Skip to main content
  • Print publication year: 2010
  • Online publication date: November 2010

5 - Anxiety as signal, symptom, and syndrome

from Section 1 - Evolving concepts of anxiety
Recommend this book

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

Anxiety Disorders
  • Online ISBN: 9780511777578
  • Book DOI:
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to *


Brown, G. W., Harris, T. O., & Bifulco, A. (1986). Long-term effects of early loss of parent. In M. Rutter, C. E. Izard, & P. B. Read, eds., Depression in Young People: Developmental and Clinical Perspectives. New York, NY: Guilford Publications.
Caligor, E., Stern, B. L., Hamilton, M., et al. (2009). Why we recommend analytic treatment for some patients and not for others. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 57, 677–694.
Caspi, A., Sugden, K., Moffitt, T. E., et al. (2003). Influence of stress on depression: moderation by a polymorphism in the 5-HTT gene. Science, 301, 386–389.
Coplan, J.D., Smith, E.L.P., Altemus, M., et al. (2001). Variable for aging demand rearing: sustained elevations in C1 sternal cerebrospinal fluid corticotropin-releasing factor concentrations in adult primates. Biological Psychiatry, 50, 200–204.
Davis, M., & Whalen, P. J. (2001) The amygdala: vigilance and emotion. Molecular Psychiatry, 6, 13–34.
Dawson, G., Ashman, S. B., & Carver, L. J. (2000). The role of early experience in shaping behavioral and brain development and its implications for social policy. Developmental Psychopathology, 12, 695–712.
Drevets, W. C., Price, J. L., Simpson, J. R., et al. (1997). Subgenual prefrontal cortex abnormalities in mood disorders. Nature, 386, 824–827.
Etkin, A., Pittenger, C., Polan, H.J., & Kandel, E.R. (2005). Toward a neurobiology of psychotherapy: basic science and clinical applications. Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, 17, 145–158.
Freud, A. (1936). The Ego and the Mechanisms of Defence. London: Hogarth Press.
Freud, S. (1894). The Neuro-Psychoses of Defence. The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud, Volume III (1893–1899). London: Hogarth Press.
Freud, S. (1896). Further Remarks on the Neuro-Psychoses of Defence. The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud, Volume III (1893–1899). London: Hogarth Press.
Freud, S. (1923). The Ego and the Id. The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud, Volume IXX, 1–66. London: Hogarth Press.
Freud, S. (1926). Inhibitions, Symptoms, and Anxiety. The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud, Volume XX. London: Hogarth Press.
Garfinkle, S., Hamilton, M., Wininger, L., Garfinkle, M., & Roose, S. (2009). Diagnosis and medication of mood disorders vs anxiety disorders by psychoanalytic candidates. New Research, Meeting of the American Psychoanalytic Association of New York.
Gutman, D., & Nemeroff, C. B. (2002). Neurobiology of early life stress: rodent studies. Seminars in Clinical Neuropsychiatry, 7, 89–95.
Hartmann, H. (1939). Ego Psychology and the Problem of Adaptation. New York, NY: International Universities Press.
Heim, C., Newport, D. J., Heit, S., et al. (2000). Pituitary–adrenal and autonomic responses to stress in women after sexual and physical abuse in childhood. JAMA, 284, 592–597.
Heim, C., Newport, D. J., Bonsall, R., Miller, A. H., & Nemeroff, C. B. (2001). Altered pituitary-adrenal responses to provocative challenge tests in adult survivors of childhood abuse. American Journal of Psychiatry, 158, 575–581.
Hofer, M. A. (1975). Studies on how early maternal separation produces behavioral change in young rats. Psychosomatic Medicine, 37, 245–64.
Hofer, M. A. (1996). Multiple regulators of ultrasonic vocalization in the infant rat. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 21, 203–217.
Kagan, J., Reznick, J., & Snidman, N. (1987). The physiology and psychology of behavioral inhibition in children. Child Development, 58, 1459–1473.
Kagan, J., Reznick, J., & Snidman, N. (1988). Biological bases of childhood shyness. Science, 240, 167–171.
Kandel, E. (1983). From metapsychology to molecular biology: explorations into the nature of anxiety. American Journal of Psychiatry, 40, 1277–1293. Reprinted in Psychiatry, Psychoanalysis, and the New Biology of Mind. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing, 2005.
Kernberg, O. (1976). Object Relations Theory and Clinical Psychoanalysis. New York, NY: Jason Aronson.
Kim, S. Y., & Holloway, R. G. (2003) Burdens and benefits of placebos in antidepressant clinical trials: a decision and cost-effectiveness analysis. American Journal of Psychiatry, 160, 1272–1276.
Klein, M. (1964). Contributions to Psychoanalysis, 1921–1945. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
Klein, M. (1975) Envy and Gratitude and Other Works: 1946–1963. New York, NY: Delacorte.
Kohut, H. (1971). The Analysis of Self. New York, NY: International Universities Press
Kohut, H. (1977). The Restoration of the Self. New York, NY: International Universities Press
Kuhn, C. M., & Schanberg, S. M. (1991). Stimulation in infancy and brain development. In B. J. Carroll, ed., Psychopathology and the Brain. New York, NY: Raven Press.
Mirescu, C., Peters, J. D., & Gould, E. (2004). Early life experience alters response of adult neurogenesis to stress. Nature Neuroscience, 7, 841–846.
Rutherford, B., Sneed, J., & Roose, S. P. (2009). Does study design influence outcome? The effects of placebo control and treatment duration in antidepressant trials. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 78, 172–181.
Sneed, J. R., Rutherford, B. R., Rindskopf, D., et al. (2008). Design makes a difference: a meta-analysis of antidepressant response rates in placebo-controlled versus comparator trials in late life depression. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 16, 65–73.
Sullivan, G., Debiec, J., Bush, D., Lyons, D., & LeDoux, J. (2009). The neurobiology of fear and anxiety. In D. Charney, & E. Nestler, eds., Neurobiology of Mental Illness. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Winnicott, D. W. (1965). The Maturational Process and the Facilitating Environment. London: Hogarth Press.