Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-6c8bd87754-clkrv Total loading time: 0.284 Render date: 2022-01-19T06:10:43.618Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }

Introducing the Electronic Database of Investment Treaties (EDIT): The Genesis of a New Database and Its Use

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  13 August 2020

Wolfgang Alschner
Affiliation:
University of Ottawa, Canada
Manfred Elsig*
Affiliation:
University of Bern, Switzerland
Rodrigo Polanco
Affiliation:
University of Bern, Switzerland
*
*Corresponding author: Email: Manfred.Elsig@wti.org

Abstract

This article introduces a novel database on investment treaties called the Electronic Database of Investment Treaties (EDIT). We describe the genesis of the database and what makes EDIT the most comprehensive and systematic database to date. What stands out besides the coverage is that treaties are all provided in one single language (English) and in one single format that is machine-readable. In the second part of the article, we provide selected illustrations on how the data can be used to address research questions in international law, international political economy, and international relations by applying text-as-data methods and by extracting and visualizing data based on EDIT.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © The Author(s), 2020. Published by Cambridge University Press

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Abbott, KW, Keohane, RO, Moravcsik, A, Slaughter, A-M, and Snidal, D (2000) The Concept of Legalization. International Organization 54(3), 401419.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Allee, T and Peinhardt, C (2010) Delegating Differences: Bilateral Investment Treaties and Bargaining Over Dispute Resolution Provisions. International Studies Quarterly 54(1), 126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Allee, T and Peinhardt, C (2011) Contingent Credibility: The Impact of Investment Treaty Violations on Foreign Direct Investment. International Organization 65(3), 401432.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Allee, T and Peinhardt, C (2014) Evaluating Three Explanations for the Design of Bilateral Investment Treaties. World Politics 66(1), 4787.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Alschner, W (2020) Ensuring Correctness or Promoting Consistency? Tracking Policy Priorities in Investment Arbitration through Large-Scale Citation Analysis. In Fauchald, OK, Behn, D, and Langford, M (eds.), Empirical Perspectives on Investment Treaty Arbitration, Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Alschner, W and Hui, K (2019) Missing in Action: General Public Policy Exceptions in Investment Treaties. In Sachs, LE, Coleman, J, and Johnson, L (eds.), Yearbook on International Investment Law and Policy 2018, Rochester: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Alschner, W, Pauwelyn, J, and Puig, S (2017) The Data-Driven Future of International Economic Law. Journal of International Economic Law 20(2), 217231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Alschner, W and Skougarevskiy, D (2016a) Convergence and Divergence in the Investment Treaty Universe – Scoping the Potential for Multilateral Consolidation. Trade, Law and Development 8(2), 331362.Google Scholar
Alschner, W and Skougarevskiy, D (2016b) Mapping the Universe of International Investment Agreements. Journal of International Economic Law 19(8), 561588.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Arias, E, Hollyer, JR, and Rosendorff, BP (2018) Cooperative Autocracies: Leader Survival, Creditworthiness, and Bilateral Investment Treaties. American Journal of Political Science 62(4), 905921.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Baccini, L, Dür, A, and Elsig, M (2015) The Politics of Trade Agreement Design: Revisiting the Depth–Flexibility Nexus. International Studies Quarterly 59(4), 765775.Google Scholar
Bellak, C (2015) Economic Impact of Investment Agreements. Department of Economics Working Paper Series. WU Vienna University of Economics and Business, Vienna, 200(200), www.wu.ac.at/economics/forschung/wp/Google Scholar
Berge, TL and Stiansen, Ø (2016) Negotiating BITs with Models. The Power of Expertise. PluriCourts Research Paper No. 16-13.Google Scholar
Billing, T and Lugg, AD (2019) Conflicted Capital: The Effect of Civil Conflict on Patterns of BIT Signing. Journal of Conflict Resolution 63(2), 373404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Blake, DJ (2013) Thinking Ahead: Government Time Horizons and the Legalization of International Investment Agreements. International Organization 67(4), 797827.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bonnitcha, J, Poulsen, LNS, and Waibel, M (2017) The Political Economy of the Investment Treaty Regime, Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Brown, C (ed.) (2011) Evolution in Investment Treaty Law and Arbitration, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Büthe, T and Milner, HV (2009) Bilateral Investment Treaties and Foreign Direct Investment: A Political Analysis. In Sauvant, K. P. and Sachs, L. E. (eds.), The Effect of Treaties on Foreign Direct Investment: Bilateral Investment Treaties, Double Taxation Treaties, and Investment Flows, Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 171224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chaisse, J and Bellak, C (2015) Navigating the Expanding Universe of International Treaties on Foreign Investment: Creation and Use of a Critical Index. Journal of International Economic Law 18(1), 79115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chaisse, J and Kirkwood, J (2020) Chinese Puzzle: Anatomy of the (invisible) Belt and Road Investment Treaty. Journal of International Economic Law 23(1), 245269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chi, M (2015) The ‘Greenization’ of Chinese Bits: An Empirical Study of the Environmental Provisions in Chinese Bits and its Implications for China's Future Bit-Making. Journal of International Economic Law 18(3), 511542.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Choudhury, B (2020) Investor Obligations for Human Rights. ICSID Review (Forthcoming)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Desbordes, R (2016) A Granular Approach to the Effects of Bilateral Investment Treaties and Regional Trade Investment Agreements on Foreign Direct Investment, Presented at the Asian Economic Integration Report 2016 theme chapter on ‘What Drives Foreign Direct Investment in Asia and the Pacific?’ Background Paper, https://aric.adb.org/pdf/events/aced2016/paper_rodolphedesbordes.pdfGoogle Scholar
Dür, A, Baccini, L, and Elsig, M (2014) The Design of International Trade Agreements: Introducing a New Dataset. Review of International Organizations 9(3), 353375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Egger, P, Erhardt, K, and Masllorens, G (2019) The Impact of Investment Treaties on Firm Ownership, Presented at the European Trade Study Group, Bern, www.etsg.org/ETSG2019/papers/110.pdfGoogle Scholar
Egger, P and Pfaffermayr, M (2004) The Impact of Bilateral Investment Treaties on Foreign Direct Investment. Journal of Comparative Economics 32(4), 788804.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gentzkow, M, Kelly, B T and Taddy, M. (2017) Text as Data, National Bureau of Economic Research, www.nber.org/papers/w23276.pdfCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Goldstein, J, Kahler, M, Keohane, RO, and Slaughter, A-M (2000) Introduction: Legalization and World Politics. International Organization 54(3), 385399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Grimmer, J and Stewart, BM (2013) Text as Data: The Promise and Pitfalls of Automatic Content Analysis Methods for Political Texts. Political Analysis 21(3), 267297. doi:10.1093/pan/mps028.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Haftel, YZ and Thompson, A (2018) When Do States Renegotiate Investment Agreements? The Impact of Arbitration. The Review of International Organizations 13(1), 2548.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hallward-Driemeier, M (2003) Do Bilateral Investment Treaties Attract Foreign Direct Investment? Only a Bit? and They Could Bite, Vol. 3121, The World Bank, http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/113541468761706209/pdf/multi0page.pdfCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Henckels, C (2018) Scope Limitation or Affirmative Defence? The Purpose and Role of Investment Treaty Exception Clauses. Bartels, L. and Paddeu, F. (eds.), Exceptions and Defences in International Law. Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Keene, A (2017) The Incorporation and Interpretation of WTO-Style Environmental Exceptions in International Investment Agreements. The Journal of World Investment and Trade 18(1), 6299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Koremenos, B, Lipson, C, and Snidal, D (2001) The Rational Design of International Institutions. International Organization 55(4), 761799.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Link, M and Haftel, YZ (2019) Islamic Legal Tradition and the Choice of Investment Arbitration Forums. Review of International Political Economy. doi: 10.1080/09692290.2019.1679223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lugg, A, Lund, N, Allee, T, and Elsig, M (2019) Determining the Authorship of Preferential Trade Agreements: A New Technique Using a Supervised Author Topic Model v2.0., Presented at the The Political Economy of International Organizations (PEIO), University of Salzburg, Austria, www.peio.me/wp-content/uploads/2019/01/PEIO12_paper_108.pdf.Google Scholar
Manger, MS and Peinhardt, C (2017) Learning and the Precision of International Investment Agreements. International Interactions 43(6), 920940.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mazumder, S (2015) Can I Stay a BIT Longer? The Effect of Bilateral Investment Treaties on Political Survival. The Review of International Organizations 4(11), 477521.Google Scholar
Morin, J-F, Dür, A, and Lechner, L (2018) Mapping the Trade and Environment Nexus: Insights from a New Data Set. Global Environmental Politics 18(1), 122139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Papineni, K, Roukos, S, Ward, T, and Zhu, W-J (2002) BLEU: A Method for Automatic Evaluation of Machine Translation. Proceedings of the 40th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics. Philadelphia, PA: Association for Computational Linguistics, pp. 311318.Google Scholar
