Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 45
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Biasato, I. De Marco, M. Rotolo, L. Renna, M. Lussiana, C. Dabbou, S. Capucchio, M. T. Biasibetti, E. Costa, P. Gai, F. Pozzo, L. Dezzutto, D. Bergagna, S. Martínez, S. Tarantola, M. Gasco, L. and Schiavone, A. 2016. Effects of dietaryTenebrio molitormeal inclusion in free-range chickens. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition, p. n/a.


    Butterworth, A. de Jong, I. C. Keppler, C. Knierim, U. Stadig, L. and Lambton, S. 2016. What is being measured, and by whom? Facilitation of communication on technical measures amongst competent authorities in the implementation of the European Union Broiler Directive (2007/43/EC). animal, Vol. 10, Issue. 02, p. 302.


    Dunlop, Mark W. McAuley, Jim Blackall, Patrick J. and Stuetz, Richard M. 2016. Water activity of poultry litter: Relationship to moisture content during a grow-out. Journal of Environmental Management, Vol. 172, p. 201.


    Gocsik, Éva Brooshooft, Suzanne D. de Jong, Ingrid C. and Saatkamp, Helmut W. 2016. Cost-efficiency of animal welfare in broiler production systems: A pilot study using the Welfare Quality® assessment protocol. Agricultural Systems, Vol. 146, p. 55.


    Ipek, A. and Sozcu, A. 2016. The effects of eggshell temperature fluctuations during incubation on welfare status and gait score of broilers. Poultry Science, Vol. 95, Issue. 6, p. 1296.


    Opheim, M. Sterten, H. Øverland, M. and Kjos, N.P. 2016. Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) protein hydrolysate – Effect on growth performance and intestinal morphometry in broiler chickens. Livestock Science, Vol. 187, p. 138.


    Paolotti, Luisa Boggia, Antonio Castellini, Cesare Rocchi, Lucia and Rosati, Adolfo 2016. Combining livestock and tree crops to improve sustainability in agriculture: a case study using the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach. Journal of Cleaner Production, Vol. 131, p. 351.


    Sun, Z. W. Fan, Q. H. Wang, X. X. Guo, Y. M. Wang, H. J. and Dong, X. 2016. High dietary biotin levels affect the footpad and hock health of broiler chickens reared at different stocking densities and litter conditions. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition,


    Velo, Ramón and Ceular, Angel 2016. Effects of stocking density, light and perches on broiler growth. Animal Science Journal,


    Najafi, Pardis Zulkifli, Idrus Amat Jajuli, Nurfarahin Farjam, Abdoreza Soleimani Ramiah, Suriya Kumari Amir, Anna Aryani O’Reily, Emily and Eckersall, David 2015. Environmental temperature and stocking density effects on acute phase proteins, heat shock protein 70, circulating corticosterone and performance in broiler chickens. International Journal of Biometeorology, Vol. 59, Issue. 11, p. 1577.


    Ohara, Ai Oyakawa, Chisako Yoshihara, Yu Ninomiya, Shigeru and Sato, Shusuke 2015. Effect of Environmental Enrichment on the Behavior and Welfare of Japanese Broilers at a Commercial Farm. The Journal of Poultry Science, Vol. 52, Issue. 4, p. 323.


    Packialakshmi, B. Rath, N. C. Huff, W. E. and Huff, G. R. 2015. Poultry Femoral Head Separation and Necrosis: A Review. Avian Diseases, Vol. 59, Issue. 3, p. 349.


    Shields, Sara and Orme-Evans, Geoffrey 2015. The Impacts of Climate Change Mitigation Strategies on Animal Welfare. Animals, Vol. 5, Issue. 2, p. 361.


    Souza, Ana Paula Oliveira and Molento, Carla Forte Maiolino 2015. The Contribution of Broiler Chicken Welfare Certification at Farm Level to Enhancing Overall Animal Welfare: The Case of Brazil. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics, Vol. 28, Issue. 6, p. 1033.


    Wang, Xi Peebles, E. David Bricka, R. Mark and Zhai, Wei 2015. Protein Source and Nutrient Density in the Diets of Male Broilers from 8 to 21 Days of Age: Effects on Tibia Dimension, Breaking Strength, and Mineral Density. The Journal of Poultry Science, Vol. 52, Issue. 3, p. 197.


    Averós, Xavier Lorea, Areta de Heredia, Ignacia Beltrán Ruiz, Roberto Marchewka, Joanna Arranz, Josune and Estevez, Inma 2014. The behaviour of gestating dairy ewes under different space allowances. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, Vol. 150, p. 17.


    Da Costa, M. J. Grimes, J. L. Oviedo-Rondon, E. O. Barasch, I. Evans, C. Dalmagro, M. and Nixon, J. 2014. Footpad dermatitis severity on turkey flocks and correlations with locomotion, litter conditions, and body weight at market age. The Journal of Applied Poultry Research, Vol. 23, Issue. 2, p. 268.


    de Jonge, Janneke and van Trijp, Hans 2014. Heterogeneity in consumer perceptions of the animal friendliness of broiler production systems. Food Policy, Vol. 49, p. 174.


    Fraser, David 2014. Could animal production become a profession?. Livestock Science, Vol. 169, p. 155.


    Hafeez, A. Mader, A. Boroojeni, F. G. Ruhnke, I. Rohe, I. Manner, K. and Zentek, J. 2014. Impact of thermal and organic acid treatment of feed on apparent ileal mineral absorption, tibial and liver mineral concentration, and tibia quality in broilers. Poultry Science, Vol. 93, Issue. 7, p. 1754.


    ×

Welfare of broilers: a review

  • W. BESSEI (a1)
  • DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0043933906001085
  • Published online: 01 September 2006
Abstract

Selection for fast early growth rate and feeding and management procedures which support growth have lead to various welfare problems in modern broiler strains. Problems which are directly linked to growth rate are metabolic disorders causing mortality by the Sudden Death Syndrome and ascites. Fast growth rate is generally accompanied by decreased locomotor activity and extended time spent sitting or lying. The lack of exercise is considered a main cause of leg weakness, and extreme durations of sitting on poor quality litter produces skin lesions at the breast and the legs. Management factors which slow down early growth alleviate many welfare problems. Alternatively it may be considered to use slow growing strains which do not have the above mentioned welfare problems. Since growth is a main economical factor, there are problems of acceptability of these measures in the commercial broiler production. Stocking density is a central issue of broiler welfare. It is evident, that the influence of stocking density on growth rate and leg problems acts through its influence on litter and air quality. High moisture content of the litter enhances microbial activity, which in turn leads to increase of temperature and ammonia in broiler houses, and thus, high incidence of contact dermatitis. High stocking density impedes heat transfer from the litter surface to the ventilated room. This restricts the efficacy of conventional ventilation systems in alleviating heat stress. Lighting programmes with reduced photoperiods are considered essential for the stimulation of locomotor activity and the development of a circadian rhythm in the birds. Extended dark periods, however, reduce growth when applied in the first weeks of age. Compensation occurs when the time of the production cycle is substantially increased. Various methods to enrich the environment have shown only moderate effects on the behaviour and physical conditions of broilers.

Copyright
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

L.D. ANDREWS (1972) Cage rearing of broilers. Poultry Science 51: 11941197.

J.M. BALOG , G.R. BAYYARI , N.C. RATH , W.F. HUFF and N.B. ANTHONY (1997) Effect of intermittent activity on broiler production parameters. Poultry Science 76: 612.

E.A.M. BOKKERS and P. KOENE (2003) Behaviour of fast- and slow-growing broilers to 12 weeks of age and the physical consequences. Applied Animal Behavioural Science 81: 5972.

F.M.G. BOSHOWERS and E. NICAISE (1993) Artificial light sources and their influence on physical activity and energy expenditure of laying hens. British Poultry Science 34: 1119.

R.B. BUCKLAND , A.T. HILL and D.E. BERNON (1973) Effects of four lighting regimes on the performance of broilers and roasters. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 53: 2124.

C.R. CISAR , J.M. BALOG , N.B. ANTHONY and A.M. DONOGHUE (2005) Differential expression of cardiac muscle mitochondrial matrix proteins in broilers from ascites-resistant and susceptible lines. Poultry Science 84: 704708.

T.L. CRAVENER , W.B. ROUSH and M.M. MASHALY (1992) Broiler production under varying population density. Poultry Science 71: 427433.

T.C. DANBURY , C.A. WEEKS , J.P. CHAMBERS , A.E. WATERMAN-PEARSON and S.C. KESTIN (2000) Self-selection of the analgesic drug carprofen by lame broiler chickens. Veterinary Record 146: 307311.

M.S. DAWKINS , S. DONELLY and T.A. JONES (2004) Chicken welfare is influenced more by housing conditions than by stocking density. Nature 427: 342344.

N. DEEB , A. SHLOSBERG and A. CAHANER (2002) Genotype-by-environment interaction with broiler genotypes differing in growth rate. 4. Association between responses to heat stress and to cold-induced ascites. Poultry Science 81: 14541462.

C. EKSTRAND , B. ALGERS and J. SVEDBERG (1997) Rearing conditions and foot-pad dermatitis in Swedish broiler chickens. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 31: 167174.

E.E. GARDINER , J.R. HUNT and R.C. NEWBERRY (1988) Relationship between age, body weight and season of the year and the incidence of sudden death syndrome in male broiler chickens. Poultry Science 67: 12431249.

R.H. HARMS , B.L. DAMRON and C.F. SIMPSON (1977) Effect of wet litter and supplemental biotin and/or whey on the production of foot pad dermatitis in broilers. Poultry Science 56: 291296.

S.C. KESTIN , T.G. KNOWLES , A.E. TINCH and N.G. GREGORY (1992) Prevalence of leg weakness in broiler chickens and its relationship with genotype. Veterinary Record 131: 190194.

K. KONDO , Y. ISHIMOTO and C. YAMASHITA (1986) The influence of intermittent lighting on broiler performance. Japanese Poultry Science 23: 2832.

N.J. LEWIS and J.F. HURNIK (1990) Locomotion of broiler chickens in floor pens. Poultry Science 69: 10871093.

T. LI , H.C. HOWLAND and D. TROILO (2000) Diurnal illumination patterns affect the development of the chick eye. Vision Research 40: 23872393.

T. LI , D. TROILO , A. GLASSER and H.C. HOWLAND (1995) Constant light produces severe corneal flattening and hyperopia in chickens. Vision Research 35: 12031209.

D. MCGEOWN , T.C. DANBURY , A.E. WATERMAN-PEARSON and S.C. KESTIN (1999) Effect of carprofen on lameness in broiler chickens. Veterinary Record 144: 668671.

M.A. MITCHELL (1997) Ascites syndrome: a physiological and biochemical perspective. World's Poultry Science Journal 53: 6164.

R.C. NEWBERRY , J.R. HUNT and E.E. GARDINER (1988) The Influence of light intensity on behavior and performance of broiler chickens. Poultry Science 67: 10201025.

R.G. NEWBERRY , E.E. GARDINER and J.R. HUNT (1987) Behaviour of chickens prior to death from sudden death syndrome. Poultry Science 66: 14461450.

D.S. PRAYITINO , C.J.D. PHILLIPS and D.K. STOKES (1997) The effects of color and intensity of light on behaviour and leg problems in broiler chickens. Poultry Science 76: 16741681.

F.G. PROUDFOOT and A.E. SEFTON (1978) Feed texture and light treatment effects on the performance of chicken broilers. Poultry Science 57: 408416.

F.G. PROUDFOOT , H.W. HULAN and D.M. RAMEY (1979) The effect of four stocking densities on broiler carcass grade, the incidence of breast blisters, and other performance traits. Poultry Science 58: 791793.

M. RUTTEN , C. LETERRIER , P. CONSTANTIN , K. REITER and W. BESSEI (2002) Bone development and activity in chickens: response to reduced weight-load on legs. Animal Research 51: 327336.

G.S. SANOTRA , J.D. LUND , A.K. ERSBOLL , J.S. PETERSEN and K.S. VESTERGAARD (2001) Monitoring leg problems in broilers: a survey of commercial broiler production in Denmark. World's Poultry Science Journal 57: 5569.

C.J. SAVORY and I.J.H. DUNCAN (1982) Voluntary regulation of lighting by domestic fowls in Skinner boxes. Applied Animal Ethology 9: 7381.

M.M. SHANAWANY (1988) Broiler performance under high stocking densities. British Poultry Science 29: 4352.

P. SØRENSEN , G. SU and S.C. KESTIN (1999) The effect of photoperiod:scotoperiod on leg weakness. Poultry Science 78: 336342.

G. SU , P. SØRENSEN and S.C. KESTIN (2000) A note on the effects of perches and litter substrate on leg weakness in broiler chickens. Poultry Science 79: 12591263.

D. TROILO , T. LI , A. GLASSER and H.C. HOWLAND (1995) Differences in eye growth and the response to visual deprivation in different strains of chickens. Vision Research 35: 12111216.

K.S. VESTERGAARD and G.S. SANOTRA (1999) Relationships between leg disorders and changes in behaviour of broiler chickens. Veterinary Record 144: 205209.

A.L. WALDROUP , J.T. SKINNER , J.M. HIERHOLZER , M. KOPEK and W.P. WALDROUP (1992) Effects of bird density on Salmonella contamination of prechill carcasses. Poultry Science 71: 844849.

W.D. WEAVER and R. MEIJERHOF (1991) The effect of different levels of relative humidity and air movement on litter conditions, ammonia levels, growth and carcass quality for broiler chickens. Poultry Science 70: 746755.

R.D. WHITLEY , R.A. ALBERT , G.R. MCDANIEL , E.C. MORA and R.A. HENDERSON (1984) Photoinduced buphthalmic avian eyes: 1. Continuous fluorescent light. Poultry Science 63: 15371542.

A.K. ZUBAIR and S. LEESON (1996) Compensatory growth in the broiler chicken: a review. World's Poultry Science Journal 52: 189201.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

World's Poultry Science Journal
  • ISSN: 0043-9339
  • EISSN: 1743-4777
  • URL: /core/journals/world-s-poultry-science-journal
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords: