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Regulatory Differences in the Approval of GMOs: Extent and Development over Time

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  24 August 2015

Department of Economics, Federal University of São Carlos, Sorocaba, Brazil
University of Bonn, Germany


Considering the regulatory approval developments for cotton, maize, and soybean within the time period 2000–2013, this paper assesses the extent of asymmetry in the authorizations of new genetically modified organism (GMO) events between importing and exporting countries. The results show an increase in the asynchronous approval across the majority of country pairs. However, focusing only on commercialized events and considering only regulatory approval differences in which the importers are more stringent than the exporters, the asynchronous approval is considerably lower, and the result indicates that the major trade leaders have synchronized their approval status for GMOs over time. Some countries, such as Norway, Switzerland, Thailand, and Turkey seem to face the highest potential for trade disruption, while the opposite holds for Japan and South Korea.

Review Article
Copyright © Faria 2015 

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