verstegen M.W.A. and Schrama J.W. (1998) Influence of dietary Factors on the pH and ammonia emission of slurry from growing-finishing pigs. Journal of Animal Science 76: 11231130.
Castellanos J.Z. and Pratt P.F. (1981) Mineralization of manure nitrogen-correlation with laboratory indexes. Soil Science Society of America Journal 45: 354357.
Chadwick D.R., John F., Pain B.F., Chambers B.J. and Williams J. (2000) Plant uptake of nitrogen from the organic nitrogen fraction of animal manures: a laboratory experiment. Journal of Agricultural Science 134: 159168.
De Bertolde M., Vallini G. and Pera A. (1983) The biology of composting: a review. Waste Management & Research 1: 157176.
Derikx P.J.L., Willers H.C. and Ten Have P.J.W. (1994) Effects of pH on the behaviour of volatile compounds in organic manures during dry-matter determination. Bioresource Technology 49: 4145.
De Silva A.P. and Breitenbeck G.A. (1997) Nitrogen enrichment of organic wastes by ammoniation. Journal of Environmental Quality 26: 688694.
Douglas B.F. and Magdoff F.R. (1991) An evaluation of nitrogen mineralization indices for organic residues. Journal of Environmental Quality 20: 368372.
Elliot H.A. and Collins N.E. (1982) Factors affecting ammonia release in broiler houses. Transaction of the ASAE 25: 413424.
Ernst J.W. and Massey H.F. (1960) The effect of several factors on volatilization of ammonia formed from urea in the soil. Soil Science Society of America Proceedings 24: 8790.
Featherson W.R. and Scholz R.W. (1968) Changes in liver xanthine dehydrogenate and uric acid excretion in chicks during adaptation to a high protein diet Journal of Nutrition 95: 393398.
Floate M.S. (1970) Decomposition of organic materials from hill soils and pastures. II. Comparative studies on carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus from plant materials and sheep feces. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 2: 173185.
Fontenot J.P., Smith L.W. and Sutton A.L. (1983) Alternative utilization of animal wastes. Journal of Animal Science 57 (Suppl. 2): 221223.
Gale P.M. and Gilmour J.T. (1986) Carbon and nitrogen mineralization kinetics for poultry litter. Journal of Environmental Quality 15(4): 423426.
Gale P.M., Phillips J.M., May M.L. and Wolf D.C. (1991) Effect of drying on the plant nutrient content of hen manure. Journal of Productive Agriculture 4: 246250.
Giddens J. and Rao A.M. (1975) Effect of incubation and contact with soil on microbial and nitrogen changes in poultry manure. Journal of Environmental Quality 4: 295–278.
Gilmour J.T., Clark M.D. and Sigua G.C. (1985) Estimating net N mineralization from CO2 evolution for sewage sludge and plant tissues. Soil Science Society of American Journal 49: 13981402.
Groot Koerkamp P.W.G. (1994) Review on emissions of ammonia from housing systems for laying hens in relation to sources, processes, building design and manure handling. Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research 59: 7387.
Groot Koerkamp P.W.G., Verdoes N., Monteny G.J. and De Haan T. (1990) Towards Housing System with Low Ammonia Emission: Sources and Processes. Stuurgroep Emissiearme Huisvestingssystemen, DLO, Wageningen, The Netherlands. p 83.
Gordilla R.M. and Cabrera M.L. (1997) Mineralizable nitrogen in broiler litter: I. Effect of selected litter chemical characteristics. Journal of Environmental Quality 26: 16721679.
Groenestein C.M. and Van Ouwerkerk E.N.J. (1990) Model for calculating the energy balance in laying hens (KIP). Report 227. IMAG, Wageningen, The Netherlands. p 36.
Hadas A., Bar-Yosef B., Davidov S. and Sofer M. (1983) Effect of pelleting, temperature, and soil types on mineral nitrogen release from poultry and dairy manures. Soil Science Journal of America Journal 47: 11291133.
Hamilton D.W. and Arogo J. (1999) Understanding farmstead odors: An annotated review. The Professional Animal Scientist 15: 203210.
Hattori H. and Mukai S. (1986) Decomposition of sewage sludges in soil as affected by their organic matter composition. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition 32: 421432.
Herron G.M. and Erhart A.B. (1965) Value of manure on an irrigated calcareous soil. Soil Science Society of American Proceeding 29: 278281.
Husted S., Jensen L.S. and Jorgensen S.S. (1991) Reducing ammonia loss from cattle slurry by the use of acidifying additives: the role of the buffer system. Journal of Science and Food Agriculture 57: 335349.
Jeong K.H., Kim T.I., Choi K.C., Han J.D. and Kim W.H. (1997) Changes of compost properties during aerobic composting of poultry manure. Korean Journal of Animal Science 39(6): 731738.
Jungbluth T., Hartung E. and Brose G. (2001) Greenhouse gas emissions from animal houses and manure stores. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 60: 133145.
Kirchmann H. (1985) Losses, plant uptake and utilization of manure nitrogen during a production cycle. Acta Agriculture Scandinavia 24(Suppl.): 75.
Kirchmann H. and Witter E. (1989) Ammonia volatilization during aerobic and anaerobic manure decomposition. Plant and Soil 115: 3541.
Kithome M., Paul J.W. and Bomke A.A. (1999) Reducing nitrogen losses during simulated composting of poultry manure using adsorbents or chemical amendments. Journal of Environmental Quality 28: 194201.
Knezek B.D. and Miller R.H. (1976) Application of sludges and wastewater on agricultural land. Research Bulletin 1090. Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, Wooster, OH, USA. pp 1.11.2.
Levi-Minzi R., Riffaldi R. and Saviozzi A. (1990) Carbon mineralization soil amended with different organic materials. Agriculture, Ecosystem and Environment 31: 325335.
Liebhardt W.C., Golt C. and Tupin J. (1979) Nitrate and ammonium concentrations of ground water resulting from poultry manure applications. Journal of Environmental Quality 8: 211215.
Lupway N.Z. and Haque I. (1998) Mineralization of N, P, K, Ca and Mg from sesbania and leucaena leaves varying in chemical compositions. Soil and Biological Biochemistry 30: 337343.
Maeda T. and Matsuda J. (1997) Ammonia emissions from composting livestock manure. In Voermans J.A.M. and Montency G.J. (Eds.), Ammonia and Odour Emmission from Animal Production Facilities, International Conference Proceedings. Vinkeloord, The Netherlands: Dutch Society of Agricultural Engineering. pp 145153.
Macmillan K., Scott T.W. and Bateman T.W. (1972) A study of corn response and soil nitrogen transformations upon application of different rates and sources of chicken manure. In: Proceeding Cornell Agricultural Waste Management Conference,Rochester, N.Y., USA. pp 481–494.
Mary B. and Recous S. (1994) Measurement of nitrogen mineralization and immobilization fluxes in soil as a means of predicting net mineralization. European Journal of Agriculture 3: 110.
Mathers A.C. and Goss D.W. (1979) Estimating animal waste applications to supply crop nitrogen requirements. Soil Science of Society of American Proceedings 43: 364366.
Miller F.C. (1989) Matrix water potential as an ecological determinant in compost, a substrate dense system. Microbial Ecology 18: 5971.
Miner J.R., Humenik F.J. and Overcash M.R. (2000) Managing Livestock Wastes to Preserve Environmental Quality. 2000 Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa 50014, U.S.A.
Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (1986) The Analysis of Agricultural Materials, MAFF Reference Book 427. 3rd Edition. London: HM60, UK.
Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (1994) Fertilizer Recommendations. MAFF Reference Book 209. 6th Edition, MHSA, London, UK.
Moran E.T. Jr. (1994) Significance of dietary crude protein to broiler carcass quality. In: Proceeding Maryland Nutrition Conference for Feed Manufacturers.University of Maryland, College Park,MD, USA. pp 1–11.
Moran E.T. Jr. and Bushong R.D. (1992) Effects of reducing dietary crude protein to relieve litter nitrogen on broiler performance and processing yields. 19th World Poultry Science Meetings. Amsterdam, The Netherlands. III: 466470.
Mueller T., Jensen L.S., Nielsen N.E. and Magid J. (1998) Turnover of carbon and nitrogen in a sandy loan soil following incorporation of chopped maize plants, barley straw and blue grass in the field. Soil and Biological Biochemistry 30: 561571.
Nahm K.H. (2001a) Causes of nitrogen loss during animal manure analysis. Korean Journal of Poultry Science 27: 319336.
Nahm K.H. (2001b) Evaluation the nitrogen content in animal manure with conventional Kjeldahl methods. Institute of Science and Technology 8(1): 4152. Taegu University.
Nahm K.H. (2002) Efficient feed nutrient utilization to reduce pollutants in poultry and swine manure. Critical Review in Environmental Science and Technology 32(1): 116.
Nommik H. (1970) Non-exchangeable binding of ammonium and amino nitrogen by Norway spruce raw humus. Plant Soil 33: 581595.
Nyborg M. ( 1969) Fixation of gaseous ammonia by soils. Soil Science 107: 131136.
Painter H.A. (1977) Microbial transformation of inorganic nitrogen. Progress in Water Technology 8: 329.
Pratt R.F., Broadbent F.E. and Martin J.P. (1973) Using organic wastes as nitrogen fertilizers. California Agriculture 27(6): 1013.
Reddy K.R., Khaleel R. and Overcash M.R. (1980) Nitrogen, phosphorus and carbon transformations in a coastal plain soil treated with animal manures. Agricultural Wastes 2: 225238.
Reinertsen S.A., Elliott L.F., Cochran V.L. and Campbell G.S. (1999) Role of available carbon and nitrogen in determining the rate of wheat straw decomposition. Soil and Biological Biochemistry 16: 459464.
Reynolds C.M. and Wolf D.C. (1987) Effect of soil moisture and air relative humidity on ammonia volatilization from surface-applied urea. Soil Science 143: 144152.
Ronf M.A. and Lomprey R.F. Jr. (1968) Degradation of uric acid by certain aerobic bacteria. Journal of Bacteriology 96: 617622.
Saviozzi A., Levi-Minzi R. and Riffaldi R. (1993) Mineralization parameters from organic materials added to soil as a function of their chemical composition. Bioresource Technology 45: 131135.
Schefferle H.E. (1965) The decomposition of uric acid in buildup poultry litter. Journal of Applied Bacteriology 28: 412420.
Serna M.D. and Fomares F. (1991) Comparison of biological and chemical methods to predict nitrogen mineralization in animal wastes. Biological and Fertilized Soils 12: 8994.
Shuler M.L., Roberts E.D., Mitchell D.W. and Kargi F. (1979) Process for the aerobic conversion of poultry manure into high-protein feedstuffs. Biotechnology and Bioengineering 21: 1938.
Siegel R.S., Hafez A.A.R. and Stout P.R. (1975) Management procedures for effective Fertilization with poultry manure. Compost Science 16: 59.
Sims J.T. (1986) Nitrogen transformations in a poultry manure amendable soil: Temperature and moisture effects. Journal of Environmental Quality 15: 5963.
Sims J.T. (1987) Agronomic evaluation of poultry manure as a nitrogen source for conventional and no-tillage corn. Agronomy Journal 79: 563570.
SIMS J.T. and Wolf D.C. (1994) Broiler waste management: agricultural and environmental issues. Advanced Agronomy 52: 183.
Subair S., Fyles J.W. and O'Halloran I.R. (1999) Ammonia volatilization from liquid hog manure amended with paper products in the laboratory. Journal of Environmental Quality 28: 202207.
Summers J.D. (1993) Reducing nitrogen excretion of the laying hen by feeding lower crude protein diets. Poultry Science 72: 14731478.
Thomsen I.K. and Kjellerup V. (1997) Yields and N uptake of barley and ryegrass from soils with added animal manure differing in straw and urine content. European Journal of Agronomy 7: 285292.
Turnbull P.C.B. and Snoeyenbos G.H. (1973) The role of ammonia, water activity and pH in the salmonellacidal effects of long-used poultry litter. Avian digest 17: 7286.
Tyson S.C. and Cabrera M.L. (1993) Nitrogen mineralization in soils amended with composted and uncomposted poultry litters. Communication Soil Science and Plant Analysis 24 (17&18): 23612374.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (1976) Quality criteria for water. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, USA.
Valentine H. (1964) A study of the effect of different ventilation rates on the ammonia concentrations in the atmosphere of broiler houses. British Poultry Science 5: 149159.
Van Kessel J.S., Reeves J.B. III, and Meisinger J.J. (2000) Nitrogen and carbon mineralization of potential manure components. Journal of Environmental Quality 29: 16691677.
Vogels G.D. and Van Der Drift C. (1976) Degradation of purines and pyrimidines by microorganisms. Bacteriological Reviews 40: 403468.
Wallingford G.W., Powers W.L. and Murphy L.S. (1975) Present knowledge on the effects of land application of animal waste. In: Managing Livestock Wastes. Proceeding 3rd International Symposium Livestock Wastes,Urbana-Champaign, IL, USA. April 21–24. pp 580–582, 586.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

World's Poultry Science Journal
  • ISSN: 0043-9339
  • EISSN: 1743-4777
  • URL: /core/journals/world-s-poultry-science-journal
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 61 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 1083 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 22nd October 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.