To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
This chapter examines research that illuminates the experiences of international immigrants, especially women. Our emphasis is on the women’s multiple social identities and their intersectionality, which uniquely shape their experiences in the settlement society depending on the broader historical and intercultural contexts of the countries between which they travel. Starting with a brief discussion of selected social psychological frameworks relevant to immigrants, including social identity theory and intersectionality theory, the chapter reviews research on immigrant women’s experiences in several topical areas, examining the impacts of religion, sexuality, domestic violence, media stereotypes, and career opportunities in the global labor market. Immigrant women’s experiences today are highly heterogeneous. The chapter ends with a call for an in-depth examination of intersectionality of identities from an intercultural perspective.
This study was conducted to determine the relationship between religious attitudes of Muslim women with gynecologic cancer and mental adjustment to cancer.
Designed as a descriptive relational study, this study was conducted with 123 patients with gynecologic cancer. A personal information form, prepared in accordance with the literature, the Religious Attitude Scale (RAS), and the Mental Adjustment to Cancer Scale (MACS) were used as data collection tools. The data were assessed using descriptive statistics, Pearson's correlation analysis, and linear regression analysis.
A positive correlation was determined between the RAS score and the fighting spirit subscale of the MACS (r = 0.65, p < 0.001). A negative correlation was found between the helplessness/hopelessness and anxious preoccupation subscales of the MACS and the RAS score (r = −0.40, p < 0.001; r = −0.30, p < 0.001, respectively).
Significance of results
The present results are helpful in understanding the influence of religious attitudes on the mental adjustment to gynecologic cancer patients. The results can serve as a reference for nursing education and clinical healthcare practice. Palliative healthcare providers can participate in improved care by recognizing spiritual needs and by advocating for attention to spiritual needs as a routine part of cancer care.
This concluding chapter offers some insights into the complex interplay between local, national, and transnational forces in the making of modern Korea during Japanese colonial rule with a central focus on gender and global Christianity. Highlighting the significant role of the global Christian network in fashioning modern gender relations, the chapter considers the ways in which the network both enabled and hindered major shifts in identity that marked the life and work of women discussed in the book. It also discusses the contribution of the book to the broader dialogue concerning gender and empire, and religion and modernity.
Previous research has either equated religion- and language-based group identities or asserted that their social effects are the same. This article proposes a novel differentiation between religious and ethnic self-identification that accounts for in-group income inequality and the social role of the group. The study argues that ethnicity-based identities tend to be associated with economic activities, thereby increasing the demand for income equality within such groups. Religious identities, on the contrary, are centered around noneconomic activities and have the ideological framework for reconciling material inequalities. The observable implication of this distinction is that the high-, low-, and middle-income categories of the multicultural society will display differential association with ethnic and religious identities. Ethnic groups will have lower in-group income inequality as a result of the exclusion of the poor and the departure of the rich. Religious groups, on the contrary, will have higher in-group income inequality due to the capacity of religion to accommodate both poor and rich. Relevant empirical tests from the ethnically and religiously diverse Russian North Caucasus region indicate support for the proposed theory.
The introduction describes the plan and purpose of the book. It begins with a problematic, yet influential, theory of Julius Wellhausen, according to which defeat at the hands of imperial armies transformed the people of Israel into a nonpolitical religious community. It then demonstrates the problems with this approach and introduces an alternative based on the study of war commemoration in the formation of national identities.
This chapter investigates whether there is a general right to conscientious exemption in US law. The chapter concludes that there is, albeit its scope varies geographically. There are at least five rules of law which ground the right. These are: (1) the Free Exercise Clause of the First Amendment under federal constitutional law as interpreted by the USSC in Smith (albeit this is now very narrow), and the Free Exercise clauses of some state constitutions which did not interpret their own constitutions according to Smith; (2) The Religious Freedom Restoration Act (RFRA) which applies to the federal government and similar state legislation that applies in the states which have enacted them; (3) the Religious Land Use and Institutionalized Persons Act of 2000 (RLUIPA) which applies mainly to state governments in the context of land regulation, zoning laws and prisoners; (4) Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (and similar state level legislation) which requires certain categories of employers to accommodate the religious beliefs of their employees in performing their employment duties; and (5) the constitutional requirements of Church Autonomy.
This short conclusory chapter summarizes the main claims of the book and summarizes how the book has provided evidence to support those claims. It shows that the book’s overall contribution then is to have demonstrated that there is, and there should be in a liberal state, a general right to conscientious exemption available to a person who objects to any legal obligation on the basis of a religious or non-religious conscientious belief.
This chapter focuses on the mobilisation of women for the war effort through nursing services, auxiliary military services, and a broad range of voluntary local activity on the home front such as knitting garments, preparing parcels of comforts for soldiers, and collecting sphagnum moss for bandages and surgical supplies. Following an analysis of Irish membership of the British Red Cross, the chapter argues that the extent of voluntary engagement with the war effort in Ireland was more extensive than typically realised and that it involved women from a diverse mix of social class and religious backgrounds. The impact of religious and political tensions is explored, noting the continued support for the war effort after the 1916 rebellion. Comparison is drawn between the response of Ulster unionist communities to the war effort and that of rest of Ireland, demonstrating that the war deepened the polarisation of unionist and nationalist identities. The chapter attempts to untangle the motivations of women to participate in the war effort, and to understand the impact of their wartime service on their lives.
Wiebe examines a historical shift from deductive inference to inductive inference and then to abductive methodological approaches in philosophy and science, with regard to their bearing on religious experience. In addition, he remarks on a "theory of Spirits" that postulates theoretical entities for explanatory purposes in connection with religious phenomena, and he suggests that a new epistemology of religious experience is needed for adequate explanatory purposes.
The chapter identifies three rules of law which ground the general right to conscientious exemption in Canadian law. The primary source of this right is to be found in anti-discrimination statutes and the duty of reasonable accommodation that case law has read into them. This rule of law is the most extensive. It arises in each Canadian jurisdiction; it binds public and private persons; and it arises in a variety of contexts, including employment and provision of goods and services. The right to freedom of conscience and religion under the Canadian and Quebec Charters also gives rise to a general right to conscientious exemption which applies to public bodies but not to private persons. Depending on which exercise of public power is concerned (administrative action or law of general application) the legal analysis will differ. Administrative bodies’ refusal to grant an exemption cannot be unreasonable. Legislative measures cannot infringe that right disproportionately.
The chapter introduces the main claims of the book, how they are defended and their implications. The chapter then makes a positive case in favour of the general right to conscientious exemption and for it being equally available to religious and non-religious conscientious objectors. It argues that a non-absolute right to conscientious exemption is justified by reference to a cluster of moral values, including the demands of the state’s duty of neutral pluralism (the duty being grounded in the value of individual moral responsibility and respect for ethical pluralism), respect for personal autonomy, freedom of conscience and concern for individual well-being. The chapter justifies the institution of the general right by showing that it provides holders of minority moral views with an alternative forum, i.e. a court of law, where they may be able to bring a claim and ask for exemptions from legal obligations which impinge on their conscience. It concludes by showing that the justifications provided for exemptions generally and for the general right cannot justify the right being a privilege of only those that object on the basis of non-religious beliefs. Non-religious conscientious beliefs should also benefit from the general right.
This chapter argues that the general right to conscientious exemption should not be understood as a privilege of persons who object on the basis of religious beliefs. Three arguments are advanced for the right also being available on the basis of non-religious conscientious beliefs. The first argument, principally relying on the precedential force of Welsh, is to interpret the reference to ‘religion’ in the statutory grounds of the general right to include conscientious non-religious beliefs. The second, the Establishment Clause Argument, shows that the USSC has consistently held that exemptions that are reserved only to religious objectors violate the Establishment Clause which prohibits government from favouring religion over irreligion. The third argument, the Equal Protection Argument, shows that exemptions that are reserved only for religious objectors violate the Equal Protection Clause (including its application to the federal government through the Due Process Clause) which prohibits government from drawing arbitrary distinctions between persons. The chapter concludes by showing that under the constitutional doctrine of Church Autonomy, religious institutions enjoy exemptions which non-religious associations can also benefit from under the freedom of expressive association. All grounds of the general right are therefore shown to be available to non-religious objectors.
The chapter shows that there is a general right to conscientious exemption in UK law. There are at least two rules of law which ground the right. These are (a) the requirement that public authorities and legislation (both primary and subordinate) comply with the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion under the Human Rights Act 1998 (HRA); and (b) the prohibition of indirect discrimination on the basis of religion or belief in employment and provision of goods and services arising under anti-discrimination legislation. The chapter tentatively sets out another rule of law which may ground the general right. This is the prohibition of discrimination on the ground of religion in the enjoyment of Convention Rights arising under Art 14 of the European Convention of Human Rights (‘ECHR’). The reason this ground is tentative is that it has not been relied on in UK courts although it has been successfully relied on in the European Court of Human Rights (‘ECtHR’) to receive an exemption from a legislative rule. Without explicit UK case law it is unwise to declare that this rule of law is another ground of the general right in UK law.
The chapter argues that the general right to conscientious exemption in Canada should not be interpreted to be available only to religious people. This is for several reasons. First, the general right to conscientious exemption is available under the right to freedom of conscience under s 2(a) of the Canadian Charter and s 3 of the Quebec Charter. Albeit there are only a handful of cases on this right and even though the SCC has not unequivocally delivered a judgment on this, it is clear that the existing cases hold that freedom of conscience protects non-religious conscientious beliefs. Secondly, even though the general right to conscientious exemption arising under anti-discrimination statutes appears to be a privilege of only those with religious beliefs, it has been argued that this would violate the Canadian Charter guarantee of equality rights under s 15 and freedom of conscience under s 2(a). The appropriate remedy, for most of the anti-discrimination statutes, would be to read in conscience as a protected characteristic. This would entail that, in relation to all the rules of law which guarantee the general right to conscientious exemption, the right is not a privilege of those that object on the basis of a religious belief.
Solidarity is a concept strongly linked to the twentieth century and its burning issues of conflicts between capital and labour in a secularised world. The pressing issues at the beginning of the twenty-first century transcend secularity and pose challenges for a post-secular, globalised world of migration and movements of human beings. Since the end of the Cold War, and especially since 9/11 in 2001, the re-emergence of (often conservative) religions and the role of religious affiliations have given rise to many reflections and motivated many research projects on issues related to conflicts, minorities and religious perspectives. This chapter reflects on the challenges, difficulties and potentials for trans-religious expressions and forms of solidarity based amongst others on earlier research. What emerges out of the transformation of social structures, state structures and belief structures that take place alongside major technological changes might be understood as a situation of paradoxical conservatism or ‘subversive traditionalism’. This is a conservatism and traditionalism that continues to demand access to the benefits of modernity and ‘modern life’, while at the same time seeking to preserve a traditional or conservative (gender) order. It also gives rise to perhaps paradoxical forms of solidarity.
Recent archaeological investigations have revealed that at the end of the fifth century b.c.e., Gabii, an ancient centre of Latium Vetus, was reorganised in a planned, quasi-orthogonal pattern, which constitutes an anomaly in the regional context. This is indicative of an important transformational moment in its history, representing a break from previous patterns of occupation and involving significant spatial and socio-political discontinuities with the previous settlement. This article proposes that the reorganisation reflects a moment of refoundation after a period of abandonment, an urban trajectory that can be clarified by a critical re-examination of the historical evidence, focusing on two pivotal processes: the devotio of the city by the Romans and the dynamics of early colonisation in Latium. This new interpretation not only has important implications for understanding the archaeology of Gabii and of early republican urbanism, but also sheds light on one of the ‘darkest’ ages in Roman history.
In Kenya, the prophecies of the late Elijah Masinde, leader of the anti-colonial religious revival Dini ya Msambwa, remain contested. MacArthur explores the religious innovations, intellectual work, and moral debates for the first time through Masinde’s own words. During his 1948 deportation trial, while the prosecution sought to remake Masinde from prophetic madman into calculating criminal, Masinde used the courtroom to challenge the pathologization of rebellion and remake his own patriotic vision. MacArthur argues that Masinde’s trial reveals colonial justice and psychiatry as discursive arenas for contestations over resistance, social control, and moral authority in colonial and postcolonial Africa.
Chapter 1 describes the considerable confusion that existed in relation to marriage law in Ireland. In Ireland there were not only differing views between the state and individual churches but also within religious denominations. For instance, until 1827, the Catholic church was divided into areas where the marriage definition of the Council of Trent of a valid marriage was implemented and others where it was not. Within Presbyterianism, there were groups who placed more emphasis on the scriptural definition of marriage as essentially the private vows between a man and a woman than the church leadership approved. Prior to the second half of the nineteenth century, the laity can be documented frequently defying clerical censure to marry in a manner that conformed more to social rather than religious requirements. Throughout the eighteenth century all of the main churches struggled to implement their regulations in relation to marriage. Men and women planning to marry in Ireland in the period from 1660 through to 1844 could choose from a complex array of formal and informal services. By the last decades of the eighteenth century, there are indications that all the church authorities were beginning to supervise the implementation of their respective regulations concerning marriage more stringently.
A variety of approaches have been developed as a way of ‘doing’ medical ethics. While each model may help illuminate different aspects of ethical cases, each have philosophical or practical limitations that preclude one model’s use in all clinical situations. The methods and approaches are described herein, with a brief description of the emphasis and limitations of each. Each model is illustrated through a basic neurosurgical case, reiterated with model-specific details to illustrate the important concepts for each model.
Like all institutions, polities are physical things only in certain restricted senses. They can be materialised in practical facilities and visible symbolic expressions, both manifestations of the bundled schemas and resources that compose their structure. Yet in their conditioning of individual and group behaviour within idealised communities, polities emerge from, and essentially remain, “states of mind” (Yoffee 2005: 38–41). If we are to appreciate the sources of legitimacy and empowerment integral to governing authorities, we must turn our attention to how those minds saw politics as inherently entwined with the transcendent. The Classic Maya were far from alone in believing that political communities encompassed supernatural beings and the ancestral dead, not simply as distant abstractions but role-playing constituents.