Skip to main content Accessibility help

Impact of osmoregulatory and methyl donor functions of betaine on intestinal health and performance in poultry

  • B.U. METZLER-ZEBELI (a1) (a2), M. EKLUND (a1) and R. MOSENTHIN (a1)


The present review focuses on potential nutritional and physiological functions of betaine in relation to health, performance and carcass characteristics in poultry. Due to its zwitterionic structure, betaine has osmoprotective properties that aid in protecting intestinal cells and thus counteracting performance losses during heat stress and coccidiosis. Hence, betaine might be an appropriate agent in the prevention of heat stress in livestock. In addition, during coccidiosis, the efficacy of betaine appears to be related to the Eimeria species, type of coccidiostat used and the severity of infection. As this compound has methyl donor properties, betaine is involved in methylation reactions in the organism and may therefore partly substitute other methyl group donors such as methionine and choline. Due to its methyl donor and osmoprotectant functions, recent research has shown that betaine improves nutrient digestibility, growth performance and feed conversion in broiler chicks, turkeys and meat ducks. Other potential benefits of the inclusion of betaine in poultry diets are lowering carcass fat content and increasing breast meat yield which may be of interest to satisfy consumer needs.


Corresponding author

Corresponding author:


Hide All
ABEL, H., LIBAL, R. and ICKING, H. (1986) Untersuchungen zum Einfluss von Cholin und Betain bei unterschiedlichem Methioningehalt des Legehennenfutters auf Parameter der Legeleistung und Futterverwertung. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition 56: 59-65.
ALLEN, P.C. and FETTERER, R.H. (2000) Interaction of dietary vitamin E with Eimeria maxima infection in chickens. Poultry Science 81: 41-48.
ATTIA, Y.A., HASSAN, R.A., SHEHATTA, M.H. and ABD EL-HADY, S.B. (2005) Growth, carcass quality and serum constituents of slow growing chicks as affected by betaine addition to diets containing 2. Different levels of methionine. International Journal of Poultry Science 4: 856-865.
AUGUSTINE, P.C. and DANFORTH, H.D. (1999) Influence of betaine and salinomycin on intestinal absorption of methionine and glucose and on the ultrastructure of intestinal cells and parasite developmental stages in chicks infected with Eimeria acervulina. Avian Disease 43: 89-97.
AUGUSTINE, P.C., MCNAUGHTON, J.L., VIRTANEN, E. and ROSI, L. (1997) Effect of betaine on the growth performance of chicks inoculated with mixed cultures of avian Eimeria species and on invasion and development of Eimeria temella and Eimeria acervulina in vitro and in vivo. Poultry Science 76: 802-809.
BAKER, D.H. and SUGAHARA, M. (1970) Nutritional investigation of the metabolism of glycine and its precursors by chicks fed a crystalline amino acid diet. Poultry Science 49: 756-760.
BELAY, T. and TEETER, R.G. (1996) Effects of ambient temperature on broiler mineral balance partitioned into urinary and faecal loss. British Poultry Science 37: 423-433.
BELAY, T., WIERNUSZ, C.J. and TEETER, R.G. (1992) Mineral balance and urinary and fecal mineral excretion profile of broilers housed in thermoneutral and heat-distressed environments. Poultry Science 71: 1043-1047.
BONADONNA, R.C., COBELLI, C., SACCOMANI, M.P. and DE FRONZO, R.A. (1993) Effect of insulin on system A amino acid transport in human skeletal muscle. Journal of Clinical Investigation 91: 514-521.
BORGES, S.A., FISCHER DA SILVA, A.V., MAJORKA, A., HOOGE, D.M. and CUMMINGS, K.R. (2004) Physiological responses of broiler chickens to heat stress and dietary electrolyte balance (sodium plus potassium minus chloride, milliequivalents per kilogram). Poultry Science 83: 1551-1558.
BOTTJE, W.G. and HARRISON, P.C. (1985) Effect of carbonated water on growth performance of cockerels subjected to constant and cyclic heat stress temperatures. Poultry Science 64: 1285-1292.
CAMPBELL, R.G., MORLEY, W.C. and ZABARAS-KRICK, B. (1997) The effects of betaine on protein and energy metabolism in pigs, in: CRANWELL, P.D. (Ed.) Manipulating Pig Production VI – Conference Proceedings, (Werribee, Australia), pp. 243.
CAO, Z., CAI, H. and COON, C.N. (1995) Methionine and cystine requirements and metabolism for layers and broilers. 56th Minnesota Nutrition Conference – Conference Proceedings, Bloomington, USA, pp. 257-289.
CHAMBERS, S.T. and KUNIN, C.M. (1985) The osmoprotective properties of urine for bacteria: The protective effect of betaine in human urine against low pH and high concentrations of electrolytes, sugars, and urea. Journal of Infectious Diseases 152: 1308-1316.
CHIANG, P.K., CORDON, R.K., TAL, J., ZENG, G.C., DOCTOR, B.P., PARDHASARADHI, K. and MCCANN, P.P. (1996) S-adenosylmethionine and methylation. The FASEB Journal 10: 471-480.
COOPER, M.A. and WASHBURN, K.W. (1998) The relationship of body temperature to weight gain, feed consumption and feed utilization in broilers under heat stress. Poultry Science 77: 237-242.
CRONJÉ, P.B. (2005) Heat stress in livestock – the role of the gut in its aetiology and a potential role for betaine in its alleviation. Recent Advances in Animal Nutrition in Australia 15: 107-122.
CUSKELLY, G.J., STACPOOLE, P.W. WILLIAMSON, J., , BAUMGARTNER, T.G., GREGORY, and III, J.F. (2001) Deficiencies of folate and vitamin B6 exert distinct effects on homocysteine, serine, and methionine kinetics. American Journal of Physiology – Endocrinology and Metabolism 281: E1182-E1190.
DA COSTA, K.A., GARNER, S.C., CHANG, J. and ZEISEL, S.H. (1995) Effects of prolonged (1 year) choline deficiency and subsequent re-feeding of choline on 1,2-sn-diradylglycerol, fatty acids and protein kinase C in rat liver. Carcinogenesis 16: 327-334.
DE ANGELIS, E., PETRONINI, P.G., BORGHETTI, P., BORGHETTI, A.F. and WHEELER, K.P. (1999) Induction of betaine-γ-aminobutyric acid transport activity in porcine chondrocytes exposed to hypertonicity. Journal of Physiology 518: 187-194.
DEEB, N. and CAHANER, A. (2001) Genotype-by-environment interaction with broiler of high ambient temperature on dwarf versus normal broilers. Poultry Science 80: 541-548.
DE GALAN, B.E. and HOEKSTRA, J.B.L. (1995) Extremely elevated body temperature: case report and review of classical heat stroke. Netherlands Journal of Medicine 47: 281-287.
DIAMANT, S., ELIAHU, N., ROSENTHAL, D. and GOLOUBINOFF, P. (2001) Chemical chaperones regulate molecular chaperones in vitro and in cells under combined salt and heat stresses. Journal of Biological Chemistry 43: 39586-39591.
DILGER, R.N., GARROW, T.A. and BAKER D.H., (2007) Betaine can partially spare choline in chicks but only when added to diets containing a minimal level of choline. Journal of Nutrition 137: 2224-2228.
EKLUND, M., BAUER, E., WAMATU, J. and MOSENTHIN, R. (2005) Potential nutritional and physiological functions of betaine in livestock. Nutrition Research Reviews 18: 31-48.
EKLUND, M., MOSENTHIN, R., TAFAJ, M. and WAMATU, J. (2006a) Effects of betaine and condensed molasses solubles on nitrogen balance and nutrient digestibility in piglets fed diets deficient in methionine and low in compatible osmolytes. Archives of Animal Nutrition 60: 289-300.
EKLUND, M. MOSENTHIN, R., and PIEPHO, H.P. (2006b) Effects of betaine and condensed molasses solubles on ileal and total tract nutrient digestibilities in piglets. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica A 56: 83-90.
EMMERT, J.L., GARROW, T.A. and BAKER, D.H. (1996) Hepatic betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase activity in the chicken is influenced by dietary intake of sulphur amino acids, choline and betaine. Journal of Nutrition 126: 2050-2058.
ESTEVE-GARCIA, E. and MACK, S. (2000) The effect of DL-methionine and betaine on growth performance and carcass characteristics in broilers. Animal Feed Science and Technology 87: 85-93.
FAROOQI, H.A.G., KHAN, M.S., KHAN, M.A., RABBANI, M., PERVEZ, K. and KHAN, J.A. (2005) Evaluation of betaine and vitamin C in alleviation of heat stress in broilers. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology 5: 744-746.
FETTERER, R.H., AUGUSTINE, P.C., ALLEN, P.C. and BARFIELD, R.C. (2003) The effect of dietary betaine on intestinal and plasma levels of betaine in uninfected and coccidia-infected broiler chicks. Parasitology Research 90: 343-348.
FINKELSTEIN, J.D. (1974) Methionine metabolism in mammals: The biochemical basis for homocystinuria. Metabolism 23:387-398.
FINKELSTEIN, J.D. (1990) Methionine metabolism in mammals. Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 1: 228-237.
FINKELSTEIN, J.D. (1998) The metabolism of homocysteine: pathways and regulation. European Journal of Pediatrics 157(supplement 2): S40-S44.
FINKELSTEIN, J.D. and MARTIN, J.J. (1984) Methionine metabolism in mammals. Distribution of homocysteine between competing pathways. Journal of Biological Chemistry 259: 9508-9513.
FINKELSTEIN, J.D. and MUDD, S.H. (1967) Transsulfuration in mammals. The methionine sparing effect of cystine. Journal of Biological Chemistry 242: 873-880.
FINKELSTEIN, J.D., KYLE, W.E. and HARRIS, B.J. (1971) Methionine metabolism in mammals. Regulation of homocysteine methyltransferases in rat tissue. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 146: 84-92.
FINKELSTEIN, J.D., HARRIS, B.J., MARTIN, J.J. and KYLE, W.E. (1982) Regulation of hepatic betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase by dietary methionine. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 108: 344-348.
FINKELSTEIN, J.D., MARTIN, J.J. and HARRIS, B.J. (1988) Methionine metabolism in mammals. The methionine-sparing effect of cystine. Journal of Biological Chemistry 263: 11750-11754.
FIRMAN, J.D. and REMUS, J.C. (1999) Relationship between cystine and betaine in low methionine diets. Poultry Science 78(supplement 1): 135.
FLOROU-PANERI, P., KUFIDIS, D.C., VASSILOPULOS, V.N. and SPAIS A.V., (1997) Performance of broiler chicks fed on low choline and methionine diets supplemented with betaine. Epitheorese Zootehnikes Epistemes 24: 103-111.
FRONTIERA, M.S., STABLER, S.P., KOLHOUSE, J.F. and ALLEN, R.H. (1994) Regulation of methionine metabolism: Effects of nitrous oxide and excess dietary methionine. Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 5: 28-38.
GARCIA NETO, M., PESTI, G.M. and BAKALLI, R.I. (2000) Influence of dietary protein level on the broiler chicken's response to methionine and betaine supplements. Poultry Science 79: 1478-1484.
GIBBS, A. and SOMERO, G.N. (1990) Pressure adaption of teleost gill Na+/K+-adenosine triphosphatase: role of the lipid and protein moieties. Journal of Comparative Physiology B 160: 431-439.
GILLIS, M.B. and NORIS, L.C. (1951) The effect of vitamin B12 on the response of chicks to betaine and choline. Journal of Nutrition 43: 293-302.
GREGORY, J.F., III, , CUSKELLY, G.J., SHANE, B., TOTH, J.P., BAUMGARTNER, T.G. and STACPOOLE, P.W. (2000) Primed, constant infusion with [2H3]serine allows in vivo kinetic measurement of serine turnover, homocysteine remethylation, and transsulfuration processes in human one-carbon metabolism. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 72: 1535-1541.
HARMS, R.H. and RUSSELL, G.B. (2002) Betaine does not improve performance of laying hens when the diet contains adequate choline. Poultry Science 81: 99-101.
HASSAN, R.A., ATTIA, Y.A. and EL-GANZORY, E.H. (2005) Growth, carcass quality and serum constituents of slow growing chicks as affected by betaine addition to diets containing 1. Different levels of choline. International Journal of Poultry Science 4: 840-850.
HÄUSSINGER, D. (1996) The role of cellular hydration in the regulation of cell function. Biochemical Journal 313: 697-710.
HÄUSSINGER, D. (1998) Osmoregulation of liver cell function: signaling, osmolytes and cell heterogeneity. Contributions to Nephrology 123: 185-204.
HRUBY, M., OMBABI, A. and SCHLAGHECK, A. (2005) Natural betaine maintains layer performance in methionine/choline chloride reduced diets. 15th European Symposium on Poultry Nutrition – Conference Proceedings, Balatonfüred, Hungary, pp. 507-508.
HUTKINS, R.W., ELLEFSON, W.L. and KASHKET, E.R. (1987) Betaine transport imparts osmotolerance on a strain of Lactobacillus acidophilus. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 53: 2275-2281.
KEMPSON, S.A. (1998) Differential activation of system A and betaine/GABA transport in MDCL cell membranes by hypertonic stress. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1372: 117-123.
KETTLEWELL, P.J., MITCHELL, M.A. and MEEHAN, A. (1993) The distribution of thermal loads within poultry transport vehicles. Agricultural Engineer 48:26-30.
KETTUNEN, H., PEURANEN, S., TIIHONEN, K. and SAARINEN, M. (2001a) Intestinal uptake of betaine in vitro and the distribution of methyl groups from betaine, choline, and methionine in the body of broiler chicks. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 128A: 269-278.
KETTUNEN, H., PEURANEN, S. and TIIHONEN, K. (2001b) Betaine aids in the osmoregulation of duodenal epithelium of broiler chicks, and affects the movement of water across the small intestinal epithelium in vitro. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 129A: 595-603.
KETTUNEN, H. TIIHONEN, K., , PEURANEN, S., SAARINEN, M.T. and REMUS, J.C. (2001c) Dietary betaine accumulates in the liver and intestinal tissue and stabilizes the intestinal epithelial structure in healthy and coccidia-infected broiler chicks. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 130A: 759-769.
KIDD, M.T., FERKET, P.R. and GARLICH, J.D. (1997) Nutritional and osmoregulatory functions of betaine. World's Poultry Science Journal 53: 125-139.
KLASING, K.C., ADLER, K.L., REMUS, J.C. and CALVERT, C.C. (2002) Dietary betaine increases intraepithelial lymphocytes in the duodenum of coccidia-infected chicks and increased functional properties of phagocytes. Journal of Nutrition 132: 2274-2282.
KROENING, G.H. and POND, W.G. (1967) Methionine, choline and threonine interrelationships for growth and lipotropic action in the baby pig and rat. Journal of Animal Science 26: 352-357.
LARBIER, M. and LECLERCO, B. (1992) Nutrition and feeding of poultry. Nottingham University Press, Leicester, United Kingdom.
LOWRY, K.R., IZQUIERDO, Q.A. and BAKER, D.H. (1987) Efficacy of betaine relative to choline as a dietary methyl donor. Poultry Science 66: 135.
LU, J.J. and ZOU, X.T. (2006) Effects of adding betaine on laying performance and contents of serum yolk precursors VLDL and VTG in laying hen. Journal of Zheijang University Agriculture and Life Sciences 32: 287-291.
MADSEN, K.L, MEDDINGS, J.B. and FEDORAK, R.N. (1992) Basolateral membrane lipid dynamics alter Na-K ATPase activity in rabbit small intestine. Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 70: 1483-1490.
MASHALY, M.M., HENDRICKS, , III, G.L., KALAMA, M.A., GEHAD, A.E., ABBAS, A.O. and PATTERSON, P.H. (2004) Effect of heat stress on production parameters and immune responses of commercial laying hens. Poultry Science 83: 889-894.
MATTHEW, C.B., DUBOSE, D.A., SILS, I.V. and TARTARTINI, K.A. (2000) Hyperthermia–induced changes in vascular permeability of rats: a model system to examine therapeutic interventions. Journal of Thermal Biology 25: 381-386.
MATTHEWS, J.O., SOUTHERN, L.L. and PONTIF, J.E. (1995) Effect of betaine (Betafin-BCR) on growth and carcass characteristics of finishing pigs. Journal of Animal Science 73(supplement 1):195.
MATTHEWS, J.O., WARD, T.L. and SOUTHERN, L.L. (1997) Interactive effects of betaine and monensin in uninfected and Eimeria acervulina-infected chicks. Poultry Science 76: 1014-1019.
MCDEVITT, R.M., MACK, S. and WALLIS I.R., (2000) Can betaine partially replace or enhance the effect of methionine by improving broiler growth and carcase characteristics? British Poultry Science 41: 473-480.
MCKEE, S.R. and SAMS, A.R. (1997) The effect of seasonal heat stress on rigor development and the incidence of pale, exudative turkey meat. Poultry Science 76: 1616-1620.
MCKITTRIC, D.S. (1948) The interrelations of choline and glycine betaine in the growth of the chick. Archives of Biochemistry 18: 437-448.
MILES, R.D., RUIZ, N. and HARMS, R.H. (1987) The interrelationship between methionine, choline, and sulphate in broiler diets. Poultry Science 62: 495-498.
MOECKEL, G.W., SHADMAN, R., FOGEL, J.M. and SADRZADEH, S.M.H. (2002) Organic osmolytes betaine, sorbitol and inositol are potent inhibitors of erythrocyte membrane ATPases. Life Sciences 71: 2413-2424.
MOLITORIS, B.A. and BAKER, D.H. (1976) The choline requirement of broiler chicks during the seventh week of life. Poultry Science 55: 220-224.
MUDD, S.H., FINKELSTEIN, J.D., IRREVERRE, F. and LASTER, L. (1965) Transsulfuration in mammals: Microassays and tissue distributions of three enzymes of the pathway. Journal of Biological Chemistry 240: 4382-4392.
MUDD, S.H., LEVY, H. and MORROW III, G. (1970) Deranged B12 metabolism: Effects on sulfur amino acid metabolism. Biochemical Medicine 4: 193-214.
NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL (NRC), (1994) Nutrient Requirements of Poultry, 9th edition. National Academic Press, Washington, D.C., USA.
NOLL, S.L., STANGELAND, V., SPEERS, G., BRANNON, J. and KALBFLEISCH, J. (2002) Betaine and breast meat yield in turkeys. Proceedings of the Multi-State Poultry Nutrition and Feeding Conference, Indianapolis, IN, USA,
ODOM, T.W., HARRISON, P.C. and BOTTJE, W.G. (1986) Effects of thermal-induced respiratory alkalosis on blood ionized calcium levels in the domestic hen. Poultry Science 65:570-573.
PARK, J.H., PARK, S.Y. and RYU, K.S. (2005a) Effects of dietary betaine and energy levels on liver fats and cholesterol in laying hens. Korean Journal of Poultry Science 32: 149-156.
PARK, J.H., PARK, S.Y. and RYU, K.S. (2005b) Effects of dietary betaine and protein levels on performance, blood composition, abdominal fat and liver amino acid concentration in laying hens. Korean Journal of Poultry Science 32: 157-163.
PARK, J.H., KANG, C.W. and RYU, K.S. (2006) Effects of feeding betaine on performance and blood hormone in laying hens. Korean Journal of Poultry Science 33: 323-328.
PERROUD, B. and LE RUDULIER, D. (1985) Glycine transport in Escherichia coli: Osmotic modulation. Journal of Bacteriology 161: 393-401.
PESTI, G.M., HARPER, A.E. and SUNDE, M.L. (1980) Choline/methionine nutrition of starting broiler chicks. Three models for estimating the choline requirement with economic considerations. Poultry Science 59: 1073-1081.
PETRONINI, P.G., DE ANGELIS, E.M., BORGHETTI, P. and BORGHETTI, A.F. (1992) Modulation by betaine of cellular response to osmotic stress. Journal of Biochemistry 282: 69-73.
PETRONINI, P.G., DE ANGELIS, E.M., BORGHETTI, A.F. and WHEELER, K.P. (1994) Osmolytically inducible uptake of betaine via amino acid transport system A in SV-3T3 cells. Biochemical Journal 300: 45-50.
PILLAI, P.B., FANATICO, A.C., BEERS, K.W., BLAIR, M.E. and EMMERT, J.L. (2006a) Homocysteine remethylation in young broilers fed varying levels of methionine, choline, and betaine. Poultry Science 85: 90-95.
PILLAI, P.B., FANATICO, A.C., BLAIR, M.E. and EMMERT, J.L. (2006b) Homocysteine remethylation in broilers fed surfeit choline or betaine and varying levels of methionine from eight to twenty-two days of age. Poultry Science 85: 1729-1736.
PIROMPUD, P., ATTAMANGKUNE, S., BUNCHASAK, C. and PORMBBON, A. (2005) Effect of feeding betaine to broilers reared under tropical conditions on performance and carcass traits. 43rd Kadetsart University Annual Conference – Conference Proceedings, Thailand, p. 254.
REMUS, J. (2001) Betaine for increased breast meat yield. International Poultry Production 9: 22-23.
REMUS, J.C. and VIRTANEN, E. (1996) Use of liquid betaine in low methionine diets for broilers. Poultry Science 75(supplement 1): 35.
REMUS, J.C. and MCNAUGHTON, J. (2006) Effect of Betafin® and salinomycin on oocyst production of broilers exposed to either Eimeria acervulina or Eimeria tenella. Poultry Science 85(supplement 1): 107.
REMUS, J., VIRTANEN, E., ROSI, L. and MCNAUGHTON, J. (1995) Effect of betaine on nutrient utilization of 21-day-old broilers during coccidiosis. 10th European Symposium on Poultry Nutrition – Conference Proceedings, Antalya, Turkey, pp. 371-372.
REMUS, J.C., VIRTANEN, E., ROSI, L. and MCNAUGHTON, J. (1996) Effect of betaine on broiler performance and lesion score when combined with ionophore or chemical coccidiostats. World Poultry Congress volume IV – Conference proceedings, p. 336.
ROSTAGNO, H.S. and PACK, M. (1996) Can betaine replace supplemental DL-methionine in broiler diets? Journal of Applied Poultry Research 5: 150-154.
ROWLING, M.J., MCMULLEN, M.H., CHIPMAN, D.C. and SCHALINSKE, K.L. (2002) Hepatic glycine N-methyltransferase is up-regulated by excess dietary methionine in rats. Journal of Nutrition 132: 2545-2550.
ROZENBOIM, I., TAKO, E., GAL-GARBER, O., PROUDMAN, J.A. and UNI, Z. (2007) The effect of heat stress on ovarian function of laying hens. Poultry Science 86: 1760-1765.
RUFF, M.D. and ALLEN, P.C. (1990) Pathophysiology of coccidial infections, in: LONG, P.L. (Ed) Coccidiosis of Man and Domestic Animals, pp. 263-280 (CRC Press, Boca Raton, USA).
RYU, M.S., CHO, K.H., SHIN, W.J. and RYU, K.S. (2002) Influence of dietary supplemental betaine on performance and egg quality of laying hens during the heat stress. Korean Journal of Poultry Science 29: 117-123.
SAARINEN, M.T., KETTUNEN, H., PULLIAINEN, K., PEURANEN, S., TIIHONEN, K. and REMUS, J. (2001) A novel method to analyze betaine in chicken liver: effect of dietary betaine and choline supplementation on the hepatic betaine concentration in broiler chicks. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 49: 559-563.
SANDERCOCK, D.A., HUNTER, R.R., NUTE, G.R., MITCHELL, M.A. and HOCKING P.M., (2001) Acute heat stress-induced alterations in blood acid-base status and skeletal muscle membrane integrity in broiler chickens at two ages: implications for meat quality. Poultry Science 80: 418-425.
SAUNDERSON, C.L. and MACKINLAY, J. (1990) Changes in body-weight, composition and hepatic enzyme activities in response to dietary methionine, betaine and choline levels in growing chicks. British Journal of Nutrition 63: 339-349.
SCHRAMA, J.W., HEETKAMP, M.J.W., SIMMINS, P.H. and GERRITS, W.J.J. (2003) Dietary betaine supplementation affects energy metabolism of pigs. Journal of Animal Science 81: 1202-1209.
SCHUTTE, J.B., DE JONG, J., SMINK, W. and PACK, M. (1997) Replacement value of betaine for DL-methionine in male broiler chicks. Poultry Science 76: 321-325.
SHEIKH-HAMAD, D., GARCIA-PEREZ, A., FERRARIS, J.D., PETERS, E.M. and BURG, M.B. (1994) Induction of gene expression by heat shock versus osmotic stress. American Journal of Physiology 267: F28-F34.
SIMON, J. (1999) Choline, betaine and methionine interactions in chickens, pigs and fish (including crustaceans). World's Poultry Science Journal 55: 353-374.
STAR, L., KEMP, B., VAN DEN ANKER, I. and PARMENTIERI, H.K. (2008) Effect of single or combined climatic and hygienic stress in four layer lines: 1. Performance. Poultry Science 87: 1022-1030.
STEKOL, J.A., HSU, P.T., WEISS, S. and SMITH, P. (1953) Labile methyl group and its synthesis de novo in relation to growth in chicks. Journal of Biological Chemistry 203: 763-773.
STIPANUK, M.H. (2004) Sulfur amino acid metabolism: Pathways for production and removal of homocysteine and cysteine. Annual Review of Nutrition 24: 539-577.
STRYER, L. (1988) Biosynthesis of amino acids and heme, in: Biochemistry, 3rd ed, pp. 575-626 (W.H. Freeman and Company, New York).
SUTINEN, E., JYRKKIO, S., GRONROOS, T., HAAPARANTA, M. LEHIKOINEN, P., and NAGREN, K. (2001) Biodistribution of (11C)methylaminoisobutyric acid, a tracer for PET studies on system A amino acid transport in vivo. European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging 28: 847-854.
TERUI, S., ISHINO, S., MATSUDA, K., SHOJI, Y., AMBO, K. and TSUDA, T. (1980) Clinical hematological and pathological responses in severely heat–stressed steers with special reference to the threshold value for survival. National Institute of Animal Health Quarterly (Japan) 20: 138-147.
TEETER, R.G., SMITH, M.O., OWENS, F.N., ARP, S.C., SANGIAH, S. and BREAZILE, J.E. (1985) Chronic heat stress and respiratory alkalosis occurrence and treatment in broiler chicks. Poultry Science 64: 1060-1064.
TEETER, R.G. and BELAY, T. (1996) Broiler management during acute heat stress. Animal Feed Science and Technology 58: 127-142.
TIIHONEN, K., KETTUNEN, H., REMUS, J., SAARINEN, M. and VIRTANEN, E. (1997) Effects of dietary betaine on broiler chicks with or without mild coccidiosis challenge. Poultry Science 76(supplement 1): 18.
TSIAGBE, V.K., STRAUB, R.J., COOK, M.E., HARPER, A.E. and SUNDE, M.L. (1987) Formulating wet alfalfa juice protein concentrate diets for chicks. Poultry Science 66: 1023-1027.
TYLER, D.D. (1977) Transport and oxidation of choline by liver mitochondria. Biochemical Journal 166: 571-581.
VIRTANEN, E.I. and ROSI, L. (1995) Effects of betaine on methionine requirement of various environmental conditions. Australian Poultry Science Symposium – Conference Proceedings, Adelaide, Australia, pp. 88-92.
VIRTANEN, E.I. and RUMSEY, G. (1996) Betaine supplementation can optimize use of methionine, choline in diets. Feedstuffs 68: 12-13.
WALDENSTEDT, L., ELWINGER, K., THEBO, P. and UGGLA, A. (1999) Effect of betaine supplement on broiler performance during and experimental coccidial infection. Poultry Science 78: 182-189.
WALDROUP, P.W. and FRITTS, C.A. (2005) Evaluation of separate and combined effects of choline and betaine in diets for male broilers. International Journal of Poultry Science 4: 442-448.
WALDROUP, P.W., MOTL, M.A., YAN, F. and FRITTS, C.A. (2006) Effects of betaine and choline on response to methionine supplementation to broiler diets formulated to industry standards. Journal of Applied Poultry Research 15: 58-71.
WALLIS, I.R. (1999) Dietary supplements of methionine increase breast meat yield and decrease abdominal fat in growing broiler chickens. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 39: 131-141.
WANG, Y.Z. (2000) Effect of betaine on growth performance and carcass traits of meat ducks. Journal of Zheijang University Agricultural and Life Sciences 26: 347-352.
WANG, Y.Z., XU, Z.R. and CHEN, M.L. (2000) Effect of betaine on carcass fat metabolism of meat duck. Chinese Journal of Veterinary Science 20: 409-413.
WANG, Y.Z., XU, Z.R. and FENG, J. (2004) The effect of betaine and DL-methionine on growth performance and carcass characteristics in meat ducks. Animal Feed Science and Technology 116: 151-159.
WARISS, P.D., KESTIN, S.C., BROWN, S.N., KNOWLES, T.G., WILKINS, L.J., EDWARDS, J.E., AUSTIN, S.D. and NICOL, C.J. (1993) The depletion of glycogen stores and indices of dehydration in transported broilers. British Veterinary Journal 149: 391-398.
XU, Z.R. and ZHAN, X.A. (1998) Effects of betaine on methionine and adipose metabolism in broiler chicks. Acta Veterinaria Zootechnica Sinica 29: 212-219.
YALCIN, S., ERGUN, A. and COLPAN, I. (1992) The effects of betaine supplementation on egg production and egg quality in laying hen. Veteriner Fakultesi Dergisi, Universitesi Ankara 39: 325-335.
YAMAMOTO, N., TANAKA, T. and NOGUCHI, T. (1995) Effect of cysteine on expression of cystathionine β-synthase in the rat liver. Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology 41: 197-205.
YAO, Z. and VANCE, D.E. (1990) Head group specificity in the requirement of phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis for very low density lipoprotein secretion from cultured hepatocytes. Biological Chemistry 264: 11373-11380.
ZHAN, X.A., LI, J.X., XU, Z.R. and ZHAO, R.Q. (2006) Effects of methionine and betaine supplementation on growth performance, carcase composition and metabolism of lipids in male broilers. British Poultry Science 47: 576-580.
ZOU, X.T. and FENG, J. (2002) Effect of betaine on performance of laying hens. Chinese Journal of Animal Science 38: 7-9.
ZOU, X.T. and LU, J.J. (2002) Effects of betaine on the regulation on the lipid metabolism in laying hen. Agricultural Sciences in China 1: 1043-1049.
ZOU, X.T., MA, Y.L. and XU, Z.R. (1998) Effects of betaine and thyroprotein on laying performance and approach to mechanism of the effects in hens. Acta Agriculturae Zheijangensis 10: 144-149.
ZULKIFLI, I., MYSAHRA, S.A. and JIN, L.Z. (2004) Dietary supplementation of betaine (BetafinReg.) and response to high temperature stress in male broiler chickens. Asian-Australian Journal of Animal Science 17: 244-249.



Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed