AGBEDE, T.M. and OJENIYI, S.O. (2009) Tillage and poultry manure effects on soil fertility and sorghum yield in southwestern Nigeria. Soil and Tillage Research 104: 74-81.
ALAM, M.S., KHAN, M.J., AKBER, M.A. and KAMRUZZAMAN, M. (2008) Broiler litter and layer manure in the diet of growing bull calves. Bangladesh Veterinarian 25: 62-67.
ATIDÉGLA, S.C., HUAT, J., AGBOSSOU, E.K., SAINT-MACARY, H. and KAKAI, R.G. (2016) Vegetable contamination by the fecal bacteria of poultry manure: case study of gardening sites in Southern Benin. International Journal of Food Science 2016: 4767453.
BAGGOTT, S.L., CARDENAS, L., GARNETT, E., HOBSON, M., JACKSON, J., MOBBS, D.C., MURRELLS, T., PASSANT, N., THOMSON, A. and WATTERSON, J.D. (2007) UK Greenhouse Gas Inventory, 1990-2005: Annual Report for submission under the Framework Convention on Climate Change. AEA Technology plc, Didcot, UK, April 2007.
BARNHART, B., BOSTIAN, M., FARE, R., GROSSKOPF, S., WHITTAKER, G., SINHA, E., MICHALAK, A. and PAPENFUS, M. (2016) Agricultural production and nutrient runoff in the Corn Belt: Assessing dynamic environmental performance. North American Productivity Workshop IX, Quebec City, CANADA, June 15 - 18, 2016.
BHATTACHARYA, A.N. and FONTENOT, J.P. (1965) Utilization of different levels of poultry litter nitrogen by sheep. Journal of Animal Science 24: 1174-1178.
BITZER, C.C. and SIMS, J.T. (1988) Estimating the availability of nitrogen in poultry manure through laboratory and field studies. Journal of Environmental Quality 17: 47-54.
BLAIR, R. and HERRON, K.M. (1982) Growth performance of broilers fed on diets containing processed poultry wastes. British Poultry Science 23: 279-287.
BOLAN, N.S., SZOGI, A.A., CHUASAVATHI, T., SESHADRI, B., ROTHROCK, M.J. (Jr) and PANNEERELVAM, P. (2010) Uses and management of poultry litter. World's Poultry Science Journal 66: 673-698.
BOLHAR-NORDENKAMP, M., GARTNAR, F., TSCHANUN, I. and KAISER, S. (2009) Combustion of poultry litter in bubbling fluidised beds - results from a new 120 MWth unit. Proceedings of 17th European Biomass Conference & Exhibition, 1-9.
BOND, T. and TEMPLETON, M.R. (2011) History and future of domestic biogas plants in the developing world. Energy for Sustainable Development 15: 347-354.
BOUWMAN, A.F., LEE, D.S., ASMAN, W.A.H., DENTENER, F.J., VAN DER HOEK, K.W. and OLIVIER, J.G.J. (1997) A global high‐resolution emission inventory for ammonia, Global Biogeochemical Cycles 11: 561-587.
CHAMBLEE, T.N. and TODD, R.L. (2002) Mississippi broiler litter: fertilizer value and quantity produced. Research report 23. Mississippi Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station, Mississippi State, MS.
CHASTAIN, J.P., COLOMA-DEL VALLE, A. and MOORE, K.P. (2012) Using broiler litter as an energy source: energy content and ash composition. Applied Engineering in Agriculture 28: 513-522.
CHEN, Z. and JIANG, X. (2014) Microbiological safety of chicken litter or chicken litter-based organic fertilizers: a review. Agriculture 4: 1-29.
CHISLOCK, M.F., DOSTER, E., ZITOMER, R.A. and WILSON, A.E. (2013) Eutrophication: Causes, Consequences, and Controls in Aquatic Ecosystems. Nature Education Knowledge 4: 10.
COUFAL, C.D., CHAVEZ, C., NIEMEYER, P.R. and CAREY, J.B. (2006a) Nitrogen emissions from broilers measured by mass balance over eighteen consecutive flocks. Poultry Science 85: 384-391.
COUFAL, C.D., CHAVEZ, C., NIEMEYER, P.R. and CAREY, J.B. (2006b) Measurement of broiler litter production rates and nutrient content using recycled litter. Poultry Science 85: 398-403.
COUFAL, C., HARMEL, D. and GENTRY, T. (2014) In-House Windrow Composting of Poultry Litter. Texas A & M Agrilife Extension, EPS-005.
CRESSMAN, M.D., YU, Z., NELSON, M.C., MOELLER, S.J., LILBURN, M.S. and ZERBY, H.N. (2010) Interrelations between the microbiotas in the litter and in the intestines of commercial broiler chickens. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 76: 6572-6582.
DAFWANG, I.I., COOK, M.E., PRINGLE, D.J. and SUNDE, M.L. (1986) Nutritional value of aerobically fermented poultry manure and offal (Fermway) for broiler chicks. Poultry Science 65: 1765-1770.
DAGNALL, S.P. (1993) Poultry litter as a fuel. World's Poultry Science Journal 49: 175-177.
DANIEL, J. and OLSON, K.C. (2005) Feeding poultry litter to beef cattle. University of Missouri Extension G2077.
DÁVALOS, J.Z., ROUX, M.V. and JIMÉNEZ, P. (2002) Evaluation of poultry litter as a feasible fuel. Thermochimica Acta 394: 261-266.
DAVIDSON, E.A. (2009) The contribution of manure and fertilizer nitrogen to atmospheric nitrous oxide since 1860. Nature Geosciences 2: 659-662.
DE CARVALHO, F.B., STRINGHINI, J.H., MATOS, M.S., FILHO, R.M.J., CAFÉ, M.B., LEANDRO, N.S.M. and ANDRADE, M.A. (2012) Performance and nitrogen balance of laying hens fed increasing levels of digestible lysine and arginine Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia 41: 2183-2188.
DIAZ, R.J. and ROSENBERG, R. (2008) Spreading dead zones and consequences for marine ecosystems. Science 321: 926-929.
DIMACHE, A., O'CONNER, J. and KEARNEY, D. (2013) Environmental analysis of the use of poultry manure as fuel for combustion on broiler farms: a case study. https://ec.europa.eu/environment/eco-innovation/projects/sites/eco-innovation-projects/files/projects/documents/af_-_supper.pdf. Accessed 10.12.18.
DUMAS, M.D., POLSON, S.W., RITTER, D., RAVEL, J., GELB, J. (Jr), MORGAN, R. and WOMMACK, K.E. (2011) Impacts of poultry house environment on poultry litter bacterial community composition. PLoS One 6: e24785.
FERGUSON, N.S., GATES, R.S., TARABA, J.L., CANTOR, A.H., PESCATORE, A.J., STRAW, M.L., FORD, M.J. and BURNHAM, D.J. (1998) The effect of dietary protein and phosphorus on ammonia concentration and litter composition in broilers. Poultry Science 77: 1085-1093.
FOWLER, D., PITCAIRN, C.E.R., SUTTON, M.A., FLECHARD, C., LOUBET, B., COYLE, M. and MUNRO, R.C. (1998) The mass budget of atmospheric ammonia in woodland within 1 km of livestock buildings. Environmental Pollution 102 (S1): 343-348.
GHALY, A.E. and MACDONALD, K.N. (2012) Drying of poultry manure for use as animal feed. American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Science 7: 239-254.
GOOD, A.G. and BEATTY, P.H. (2011) Fertilizing nature: a tragedy of excess in the commons. PLoS Biology 9: e1001124.
HE, Z., HONEYCUTT, C.W., TAZISONG, I.A., SENWO, Z.N. and ZHANG, D. (2009) Nitrogen and phosphorus accumulation in pasture soil from repeated poultry litter application. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 40: 587-598.
IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) (2007) IPCC Fourth Assessment Report: Climate Change 2007. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
JAYATHILAKAN, K., SULTANA, K., RADHAKRISHNA, K. and BAWA, A.S. (2012) Utilization of byproducts and waste materials from meat, poultry and fish processing industries: a review. Journal of Food Science and Technology 49: 278-293.
KELLEHER, B.P., LEAHY, J.J., HENIHAN, A.M., O'DWYER, T.F., SUTTON, D. and LEAHY, M.J. (2002) Advances in poultry litter disposal technology. Bioresource Technology 83: 27-36.
KIM, S.C., KIM, J.H., KIM, C.H., LEE, J.C. and KO, Y.D. (2000) Effects of whole crop corn ensiled with cage layer manure on nutritional quality and microbial protein synthesis in sheep. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Science 13: 1548-1553.
LATSHAW, J.D. and ZHAO, L. (2011) Dietary protein effects on hen performance and nitrogen excretion. Poultry Science 90: 99-106.
MARTINS, R.S., HÖTZEL, M.J. and POLETTO, R. (2013) Influence of in-house composting of reused litter on litter quality, ammonia volatilisation and incidence of broiler foot pad dermatitis. British Poultry Science 54: 669-676.
MCDONALD, J.M., RIBAUDO, M.O., LIVINGSTON, M.J., BECKMAN, J. and WANG, H. (2009) Manure Use for Fertilizer and for Energy – Report to Congress. Economic Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C.
MOLINA, M., WHELAN, G., FITZGERALD, C. and STEVENS, C. (2013) Aged manures as sources of pathogens in agricultural runoff. Presented at American Society for Microbiology, Denver, CO, May 18-21, 2013.
MUELLER, D.K. and HELSEL, D.R. (2017) Nutrients in the nation's waters--too much of a good thing? USGS. https://pubs.usgs.gov/circ/circ1136/circ1136_map.html. Accessed January 15, 2018.
OBEIDAT, B.S., AWAWDEH, M.S., ABDULLA, A.Y., MUWULLA, M.M., ABU ISHMAIS, M.A., TELFAH, B.T., AYROUT, A.J., MATARNEH, S.K., SUBIH, H.S. and OSAILI, T.O. (2011) Effects of feeding broiler litter on performance of Awassi lambs fed finishing diets. Animal Feed Science and Technology 165: 15-22.
OKEUDO, N.J. and ADEGBOLA, A.A. (1993) Utilisation of dried caged-hen manure and cassava peels for intensive sheep production. Tropical Animal Health and Production 25: 234-238.
PIMENTEL, D., WILLIAMSON, S., ALEXANDER, C.E., GONZALEZ-PAGAN, O., KONTAK, C. and MULKEY, S.E. (2008) Reducing Energy Inputs in the U.S. Food System. Human Ecology 36: 459-471.
POWELL, S., JOHNSTON, S., GASTON, L. and SOUTHERN, L.L. (2008) The effect of dietary phosphorus level and phytase supplementation on growth performance, bone-breaking strength, and litter phosphorus concentration in broilers. Poultry Science 87: 949-957.
REN, T., WANG, J., CHEN, Q., ZHANG, F. and LU, S. (2014) The Effects of Manure and Nitrogen Fertilizer Applications on Soil Organic Carbon and Nitrogen in a High-Input Cropping System. PLoS One 9: e97732.
ROLL, V.F., DAI PRÁ, M.A. and ROLL, A.P. (2011) Research on Salmonella in broiler litter reused for up to 14 consecutive flocks. Poultry Science 90: 2257-2262.
RUDDY, B.C., LORENZ, D.L. and and MUELLER, D.K. (2006) County-level estimates of nutrient inputs to the land surface of the contiguous United States, 1982-2001. U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2006-5012, 17 p.
SHARPE, R.R., SCHOMBERG, H.H., HARPER, L.A., ENDALE, D.M., JENKINS, M.B. and FRANZLUEBBERS, A.J. (2004) Ammonia volatilization from surface-applied poultry litter under conservation tillage management practices. Journal of Environmental Quality 33: 1183-1188.
SCHROEDER, P.D., RADCLIFFE, D.E. and CABRERA, M.L. (2004) Rainfall timing and poultry litter application rate effects on phosphorus loss in surface runoff. Journal of Environmental Quality 33: 2201-2209.
SIRRI, F. and MELUZZI, A. (2012) Effect of sequential feeding on nitrogen excretion, productivity, and meat quality of broiler chickens. Poultry Science 91: 316-321.
SHEN, J., CHEN, D., BAI, M., SUN, J., COATES, T., LAM, S.K. and LI, Y. (2016) Ammonia deposition in the neighbourhood of an intensive cattle feedlot in Victoria, Australia. Scientific Reports 6: 32793.
STEINFELD, H., GERBER, P., WASSENAAR, T., CASTEL, V., ROSALES, M. and DE HAAN, C. (2006) Livestock's long shadow; environmental issues and options. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome.
STINGONE, J.A. and WING, S. (2011) Poultry litter incineration as a source of energy: reviewing the potential for impacts on environmental health. New Solution 21: 27-42.
THOMAS, J.W., YU, Y., TINNIMITT, P. and ZINDEL, H.C. (1972) Dehydrated poultry waste as a feed for milking cows and growing sheep. Journal of Dairy Science 55: 1261-1265.
USDA NRCS (National Resources Conservation Service) (1995) Animal Manure Management. https://www.nrcs.usda.gov/wps/portal/nrcs/detail/null/?cid=nrcs143_014211. Accessed 12.13.17.
USEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency) (1975) Development document for proposed effluent limitations guidelines and new source performance standards for the poultry segment of the meat product and rendering process, point source category. EPA/440/1-75/031-B, Washington, DC (DCN 00140).
USGS (United States Geological Survey) (2017) Major findings. https://pubs.usgs.gov/circ/circ1210/major_findings.htm. Accessed January 15, 2018.
WANG, S., NAN, J., SHI, C., FU, Q., GAO, S., WANG, D., CUI, H., SAIZ-LOPEZ, A. and ZHOU, B. (2015) Atmospheric ammonia and its impacts on regional air quality over the megacity of Shanghai, China. Scientific Reports 5: 15842.
WATTS, D.B., TORBERT, H.A., PRIOR, S.A. and HULUKA, G. (2010) Long-term tillage and poultry litter impacts soil carbon and nitrogen mineralization and fertility. Soil Science Society of America Journal 74: 1239-1247.
WIEDEMANN, S.G. (2015) Litter reuse: an evidence-based guide to reusing litter. RIRDC Publication No. 14/095. Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation, Australia.
WILLIAMS, C.M. (2010) Poultry waste management in developing countries. Poultry development review. FAO, Roma, Italy.
WONGA, J.T., DE BRUYNA, J., BAGNOLA, B., GRIEVED, H., M.LIE, M., PYM, R. and and ALDERSA, R.G. (2017) Small-scale poultry and food security in resource-poor settings: A review. Global Food Security 15: 43-52.
ZHANG, W. and LAU, A. (2007) Reducing ammonia emission from poultry manure composting via struvite formation. Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology 82: 598-602.
ZINN, R.A., BARAJAS, R., MONTANO, M. and SHEN, Y. (1996) Protein and energy value of dehydrated poultry excreta in diets for feedlot cattle. Journal of Animal Science 74: 2331-2335.