Pérez-Aznar, F (2017) The Use of Most-Favoured-Nation Clauses to Import Substantive Treaty Provisions in International Investment Agreements. Journal of International Economic Law 20(4), 777805.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pohl, J (2018) Societal Benefits and Costs of International Investment Agreements. OECD Working Papers on International Investment, 2018/01. doi:10.1787/e5f85c3d-en.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Polanco Lazo, R (2017) G20 International Investment Agreements and Guiding Principles for Global Investment Policymaking. http://e15initiative.org/publications/g20-international-investment-agreements-and-guiding-principles-for-global-investment-policymaking/.Google Scholar
Polanco Lazo, R, Desilvestro, V, and Bazrafkan, A (2018) Missing Investment Treaties. Journal of International Economic Law 21(3), 703731.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Polanco Lazo, R and Gómez Fiedler, S (2017) A Requiem for the Trans-Pacific Partnership: Something New, Something Old and Something Borrowed? Melbourne Journal of International Law 18(2), 150.Google Scholar
Poulsen, LNS (2015) Bounded Rationality and Economic Diplomacy: The Politics of Investment Treaties in Developing Countries. Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Poulsen, LNS (2019) Beyond Credible Commitments: (Investment) Treaties as Focal Points. International Studies Quarterly. doi:10.1093/isq/sqz079.Google Scholar
Ruggie, JG (1982) International Regimes, Transactions, and Change: Embedded Liberalism in the Postwar Economic Order. International Organization 36(2), 379415.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Salacuse, JW (2010) The Emerging Global Regime for Investment. Harvard International Law Journal 51, 427553.Google Scholar
Sauvant, KP and Sachs, LE (eds.) (2009) The Effect of Treaties on Foreign Direct Investment: Bilateral Investment Treaties, Double Taxation Treaties, and Investment Flows. Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schill, SW (2009) The Multilateralization of International Investment Law. Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Simmons, BA (2014) Bargaining over BITs, Arbitrating Awards: The Regime for Protection and Promotion of International Investment. World Politics 66(1), 1246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Solingen, E (2012) Of Dominoes and Firewalls: The Domestic, Regional, and Global Politics of International Diffusion. International Studies Quarterly 56(4), 631644.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sugisaki, K, Volk, M, Polanco, R, Alschner, W, and Skougarevskiy, D (2016) Building a Corpus of Multi-lingual and Multi-format International Investment Agreements. In 29th International Conference on Legal Knowledge and Information Systems (Jurix), Nice, December 2016, Nice. doi:10.3233/978-1-61499-726-9-203.Google Scholar
Thompson, A, Broude, T, and Haftel, YZ (2019) Once Bitten, Twice Shy? Investment Disputes, State Sovereignty, and Change in Treaty Design. International Organization 73(4), 859880.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tobin, J and Rose-Ackerman, S (2005) Foreign Direct Investment and the Business Environment in Developing Countries: The Impact of Bilateral Investment Treaties. Yale Law and Economics Research Paper 293, 151.Google Scholar
Tobin, J and Rose-Ackerman, S (2011) When BITs Have some Bite: The Political-Economic Environment for Bilateral Investment Treaties. The Review of International Organizations 6(1), 132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
UNCTAD (2014) The Impact of International Investment Agreements on Foreign Direct Investment: An Overview of Empirical Studies 1998–2014. IIA Issues Note, http://investmentpolicyhub.unctad.org/Upload/Documents/unctadweb-diae-pcb-2014-Sep%2024.pdf.Google Scholar
UNCTAD (2015) World Investment Report 2015. Reforming International Investment Governance. New York and Geneva: United Nations.Google Scholar
UNCTAD (2019) World Investment Report 2019. Special Economic Zones. New York and Geneva: United Nations.Google Scholar
Vandevelde, KJ (2017) The First Bilateral Investment Treaties: US Postwar Friendship, Commerce and Navigation Treaties. Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Weil, P (1983) Towards Relative Normativity in International Law? American Journal of International Law 77(3), 413442.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Yackee, JW (2008) Bilateral Investment Treaties, Credible Commitment, and the Rule of (International) Law: Do BITs Promote Foreign Direct Investment? Law and Society Review 42(4), 805832.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Yackee, JW (2010) Do Bilateral Investment Treaties Promote Foreign Direct Investment? Some Hints from Alternative Evidence. Virginia Journal of International Law 51, 397442.Google Scholar
2
Cited by

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Introducing the Electronic Database of Investment Treaties (EDIT): The Genesis of a New Database and Its Use
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Introducing the Electronic Database of Investment Treaties (EDIT): The Genesis of a New Database and Its Use
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Introducing the Electronic Database of Investment Treaties (EDIT): The Genesis of a New Database and Its Use
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *