Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-55597f9d44-pgkvd Total loading time: 0.575 Render date: 2022-08-11T06:50:14.819Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "useNewApi": true } hasContentIssue true

2 - Mindfulness, Emotion Regulation, and Performance

from I - INTRODUCTION TO MINDFULNESS: HISTORY AND THEORETICAL UNDERSTANDING

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  05 January 2016

Zella E. Moore
Affiliation:
Manhattan College, U.S.A.
Amy L. Baltzell
Affiliation:
Boston University
Get access

Summary

The publication of this text and the fact that you are reading it at this very moment are clear indicators of a great achievement – mindfulness theory and associated interventions have made a mark on the field of sport psychology and have changed the way many sport psychologists worldwide think about their athletes’ performance and overall well-being! Yet although mindfulness has garnered increasing attention within sport psychology since the early 2000s, important and related concepts such as emotion regulation haven't quite received the attention within sport psychology that they deserve. Mindfulness and emotion regulation are inextricably connected, and as such, greater efforts to incorporate these scientific advancements into sport psychology research and practice are warranted. To this end, the present chapter considers athletic performance enhancement from the perspective of mindfulness and emotion regulation in order to further this line of inquiry and promote increased discussion of these theoretically linked constructs.

Mindfulness- and acceptance-based interventions for performance enhancement, represented first and most notably by the Mindfulness-Acceptance-Commitment (MAC) approach (Gardner & Moore, 2004, 2007, 2012; Moore & Gardner, 2001), have garnered increasingly supportive empirical data for their efficacy (Gardner & Moore, 2012). These intervention approaches work via substantially different mechanisms of change than more traditional change-based models of performance enhancement (Gardner & Moore, 2012; Moore, 2009), essentially by decreasing reactivity to internal experiences such as cognitions and emotions through greater acceptance/tolerance of these states, coupled with enhanced moment-to-moment awareness (i.e., task-relevant focus of attention) and enhanced activation of behaviors toward one's goals and values.

Contemporary developments in the emotion sciences, specifically regarding the processes underlying the regulation of emotion, illuminate ways to better understand mindfulness/acceptance-based interventions. Yet in order to coherently connect the theoretically linked constructs of mindfulness and emotion regulation, it is useful to reflect first on the nature and function of emotion. In turn, this allows us to better understand the purpose and processes of emotion regulation.

The Nature and Function of Emotion

From an evolutionary perspective, emotions can help human beings adapt to the daily challenges they face by preparing us to respond both physiologically and behaviorally to direct and indirect situations, facilitating in the decision-making process, and effectively navigating numerous interpersonal challenges (Gross & Thompson, 2007). As presently conceived, emotion consists of three basic components (Barlow et al., 2011). The first component is physiological, resulting in a subjective “feeling” state.

Type
Chapter
Information
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2016

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Aldao, A., Nolen-Hoeksema, S., and Schweizer, S. (2010). Emotion regulation strategies across psychopathology: A meta-analytic review. Clinical Psychology Review, 30, 217–237. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2009.11.004CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Barlow, D. H., Farchione, T. J., Fairholne, C. F., Ellard, K. K., Boisseau, C. L., Allen, L. B., and Ehrenreich-May, J. (2011). Unified protocol for transdiagnostic treatment of emotional disorders. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Beck, A. T., Rush, A. J., Shaw, B. F., and Emery, G. (1979). Cognitive therapy of depression. New York, NY: Guildford Press.Google Scholar
Bernier, M., Thienot, E., Codron, R., and Fournier, J. F. (2009). Mindfulness and acceptance approaches and sport performance. Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology, 4, 320–333.Google Scholar
Borkovec, T. D. (1994). The nature, functions, and origins of worry. In Davey, G. C. I. and Tallis, F. (Eds.), Worrying: Perspectives, theory, assessment and treatment (pp. 5–33). New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
Borkovec, T. D., and Hu, S. (1990). The effects of worry on cardiovascular response to phobic imagery. Behaviour Research and Therapy 28, 69–73. doi:10.1016/0005-7967(90)90056-OCrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bridges, L. J., Denham, S. A., and Ganiban, J. M. (2004). Definitional issues in emotion regulation research. Child Development, 75(2), 340–345. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2004.00675.xCrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Butler, E. A., and Gross, J. J. (2004). Hiding feelings in social contexts: Out of sight is not out of mind. In Philippot, P. and Feldman, R. S. (Eds.), The regulation of emotion (pp. 101–120). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
Calkins, S. D., and Hill, A. (2007). Caregiver influences on emerging emotion regulation: Biological and environmental transactions in early development. In Gross, J. J. (Ed.), Handbook of emotion regulation (pp. 229–248). New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1990). Flow: The psychology of optimal experience. New York, NY: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
Damasio, A. (1999). The feeling of what happens. New York, NY: Harcourt, Brace.Google Scholar
Davidson, R. J., and Irwin, W. (1999). The functional neuroanatomy of emotion and affective style. Trends in Cognitive Science, 3(1), 11–21. doi:10.1016/S1364-6613(98)01265-0CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ekman, P., Davidson, R. J., Ricard, M., and Wallace, A. B. (2005). Buddhist and psychological perspectives on emotions and well-being. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 14(2), 59–63. doi: 10.1111/j.0963-7214.2005.00335.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ellis, A. (1976). RET abolishes most of the human ego. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, 13, 343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fairholme, C. P., Boisseau, C. L., Ellard, K. K., Ehrenreich, J. T., and Barlow, D. H. (2010). Emotions, emotion regulation, and psychological treatment: A unified perspective. In Kring, A. M. and Sloan, D. M. (Eds.), Emotion regulation and psychopathology. New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
Feldman, G., Hayes, A., Kumar, S., Greeson, J., and Laurenceau, J. P. (2007). Mindfulness and emotion regulation: The development and initial validation of the Cognitive and Affective Mindfulness Scale-Revised (CAMS-R). Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 29(3), 177–190. doi: 10.1007/s10862-006-9035-8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gardner, F. L. (2009). Efficacy, mechanisms of change, and the scientific development of sport psychology. Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology, 3(2), 139–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gardner, F. L., and Moore, Z. E. (2004). A mindfulness-acceptance-commitment (MAC) based approach to athletic performance enhancement: Theoretical considerations. Behavior Therapy, 35, 707–723. doi:10.1016/S0005-7894(04)80016-9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gardner, F. L., and Moore, Z. E. (2006). Clinical sport psychology. Champagne, IL: Human Kinetics.Google Scholar
Gardner, F. L., and Moore, Z. E. (2007). The psychology of human performance: The mindfulness-acceptance-commitment approach. New York, NY: Springer.Google Scholar
Gardner, F. L., and Moore, Z. E. (2010). Acceptance-based behavioral therapies and sport. In Hanrahan, S., and Andersen, M. (Eds.), Handbook of applied sport psychology (pp. 186–193). New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
Gardner, F. L., and Moore, Z. E. (2012). Mindfulness and acceptance models in sport psychology: A decade of basic and applied scientific advancements. Canadian Psychology, 53(4), 309–318. doi: 10.1037/a0030220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gardner, F. L., Moore, Z. E., and Marks, D. R. (2014). Rectifying misconceptions: A comprehensive response to “Some concerns about the psychological implications of mindfulness: A critical analysis.”Journal of Rational-Emotive and Cognitive Behavior Therapy, 32(4), 325–344. doi: 10.1007/s10942-014-0196-1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Goleman, D. (1995). Emotional intelligence. New York, NY: Bantam.Google Scholar
Goodman, F. R., Kashdan, T. B., Mallard, T. T., and Schumann, M. (2014). A brief mindfulness and yoga intervention with an entire NCAA Division I athletic team: An initial investigation. Psychology of Consciousness: Theory, Research, and Practice, 1, 339–348. doi: 10.1037/cns0000022Google Scholar
Gratz, K. L., and Roemer, L. (2004). Multidimensional assessment of emotion regulation and dysregulation: Development, factor structure, and initial validation of the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 26(1), 41–54. doi: 10.1023/B:JOBA.0000007455.08539.94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gross, M., Gardner, F. L., and Moore, Z. E. (2012, November). Using the mindfulness-acceptance-commitment (MAC) approach with high school student-athletes: An investigation of its effectiveness as a prevention program. Paper presented at the annual convention of the Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies, National Harbor, Maryland.Google Scholar
Gross, J. J., and John, O. P. (2003). Individual differences in two emotion regulation processes: Implications for affect, relationships, and well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85, 348–362. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.85.2.348CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gross, M., Moore, Z. E., Gardner, F. L., and Marks, D. R. (2015). Empirical examination of the mindfulness-acceptance-commitment (MAC) approach for the mentalhealth and sport performance of student athletes. Manuscript submitted for publication.
Gross, J. J., and Thompson, R. A. (2007). Emotion regulation: Conceptual foundations. In Gross, J. J. (Ed.), Handbook of emotion regulation (pp. 3–25). New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
Hayes, A. M., and Feldman, G. (2004). Clarifying the construct of mindfulness in the context of emotion regulation and the process of change in therapy. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 11(3), 255–262. doi: 10.1093/clipsy.bph080Google Scholar
Hayes, S. C., Luoma, J., Bond, F., Masuda, A., and Lillis, J. (2006). Acceptance and Commitment Therapy: Model, processes, and outcomes. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 44, 1–25. doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2005.06.006CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hayes, S. C., Strosahl, K. D., and Wilson, K. G. (2011). Acceptance and commitment therapy: The process and practice of mindful change. New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
Hayes, S. C., Wilson, K. W., Gifford, E. V., Follette, V. M., and Strosahl, K. (1996). Experiential avoidance and behavioral disorders: A functional dimensional approach to diagnosis and treatment. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 64(6), 1152–1168. doi: 10.1037/0022-006X.64.6.1152CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hofmann, S. G., and Asmundson, G. J. G. (2008). Acceptance and mindfulness-based therapy: New wave or old hat?Clinical Psychology Review, 28(1), 1–16. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2007.09.003CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ivanovski, B., and Malhi, G. S. (2007). The psychological and neurophysiological concomitants of mindfulness forms of meditation. Acta Neuropsychiatrica, 19(2), 76–91. doi: 10.1111/j.1601-5215.2007.00175.xCrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kabat-Zinn, J. (1990). Full catastrophe living: Using the wisdom of your mind and body to face stress, pain, and illness. New York, NY: Delacorte.Google Scholar
Kabat-Zinn, J. (1994). Wherever you go, there you are: Mindfulness in everyday life. New York, NY: Hyperion.Google Scholar
Kashdan, T. B., Barrios, V., Forsyth, J. P., and Steger, M. F. (2006). Experiential avoidance as a generalized psychological vulnerability: Comparisons with coping and emotion regulation strategies. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 44, 1301–1320. doi:10.1016/j.brat.2005.10.003CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
LeDoux, J. (1996). The emotional brain. New York, NY: Simon and Schuster.Google Scholar
Marks, D. R. (2008). The Buddha's extra scoop: Neural correlates of mindfulness and clinical sport psychology. Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology, 2, 216–241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mennin, D. S., Heimberg, R. G., Turk, C. L., and Fresco, D. M. (2002). Applying an emotion regulation framework to integrative approaches to generalized anxiety disorder. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 9(1), 85–90. doi: 10.1093/clipsy.9.1.85Google Scholar
Moore, Z. E. (2003). Toward the development of an evidence based practice of sport psychology: A structured qualitative study of performance enhancement interventions (Doctoral dissertation, La Salle University). Dissertation Abstracts International-B, 64 (10), 5227 (UMI No. 3108295).Google Scholar
Moore, Z. E. (2009). Theoretical and empirical developments of the mindfulness-acceptance-commitment (MAC) approach to performance enhancement. Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology, 3(4), 291–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Moore, Z., and Gardner, F. (2001, October). Taking applied sport psychology from research to practice: Integrating empirically supported interventions into a self-regulatory model of athletic performance. Symposium presented at the annual conference of the Association for the Advancement of Applied Sport Psychology, Orlando, FL.Google Scholar
Moore, Z. E., and Gardner, F. L. (2011). Understanding models of performance enhancement from the perspective of emotion regulation. Athletic Insight, 3(3), 247–260.Google Scholar
Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (1998). The other end of the continuum: The costs of rumination. Psychological Inquiry, 9, 216–219. doi: 10.1207/s15327965pli0903_5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Santanello, A., and Gardner, F. L. (2007). The role of experiential avoidance in the relationship between maladaptive perfectionism and worry. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 31, 319–332. doi: 10.1007/s10608-006-9000-6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schwanhausser, L. (2009). Application of the mindfulness-acceptance-commitment (MAC) protocol with an adolescent springboard diver: The case of Steve. Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology, 3, 377–395.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Thompson, R. A. (1994). Emotion regulation: A theme in search of definition. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 59, 25–52. doi: 10.1111/j.1540-5834.1994.tb01276.xCrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wegner, D. M. (1994). Ironic processes of mental control. Psychological Review, 101(1), 34–52. doi: 10.1037/0033-295X.101.1.34CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
6
Cited by

Save book to Kindle

To save this book to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Available formats
×

Save book to Dropbox

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Available formats
×

Save book to Google Drive

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Available formats
×