Hayek is recognized as the philosopher/economist who championed liberty and opposed socialism. Marx, especially after the experience of bolshevism, is seen as the high priest, if not the god, of socialism and the enemy of liberty. Hayek is thus anti-Marx as he is also anti-Keynes. Yet there are few direct references to Marx in Hayek's writings; and Marxists, for most of the period when Hayek was writing and beyond, have ignored him. (Gamble 1996 is a notable exception.) Democratic socialists or social democrats engaged in the debates about socialist calculation with Hayek much more in the 1930s (Hayek 1935b; Durbin 1985). By the time Hayek wrote his final book, The Fatal Conceit: The Errors of Socialism (1988), the Soviet Union was close to collapse and socialism as a doctrine had become beleaguered. Hayek was celebrated as the philosopher who inspired those who subverted the Soviet empire in Eastern Europe. But it could be argued that by then Marx had little to do with Eastern Europe or the Soviet Union (Desai 2002).
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