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Allies in Memory
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Book description

Amidst the ruins of postwar Europe, and just as the Cold War dawned, many new memorials were dedicated to those Americans who had fought and fallen for freedom. Some of these monuments, plaques, stained-glass windows and other commemorative signposts were established by agents of the US government, partly in the service of transatlantic diplomacy; some were built by American veterans' groups mourning lost comrades; and some were provided by grateful and grieving European communities. As the war receded, Europe also became the site for other forms of American commemoration: from the sombre and solemn battlefield pilgrimages of veterans, to the political theatre of Presidents, to the production and consumption of commemorative souvenirs. With a specific focus on processes and practices in two distinct regions of Europe – Normandy and East Anglia – Sam Edwards tells a story of postwar Euro-American cultural contact, and of the acts of transatlantic commemoration that this bequeathed.


‘In this book Sam Edwards shows that he is a historian capable of investigating a complex history in a multifaceted way navigating his way through the tricky and occasionally overlapping narratives developed by each culture. He shows the way the memory of the war has grown and adapted, the inherently political biases of all forms of commemoration and the fact that messages are altered, created or reinforced to suit different cultures at different times. All this is done in a text that is engaging and readable. This is a major contribution to our understandings of war memory.’

Mark Connolly - University of Kent

‘Drawing on an impressive array of primary and secondary sources Sam Edwards weaves together a brilliant and fascinating explanation of American and European commemorative representations of World War Two. Having embarked upon this challenging and difficult subject, Edwards consummates it with flair and insight. He explains both the complex interactions between those primarily responsible for constructing commemorative representations and the effects of feedback upon them of historical developments. All this will enthrall the reader.’

Alan Dobson - Swansea University

'Sam Edwards has provided a brilliant and fascinating study that causes us to rethink our understanding of the nature and purpose of commemoration and the relationship between Britain and the USA. Rising above and beyond traditional parochial interpretations, he demonstrates a rich and complex history of how we interpret our collective past, and shows how that has shaped transatlantic relationships since 1945. An exemplary piece of historical analysis and highly recommended.'

John Buckley - University of Wolverhampton

‘This study of transatlantic commemoration demonstrates that the concerns of the present always shape the ways in which the past is recollected. Memorials erected by American veterans ‘were not simply disinterested statements of remembrance honouring lost comrades, nor were they politically neutral expressions of grief and gratitude. Rather, these memorials encoded a set of historically specific attitudes and assumptions’ regarding World War II and the continuing American military presence in Europe.’

Patrick Hagopian - Lancaster University

‘This is a book of extraordinary scope. Sam Edwards leads us on a journey through the material remnants of war, charting the way that memorialization was plotted across the landscapes of southern Britain and France. From deserted airfield runways that once carried B17 bombers, to village churchyards, memorial gardens and landing beaches remade as cemeteries, Edwards explores the complex construction of memory and the politics that shape it. He examines the dynamic interplay of diverse memory agents, veterans recalling their own war experience, local communities creating a sense of heritage, and the cultural and political agencies that fund commemoration on both sides of the Atlantic. This book will be of interest to any scholar of the Second World War … Beautifully written, carefully researched and informed by a vast but never intrusive historiography, Allies in Memory is a welcome contribution to a long neglected field.’

Bruce Scates - Monash University, Victoria

'Well indexed, referenced, and appropriately illustrated … Recommended. Upper-division undergraduates and above.'

Source: Choice

'This book is a latecomer to an intense wave of scholarly interest in commemoration, particularly of war and conflict, which began in the mid-1990s. … Edwards tells an important story and he does it with no small amount of verve.'

Adam R. Seipp Source: The Journal of Modern History

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RECORD GROUP 117: Files of the American Battle Monuments Commission

Administrative History

  • General Records, 1923–1965

    • – Proceedings of the ABMC

    • – Annual Reports of the Commission

  • Records Relating to Cemeteries and Memorials

    • – Monuments and Memorials Correspondence files, 1949–1973, especially: First Infantry Division Files; Second Infantry Division Files; Pointe du Hoc Monument Files; Utah Beach Monument Files

    • – Construction and Maintenance of World War II Cemeteries

    • – Records of European Regional Office

  • The National Guard Monument at Vierville-sur-Mer in Normandy

  • Normandy Commission/Travel Programs, 1969

  • Normandy Visit, 1964

  • Normandy Commission/Travel Programs, 1974 and later

  • Normandy 1994 – Tours

  • Hardy C. Derx papers

  • John A, Hughes papers, 1917–1984

  • William P. Jones papers

  • Louis F. Lisko papers

  • Perry Euchner papers, 1915–1980

  • William Fulton Magill papers, 1945–1957

  • Thomas North papers, 1917–1922

  • Lucian K. Truscott, Jr., photograph collection

  • 8th Air Force Collection Papers

    • 8AF miscellaneous

    • Reunions and symposiums

    • General World War II

    • Newspaper clippings and journal articles

    • John Woolnough papers

    • Dennis Scanlan papers

    • Historical Society papers

    • John Humphries materials

    • 355th Fighter Group papers

    • Office files

  • Works Papers (32 and 20) related to the establishment of American Cemetery at Madingley, Cambridgeshire and an American Memorial Chapel in St. Paul’s, and concerning the statue to Abraham Lincoln established in 1920.

  • Foreign Office Papers (371) related to D-Day anniversaries, American Battle Monuments and Cemeteries in Britain, and the American Memorial Chapel at St. Paul’s Cathedral.

  • HLG 45/165: Chesterton RDC: American Cemetery, Madingley, 1942–1955

  • HLG 45/109: American cemeteries in the United Kingdom: land required for burial ground for American forces, 1944–1945.

  • IR 37/227: St. Paul’s Cathedral: reinstatement of reredos and American memorial chapel, 1949–1953.

  • Liturgies. Church of England. Special Forms of Prayer. ‘Service of Commemoration of 28,000 American Dead in Wartime Comradeship with the people of Britain, 1951’.

  • Liturgies. Church of England. Occasional Offices and dedication of Church Furniture, etc. St. Paul’s Cathedral Dedication of the American Memorial Chapel in the presence of her Majesty the Queen and the Vice President of the United States, Wednesday, 26 November 1958.

  • The American Memorial Chapel (Pitkin Pictorials Ltd., London, 1958).

  • American Battle Monuments Commission, ‘Annual Report . . . Fiscal Year 1925’ (1926).

  • American Battle Monuments Commission, ‘Cambridge American Cemetery and Memorial’ (1957).

  • Second Air Division Memorial Library Minor Collection (MC).

  • Various files about memorial dedications, veterans’ pilgrimages and other commemorative activities from the 1940s to 1990s.

  • Norfolk Parish Records: Quidenham, Shipdham, Hingham, Seething, Hardwick, Thorpe Abbotts, Thetford.

  • ‘Tom Paine: The Flying Fortress’. EDP article from 1982 about a visit to Knettishall of former crew of B-17 Tom Paine.

  • ‘Tom Paine: Flying Fortress’ – newspaper article from 1969.

  • Suffolk Parish Records: Martlesham Heath, Raydon, Sudbury FC 9/c11/13.

  • HD2272/337/38: East Anglian Tourist Board leaflet ‘American Air Force, Past and Present’, 1977.

  • HD2272/153/10/1/5/1: Booklet welcoming American forces, c. 1942.

  • HD2272/337/37: Suffolk County Council leaflet, ‘Suffolk, the American Connection’ 50th anniversary of the arrival of the Eighth Air Force, 1992.

  • Suffolk Parish Records: Flixton, Holton, Ellough, Leiston.

  • Suffolk Parish Records: Lavenham, Elveden, Great Ashfield, Lakenheath.

  • GB 554/B13/40: Programme commemorating the 40th anniversary of the Normandy Landings, Bayeux.

  • Essex Parish Records: Little Easton, Saffron Walden. Willingale, Ashen, Boreham, Chelmsford, Messing.

  • L/C 2: Letters about the annual Essex-American Service, 1963–1976

  • D/DS 57/1: Photographs taken at American 1950 exhibition organised by Marshall Plan Mission through Southend Committee of the English Speaking Union, 1950.

  • D/DU 1865/5/2: Welcome to Essex, booklet for American GIs, 1944.

  • C/DP/6/2/38: Return to Essex, Newsletter re the USAAF Reunion, 1992.

  • D/B 2/BRL1/20: Commemorative booklet marking freedom of the borough to 65th Fighter Wing, Saffron Walden, 1945.

  • C/DP/6/2/33: Stars and Stripes in Essex, Brochures re the USAAF Reunion, 1992.

  • C/DR/10/9: ‘Pilgrims and Adventurers’ leaflet celebrating role of Essex in founding of US, 16 April–31 August 1992.

  • C/DR/1/109: Pilgrims and Adventurers: Essex and the making of the United States of America, by J. R. Smith, 1992.

  • C/DP/6/2/11: Essex Surprises! Stars and Stripes in Essex booklet, 1986.

  • Cambridgeshire Parish Records: Steeple Morden, Royston, Madingley, Duxford

  • Archives de Prefecture du Cabinet:

    • 1004 W (153–164) – B9, Commémorations, fetes nationales, jours féries, cérémonies publiques, 1947–1972.

    • 1004 W (153–164) – Voie de la Liberté’, 1947–1957

    • 1004 W 917 (I12), Erection de Monuments (divers), 1947–1957.

    • 1004 W 918 (I12), Erection de Monuments (divers), 1958–1967.

    • 1004 W 919 (I12), Erections de Monuments (divers), 1968–1972.

    • 1004 W 328, Cérémonies du XXe anniversaire du débarquement; Inauguration du proche de la prison de St. Lô.

    • 1004 W 144, Commémoration du premier anniversaire du Débarquement en Normandie.

    • 1310 W 251, Erections de Monuments, hommages publics, foundation maréchal de latter de Tassigny, construction d’un monument à Utah Beach.

  • Archives du Conseil générale

    • 1095 W 90, 40e anniversaire du Débarquement, 1944–1984.

    • 1095 W 91, 40e anniversaire du Débarquement: Revue de Press, 1984.

  • Archives du Conseil générale: Tourisme

    • 1366 W 11, Requalification des musée – musée du Musée [sic] du Roule à Cherbourg: rapports de cabinet SETEL. Musée d’Utah à Sainte-Marie-du-Mont: marché negocié avec SETEL. Informations sur divers sites et musées, 1993–1994.

    • 1366 W 1, Voyages aux Etats Unis du 19 à 23 Juin 1991 et du 15 au 19 Juin 1992. Fondation de la Bataille de Normandie (the Battle of Normandy Foundation). Documentation, 1991–1992.

    • 1366 W 2, L’association ‘Liberté 44’ – Fondation, reunion préparatoire à l’assemblée générale du 23 novembre 1992; Assemblée générale constitutive 14 décembre 1992; convention collective; plan de communication; organigramme. Dissolution du 8 Septembre1995, aprurement des comptes; reunions, 1991–1995.

    • 1366 W 4, conseil’s administration (8 février 1994, 5 octobre 1994), 1994 (bilan final), 5 décembre 1994.

    • 1366 W 3, Liberté 44, assemblées générales (14 octobre, 1 mars 1994, 30 janvier 1995), 1993–1995.

    • 1366 W 5, Liberté 44, reunions du comité de pilotage (2 févier 1993, 6 avrial 1993, 7 avril 1993, 30 avril 1993, 14 mai 1993, 28 mai 1993).

  • Archives du sous-prefecture de Cherbourg

    • Affaires Communales de Ste. Mère Église, 1012 W 341.

    • Canton de Ste. Mère Église (1944–1971).

  • Archives du prefecture du Calvados: cabinet du Prefet: Etat des versements, 1941–2001

  • 218 W 15648, Monuments Commémoratifs.

  • Monuments Commémoratifs, 1946–1949.

  • Monuments Commémoratifs, 1950–1953.

  • 218 W 15649, Monuments Commémoratifs.

  • 747 W 20624, XXème Anniversaire du Débarquement.

  • Revue de Presse du 50ème Anniversaire (multiple volumes).

  • Revue de Presse du 60ème Anniversaire (multiple volumes).

  • The Bridgehead Sentinel

  • Christian Science Monitor

  • Colliers

  • Five-o-sink: Newsletter of the 506th PIR, 101st AB

  • The Flint Journal

  • Government Executive

  • The Indian Head

  • The International Herald Tribune

  • The Ivy Leaves

  • The Los Angeles Times

  • The National Guardsman

  • National Geographic

  • Newsday

  • The New York Times

  • Nostalgic Notes

  • Pittsburgh Post-Gazette

  • The Public Opinion Quarterly

  • The Saturday Evening Post

  • Splasher Six

  • The Star

  • Stars and Stripes

  • The Washington Post

  • 2nd Air Division Association Newsletter

  • Eighth Air Force News

  • 94th Quarterly

  • 388th Bomb Group Association Newsletter

  • Beccles and Bungay Journal

  • Blackpool Citizen

  • Daily Mail

  • Eastern Daily Press

  • Eastern Evening News

  • Flypast

  • London Calling

  • Lowestoft Journal

  • Northamptonshire Evening Telegraph

  • Norwich Mercury and Advertiser

  • The Reunion, 1942–1992

  • Reunion News (1990–1992 only)

  • The Times

  • Walton and Swaffham Times

  • 2nd Air Division Norwich News

  • Le Figaro

  • La Gazette de la Manche

  • Libre Service Actualie

  • La Manche Libre

  • Le Monde

  • Ouest France

  • La Press de la Manche

  • La Renaissance en Bessin

  • Interview with Mr D. Hills, Trust Librarian, Second Air Division Memorial Library, 19 December 2002.

  • Interview with Miss T. Orr, Fulbright Librarian, Second Air Division Memorial Library, 20 December 2002.

  • Interview with Mr Walter Hughes, Second Air Division veteran, 23 December 2008.

  • Interview with Mrs Libby Morgan, Trust Librarian, Second Air Division Memorial Library, 20 April 2009.

  • Interview with Mr Martin Bowman, Aviation historian, 23 December 2008.

  • Interview with Mr Richard Ashton, Director of IWM Duxford and Executive Vice-President of the American Air Museum, 27 January 2009.

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  • Air Force (1943).

  • A Matter of Life and Death (1946).

  • A Village Remembers (1992).

  • Band of Brothers (2001).

  • Battle of Britain (1969).

  • Breakthrough (1950).

  • Command Decision (1948).

  • D-Day: The Sixth of June (1956).

  • D-Day: Eisenhower’s Return to Normandy (1999).

  • Dirty Dozen (1967).

  • Memphis Belle (1990).

  • Mrs Miniver (1942).

  • Over Here (1996).

  • Saving Private Ryan (1998).

  • The Best Years of Our Lives (1945).

  • The Big Red One (1980).

  • The Longest Day (1962).

  • The Memphis Belle (1943).

  • The True Glory (1945).

  • The War Lover (1962).

  • The Way to the Stars (1945).

  • The World at War (1974).

  • The Yanks Return to England (1995).

  • Twelve O’ Clock High (1949).

  • USAAF Return to England 1942–1992 (1992).

  • War Stories: Return to England 1992 (1992).

  • We’ll Meet Again (1982).

  • Yanks (1979).

  • 2nd AD Reunion in Norwich 1987 (1987).

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