Skip to main content

Study of the first blastomeres in Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch)

  • Brian Effer Roldán (a1) (a2), Rubén Sánchez Rueda (a2), Andrea Ubilla Madrid (a2), Elías Figueroa Villalobos (a2) and Iván Valdebenito Isler (a2)...

There is a lack of information on the morphology of the first blastomeres that could be used as a diagnostic tool for the first stages of embryonic development for Coho salmon. The purpose of this investigation, therefore, was to characterize morphometrically the first blastomeres of Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). In total, 660 embryonic discs from a pool of eggs that had been fertilized and incubated at 5°C and after 19 h of incubation were extracted and photographed. Of these, 20 microphotographs of blastodiscs of normal appearance were analyzed morphologically (control blastodiscs: CB) and 100 random microphotographs from the whole group were classified as either symmetrical or asymmetrical according to their morphology and then compared with the CB. The length and width of each blastomere and the proportions of length and width were measured to determine symmetry in the embryos at the 4-cell stage. Seven categories were created to characterize the blastomeres: 38% normal (G1); 26% unequal (G2); 10% ‘pie-shaped’ (G3); 10% amorphous (G4); 8% with three equal and one unequal blastomere (G5); 6% ‘clover-shaped’ blastomeres (G7), and 3% with inclusions. The mean of the proportions of lengths and widths of the groups of blastomeres that were measured was 0.87 ± 0.08 and 0.85 ± 0.07, respectively. The morphometric results that were obtained in this investigation are compared with the results observed by other authors for teleostei and are discussed.

Corresponding author
All correspondence to: Brian Effer Roldán. Universidad Católica de Temuco, Facultad de Recursos Naturales, Escuela de Acuicultura, Rudecindo Ortega 02950 Casilla 15-D, Temuco-Chile. e-mail:
Hide All
Aegerter, S. & Jalabert, B. (2004). Effects of post-ovulatory oocyte ageing and temperature on egg quality and on the occurrence of triploid fry in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Aquaculture 231, 5971.
Avery, T. & Brown, J. (2005). Investigating the relationship among abnormal patterns of cell cleavage, egg mortality and early larval condition in Limanda ferruginea. J. Fish Biol. 67, 890–6.
Avery, T., Killen, S. & Hollinger, T. (2009). The relationship of embryonic development, mortality, hatching success, and larval quality to normal or abnormal early embryonic cleavage in Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua. Aquaculture 289, 265–73.
Ballard, W. (1973). Morphogenetic movements in Salmo gairdneri Richardson. J. Exp. Zool. 184, 2748.
Barnes, M., Hanten, R., Sayler, W. & Cordes, R. (2000). Viability of inland fall Chinook spawn containing overripe eggs and the reliability of egg viability estimates. North Am. J. Aquacult. 62, 237–9.
Bobe, J. & Labbé, C. (2010). Egg and sperm quality in fish. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 165, 535–48.
Bromage, N., Bruce, M., Basavaraja, N. & Rana, K. (1994). Egg quality determinants in finfish: the role of overripening with special reference to the timing of stripping in the Atlantic halibut Hippoglossus hippoglossus. J. World Aquacult. Soc. 25, 1321.
Gorodilov, Y. (1996). Description of the early ontogeny of the Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, with a novel system of interval (state) identification. Environ. Biol. Fish. 47, 109–27.
Hamoutene, D., Lush, L., Drover, D. & Walsh, A. (2009). Investigation of the temporal effects of spawning season and maternal and parental differences on egg quality in Atlantic cod Gadus morhua L. broodstock. Aquacult. Res. 40, 1668–79.
Hershberger, W. & Hostuttler, M. (2005). Variation in time first cleavage in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss embryos: a mayor factor in induction of tetraploids. J. World Aquacult. Soc. 36, 96102.
Kjørsvik, E., Mangor-Jensen, A. & Holmefjord, I. (1990). Egg quality in fishes. Adv. Marine Biol. 26, 71113.
Kjørsvik, E., Hoehne-Reitan, K. & Reitan, K. (2003). Egg and larval quality criteria as predictive measures for juvenile production in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.). Aquaculture 227, 920.
Lahnsteiner, F. (2000). Morphological, physiological and biochemical parameters characterizing the over-ripening of rainbow trout eggs. Fish Physiol. Biochem. 23, 107–18.
Lahnsteiner, F. & Patzner, R. (2002). Rainbow trout egg quality determination by the relative weight increase during hardening: a practical standardization. J. Appl. Ichthyol. 18, 24–6.
Lahnsteiner, F., Weismann, T. & Patzner, R. (1999). Physiological and biochemical parameters for egg quality determination in lake trout, Salmo trutta lacustris. Fish Physiol. Biochem. 20, 375–88.
Moran, D., Smith, C., Gara, B. & Poortenaar, C. (2007). Reproductive behaviour and early development in yellowtail kingfish (Seriola lalandi Valenciennes 1833). Aquaculture 262, 95104
Ostrander, G., Landolt, M. & Kocan, R. (1988). The ontogeny of Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) behavior following embryonic exposure to benzo[a]pyrene. Aquatic Toxicol. 13, 325–46.
Ostrander, G., Landolt, M. & Kocan, R. (1989). Whole life history studies of Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) following embryonic exposure to benzo[a]pyrene. Aquatic Toxicol. 15, 109–25.
Pavlov, D. & Emel'yanova, N. (2008). Morphological criteria of egg quality in marine fishes: activation and cleavage of eggs of Zebrasoma scopas (Acanthuridae). J. Ichthyol. 48, 533–48.
Pavlov, D. & Moksness, E. (1994). Reproductive biology, early ontogeny, and effect of temperature on development in wolfish: comparison with salmon. Aquaculture Int. 2, 133–53.
Penney, R., Lush, P., Wade, J., Brown, J., Parrish, C. & Burton, M. (2006). Comparative utility of egg blastomere morphology and lipid biochemistry for prediction of hatching success in Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua L. Aquacult. Res. 37, 272–83.
Phillips, R. & Campbell, H. (1962). The embryonic survival of Coho salmon and steelhead trout as influenced by some enviromental conditions in gravel beds. Pac. Mar. Fish Commun. Rep. 14, 6073.
Piferrer, F. & Donaldson, E. (1989). Gonadal differentiation in Coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch, after a single treatment with androgen or estrogen at different stages during ontogenesis. Aquaculture 77, 251–62.
Rani, M. (2005). Prediction of Larval Viability Based on Egg Quality Parameters and Early Cleavage Patterns in the Experiments of Triploidy Induction in Atlantic Cod, Gadus morhua L. A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in international fisheries management. 64 pp. Norwegian College of Fishery Science, University of Tromso–Norway.
Rideout, R., Trippel, E. & Litvak, M. (2004). Predicting haddock embryo viability based on early cleavage patterns. Aquaculture 230, 215–28.
Samarin, A., Ahmadi, M., Azuma, T., Rafiee, G., Amiri, B. & Naghavi, M. (2008). Influence of the time to egg stripping on eyeing and hatching rates in rain bow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss under cold temperatures. Aquaculture 278, 195–8.
Shields, R., Brown, N. & Bromage, N. (1997). Blastomere morphology as a predictive measure of fish egg viability. Aquaculture 155, 112.
Shumway, D., Warren, C. & Doudoroff, P. (1964). The influence of oxygen concentrations and water movement on the growth of steelhead trout and Coho salmon embryos. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 93, 342–56.
Valdebenito, I., Sánchez, R., Effer, B. & Ubilla, A. (2012). Morphometric characterization of the first blastomeres of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Zygote Epub ahead of print.
Vásquez, P., Llanos-Rivera, A. & Castro, L. (2010). Anormalidades durante el desarrollo embrionario de sardina común, Strangomera bentincki en el ambiente natural. Revista de Biología Marina y Oceanografía 45, 177–85.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

  • ISSN: 0967-1994
  • EISSN: 1469-8730
  • URL: /core/journals/zygote
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *



Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed