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The Cambridge Companion to the Cistercian Order

Book description

This volume presents the composite character of the Cistercian Order in its unity and diversity, detailing the white monks' history from the Middle Ages to the present day. It charts the geographical spread of the Order from Burgundy to the peripheries of medieval Europe, examining key topics such as convents, liturgy, art, agriculture, spiritual life and education, providing an insight into Bernard of Clairvaux's life, work and sense of self, as well as the lives of other key Cistercian figures. This Companion offers an accessible synthesis of contemporary scholarship on the Order's interaction with the extramural world and its participation in, and contribution to, the cultural, economical and political climate of medieval Europe and beyond. The discussion contributes to the history of religious orders, and will be useful to those studying the twelfth-century renaissance, the apostolic movement and the role of religious life in medieval society.

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Primary sources
Further reading
Selected modern editions of Cistercian authors and translations of works mentioned
Adam of Perseigne (c. 1145–1221)
Book of Mutual Love; ed. G. Raciti, ‘Un opuscule inédit d’Adam de Perseigne le “Livre de l’amour mutuel”’, Cîteaux, 31 (1980), 297–341
Letters; ed. J. Bouvet, Correspondance d’Adam, abbé de Perseigne (1188–1221) (Le Mans, 1951; 1962), repr. Adam de Perseigne: Lettres, SCh 66 (Paris 1960); trans. (partial) G. Perigo, The Letters of Adam of Perseigne 1, intro. T. Merton, CF 21 (Kalamazoo, MI, 1976)
Mariale (twelve Marian sermons); PL 211:699–754; trans. (French) R. Thomas, Mariale (Chambarand, 1963)
Soliloquium (Soliloquy); ed. J. Bouvet, ‘Le Soliloquium d’Adam de Perseigne’, Collectanea Cisterciensia, 50 (1988), 113–71
Aelred of Rievaulx (1110–c. 1167)
De bello Standardii (account of the 1138 Battle of the Standard between English and Scottish troops); PL 195:701–12; trans. J.P. Freeland, Aelred of Rievaulx: The Historical Works, ed. M.L. Dutton, CF 56 (Kalamazoo, MI, 2005)
De Iesu puero duodenni (On Jesus at the Age of Twelve); PL 184:849–70; ed. C.H. Talbot and A. Hoste, CCCM 1 (Turnhout, 1971), pp. 249–78; trans. T. Berkeley, Aelred of Rievaulx: Treatises, intro. D. Knowles, CF 2 (Kalamazoo, MI, 1982; first pub. 1971)
De institutione inclusarum (On the Institution of Recluses); PL 32:1451–77 (De vita eremitica ad sororem liber); ed. C.H. Talbot and A. Hoste, CCCM 1 (Turnhout, 1971), pp. 637–82; trans. M.P. Macpherson, Aelred of Rievaulx: Treatises, CF 2 (Kalamazoo, MI, 1982; first pub. 1971)
De sanctimoniali de Wattun (tale of the Nun of Watton); PL 195:789–96; trans. J.P. Freeland, Aelred of Rievaulx: Lives of the Northern Saints, intro. M.L. Dutton, CF 71 (Kalamazoo, MI, 2006), pp. 109–122
De sanctis Hagulstaldensis ecclesiae (On the Saintly Founders of the Church of Hexham); ed. J. Raine, The Priory of Hexham: Its Chronicles, Endowments and Annals, Surtees Society 44 (Durham, 1863–4), pp. 173–203; trans. Freeland, Lives of the Northern Saints
De spirituali amicitia (Spiritual Friendship); PL 195:659–702; ed. A. Hoste and C.H. Talbot, CCCM 1 (Turnhout, 1971), pp. 287–350; trans. M.E. Laker, Aelred of Rievaulx: Spiritual Friendship, intro. C. Dumont, CF 1 (Spencer, MA, 1974); trans. L.C. Braceland, Aelred of Rievaulx: Spiritual Friendship, ed. M.L. Dutton (Collegeville, MN, 2009)
Dialogus de anima (On the Soul); ed. C.H. Talbot, Aelred of Rievaulx: De Anima, Medieval and Renaissance Studies, Supplement 1 (London, 1952); ed. C.H. Talbot and A. Hoste, CCCM 1 (Turnhout, 1971), pp. 685–754; trans. C.H. Talbot, Aelred of Rievaulx: Dialogue on the Soul, CF 22 (Kalamazoo, MI, 1981)
Eulogium Davidis regis Scotorum (Eulogy of King David of Scotland); ed. W.M. Metcalfe, Pinkerton’s Lives of the Scottish Saints, 2 vols. (Paisley, 1889), 2, pp. 269–85; trans. Freeland, Aelred of Rievaulx: The Historical Works
Genealogia regum Anglorum (The Genealogy of the Kings of England); PL 195:711–38; trans. Freeland, Aelred of Rievaulx: The Historical Works
Oratio pastoralis (Pastoral Prayer); ed. C.H. Talbot and A. Hoste, CCCM 1 (Turnhout, 1971), pp. 757–63; ed. and intro. M.L. Dutton, CSQ, 38 (2003), 297–308; trans. R.P. Lawson, Aelred of Rievaulx: Treatises; trans. M. DelCogliano, CSQ, 37 (2002), 453–66; trans. M. DelCogliano, For Your Own People: Aelred of Rievaulx’s Pastoral Prayer, intro. M.L. Dutton, CF 73 (Kalamazoo, MI, 2008)
Speculum caritatis (The Mirror of Charity); PL 195:501–620; ed. A. Hoste and C.H. Talbot, CCCM 1 (Turnhout, 1971), pp. 3–161; trans. E. Connor, Aelred of Rievaulx: The Mirror of Charity, intro. C. Dumont, CF 17 (Kalamazoo, MI, 1990)
Vita Niniani Pictorum australium apostoli (Life of Ninian the ‘Apostle of the North’); ed. A.P. Forbes, Lives of S. Ninian and S. Kentigern, The Historians of Scotland 5 (Edinburgh and Douglas, 1874), pp. 137–57; ed. W.M. Metcalfe, Pinkerton’s Lives of the Scottish Saints, vol. 1, pp. 9–39; trans. Freeland, Lives of the Northern Saints
Vita sancti Edwardi regis et confessoris (Life of Saint Edward the Confessor); PL 195:737–90; trans. Freeland, Aelred of Rievaulx: The Historical Works
Sermons
Homeliae de oneribus propheticis Isaiae (Homilies on the Burdens of Isaiah); PL 184:817–28 and 195:363–500; ed. G. Raciti, A. Hoste and C.H. Talbot, CCCM 2D (Turnhout, 2005), pp. 21–288
Sermones I–XLVI: Collectio Claraevallensis prima et secunda; ed. G. Raciti, CCCM 2A (Turnhout, 1989)
Sermones XLVII–LXXXIV: Collectio Dunelmensis, sermo a Matthaeo Rievallensi servatus, Sermones Lincolnienses; ed. G. Raciti, CCCM 2B (Turnhout, 2001); trans. (partial) A. Sulavik, ‘Aelred of Rievaulx: Sermons on the Feasts of Saint Mary’, CSQ, 32 (1997), 37–125; trans. (partial) T. Berkeley and M.B. Pennington, Aelred of Rievaulx: The Liturgical Sermons. The First Clairvaux Collections, CF 58 (Kalamazoo, MI, 2001)
Amadeus of Lausanne (1110–1159)
Eight homilies in praise of the Virgin Mary; PL 188:1303–46; trans. A. Dumas, Amédée de Lausanne: huit homélies mariales, intro. G. Bavaud, ed. J. Deshusses, SCh 72 (Paris, 1960); trans. G. Perigo, Magnificat: Homilies in Praise of the Blessed Virgin Mary, intro. C. Waddell, CF 18A (Kalamazoo, MI, 1978), repr. Amadeus of Lausanne: Eight Homilies on the Praises of Blessed Mary, intro. C. Waddell, CF 18B (Kalamazoo, MI, 1979)
Epistola ad filios suos ecclesiae lausannensis (Letter to His Sons in the Church of Lausanne); PL 188:1299–304
Arnulf of Bohéries (d. post 1200)
Speculum monachorum (Monks’ Mirror); PL 184:1175–8
Baldwin of Forde (d. 1190)
Opera omnia; PL 204; ed. D.N. Bell, CCCM 99 (Turnhout, 1991); trans. D.N. Bell, Baldwin of Forde: Spiritual Tractates, 2 vols., CF 38 and 41 (Kalamazoo, MI, 1986)
De sacramento altaris (On the Sacrament of the Altar); trans. E. de Solms, Baudouin de Ford: Le Sacrement de l’autel, ed. J. Morson, intro. J. Leclercq, 2 vols., SCh 93 and 94 (Paris, 1963)
Sermones: De commendatione fidei (The Commendation of Faith); ed. D.N. Bell, CCCM 99 (Turnhout, 1991); trans. D.N. Bell and J.P. Freeland, ‘The Sermons on Obedience and the Cross by Baldwin of Forde’, CSQ, 29 (1994), 241–90; trans. D.N. Bell and J.P. Freeland, Baldwin of Forde: The Commendation of Faith, CF 59 (Kalamazoo, MI, 2000)
Beatrice of Nazareth (1200–1268)
De caritate Dei et vii eius gradibus (On the Love of God and its Seven Stages); ed. L. Reypens and J. Van Mierlo, Beatrijs van Nazareth: Seven manieren van minne (Leuven, 1926)
Vita Beatricis (based on Beatrice’s diary); ed. L. Reypens, Vita Beatricis: Autobiographie van de Z. Beatrijs van Tienen, O.Cist., 1200–1268 (Antwerp, 1964); Latin–English ed. R. De Ganck and J.B. Hasbrouck, The Life of Beatrice of Nazareth, 1200–1268, CF 50 (Kalamazoo, MI, 1991)
Bernard of Clairvaux (1090–1153)
Opera omnia; PL 180–5; ed. J. Leclercq, H.M. Rochais and C.H. Talbot, Sancti Bernardi Opera (SBOp), 8 vols. (Rome, 1957–77), vol. ix: Index biblicus, ed. G. Hendrix (Turnhout, 1998); rev. and repr. (with Italian trans.) F. Gastaldelli (ed.), Opere di San Bernardo, 6 vols. (Milan, 1984–87); rev. and repr. (with German trans.) G. Winkler (ed.), Bernhard von Clairvaux: Sämtliche Werke (Winkler), 10 vols. (Innsbruck, 1990–9)
Vita Sancti Malachiae; SBOp 3; Winkler i; ed. and trans. P.-Y. Émery, Bernard de Clairvaux: Vie de Saint Malachie, SCh 367 (Paris, 1990); trans. R.T. Meyer, The Life and Death of Saint Malachy the Irishman, CF 10 (Kalamazoo, MI, 1978)
Translations
Ad clericos de conversione; SBOp 4; Winkler iv; trans. M.-B. Saïd, Sermons on Conversion, CF 25 (Kalamazoo, MI, 1981)
Apologia ad Guillelmum abbatem; SBOp 3; Winkler ii; trans. M. Casey. Cistercians and Cluniacs: St. Bernard’s Apologia to Abbot William, in Bernard of Clairvaux: Treatises 1, intro. J. Leclercq, CF 1A (Shannon, 1970); trans. C. Rudolph, The ‘Things of Greater Importance’: Bernard of Clairvaux’s ‘Apologia’ and the Medieval Attitude toward Art (Philadelphia, PA, 1990).
De consideratione; SBOp 3; Winkler i; trans. J.D. Anderson and E.T. Kennan, Five Books on Consideration: Advice to a Pope, CF 37 (Kalamazoo, MI, 1986; first pub. 1976)
De diligendo Deo; SBOp 3; Winkler i; ed. and trans. P. Verdeyen and F. Callerot, Bernard de Clairvaux: L’amour de Dieu. La grâce et le libre arbitre, SCh 393 (Paris, 1993); trans. R. Walton, On Loving God, in Bernard of Clairvaux: Treatises 2, intro. E. Stiegman, CF 13 (Kalamazoo, MI, 1995; first pub. 1974)
De gradibus humilitatis et superbiae; SBOp 3; Winkler ii; trans. M.A. Conway, The Steps of Humility and Pride, in Bernard of Clairvaux: Treatises 2, intro. M.B. Pennington, CF 13 (Kalamazoo, MI, 1995; first pub. 1974)
De gratia et libero arbitrio; SBOp 3; Winkler i; ed. and trans. P. Verdeyen and F. Callerot, Bernard de Clairvaux: L’amour de Dieu. La grâce et le libre arbitre, SCh 393 (Paris, 1993); trans. D. O’Donovan, On Grace and Free Choice, in Bernard of Clairvaux: Treatises 3, intro. B. McGinn, CF 19 (Kalamazoo, MI, 1995; first pub. 1974)
De laude novae militiae; SBOp 3; Winkler i; ed. and trans. P.-Y. Émery, Bernard de Clairvaux: Éloge de la nouvelle chevalerie, SCh 367 (Paris, 1990); trans. C. Greenia, In Praise of the New Knighthood, intro. M. Barber, CF 19 (Kalamazoo, MI, 2000; first pub. 1977)
De praecepto et dispensatione; SBOp 3; Winkler i; ed. and trans. F. Callerot et al., Bernard de Clairvaux: Le précepte et la dispense, SCh 457 (Paris, 2000); trans. C. Greenia, On Precept and Dispensation, intro. J. Leclercq, CF 1 (Shannon, 1970)
Epistula de baptismo (Ep 77); SBOp 7; Winkler ii; trans. P. Matarasso, On Baptism and the Office of Bishops: Two Letter-Treatises, intro. M.G. Newman and E. Stiegman, CF 67 (Kalamazoo, MI, 2004)
Epistula de moribus et officio episcoporum; SBOp 7; Winkler ii; trans. P. Matarasso, On Baptism and the Office of Bishops: Two Letter-Treatises, intro. M.G. Newman and E. Stiegman, CF 67 (Kalamazoo, MI, 2004)
Epistulae; SBOp 7 and 8; Winkler ii and iii; ed. and trans. H. Rochais, Bernard de Clairvaux: Lettres (1–92), intro. M. Duchet-Suchaux, 2 vols., SCh 425 and 458 (Paris, 1997 and 2001); trans. B. Scott James, The Letters of St Bernard of Clairvaux, intro. B.M. Kienzle, CF 62 (Stroud and Kalamazoo, MI, 1998; first pub. 1953)
Homiliae super ‘Missus est’ (In laudibus Virginis Matris); SBOp 4; Winkler iv; ed. and trans. M.-I. Huille and J. Regnard, Bernard de Clairvaux: À la louange de la Vièrge Mère, SCh 390 (Paris, 1993); trans. M.-B. Saïd, Magnificat: Homilies in Praise of the Blessed Virgin Mary, intro. C. Waddell, CF 18A (Kalamazoo, MI, 1979)
Officium de Sancto Victore; SBOp 3; Winkler ii; trans. E. Lenaerts-Lachapelle et al., Bernard de Clairvaux: Office de Saint Victor, Prologue à l’antiphonaire, Lettre 398, intro. C. Maître, SCh 527 (Paris, 2009)
Parabolae; SBOp 6.2; Winkler iv; trans. M. Casey, Bernard of Clairvaux: The Parables and The Sentences, ed. M. O’Brien, CF 55 (Kalamazoo, MI, 2000)
Prologus in Antiphonarium; SBOp 3; Winkler ii; trans. E. Lenaerts-Lachapelle et al., Bernard de Clairvaux: Office de Saint Victor, Prologue à l’antiphonaire, Lettre 398, intro. C. Maître, SCh 527 (Paris, 2009); trans. C. Waddell, Prologue to the Cistercian Antiphonary, in Bernard of Clairvaux: Treatises 1, intro. J. Leclercq, CF 1A (Shannon, 1970)
Sententiae; SBOp 6.2; Winkler iv; trans. F.R. Swietek, Bernard of Clairvaux: The Parables and The Sentences, intro. J.R. Sommerfeldt, CF 55 (Kalamazoo, MI, 2000)
Sermons
Sermones de diversis (Sermons on Diverse Topics); SBOp 6.1; Winkler ix; trans. P.-Y. Émery and F. Callerot, Bernard de Clairvaux: Sermons divers, 2 vols., SCh 496 and 518 (Paris, 2006 and 2007)
Sermones in psalmum ‘Qui habitat’; SBOp 4; Winkler vii; trans. M.-B. Saïd, Sermons on Conversion, CF 25 (Kalamazoo, MI, 1981)
Sermones per annum; SBOp 4 and 5; Winkler vii and viii; trans. M.-I. Huille, Bernard de Clairvaux: Sermons pour l’année, intro. M. Lamy, 2 vols., SCh 480 and 481 (Paris, 2004); trans. I. Edmonds, W. Beckett and C. Greenia, Sermons for Advent and the Christmas Season, intro. W. Verbaal, ed. J. Leinenweber, CF 51 (Kalamazoo, MI, 2007); trans. (partial) B.M. Kienzle and J. Jarzembowski, Sermons for the Summer Season: Liturgical Sermons from Rogationtide and Pentecost, CF 53 (Kalamazoo, MI, 1990)
Sermones super Cantica canticorum; SBOp 1 and 2; Winkler v and vi; ed. and trans. P. Verdeyen and R. Fasetta, Bernard de Clairvaux: Sermons sur le Cantique, 5 vols., SCh 414, 431, 452, 472 and 511 (Paris, 1996–2007); trans. pub. by Cistercian Publications, Kalamazoo, MI: On the Song of Songs, 1 (S 1–20), intro. M.C. Halflants, trans. K. Walsh, CF 4 (1981); 2 (S 21–46), intro. J. Leclercq, trans. K. Walsh, CF 7 (1983); 3 (S 47–66), intro. E. Stiegman, trans. K. Walsh and I.M. Edmonds, CF 31 (1979); 4 (S 67–86), intro. J. Leclercq, trans. I.M. Edmonds, CF 40 (1980)
Sermones varii; SBOp 6.1; Winkler ix; trans. P.-Y. Émery and F. Callerot, Bernard de Clairvaux: Sermons variés, SCh 526 (Paris, 2010)
Caesarius of Heisterbach (c. 1180–c. 1240)
Dialogus miraculorum (Dialogue on Miracles); ed. J. Strange, Caesarii Heisterbacensis monachi Ordinis Cisterciensis Dialogus miraculorum, 2 vols. (Cologne, 1851); ed. and trans. N. Nösges and H. Schneider, Caesarius von Heisterbach: Dialogus Miraculorum – Dialog über die Wunder, Fontes Christiani 86.1–5 (Turnhout, 2009); trans. H. von Essen Scott and C.C. Swinton Bland, Dialogue on Miracles by Caesarius of Heisterbach (London and New York, 1929)
Ernald (or Arnald) of Bonnevaux (d. post 1156)
Vita Prima, Book two; PL 185:267–302; ed. P. Verdeyen and C. Vande Veire, CCCM 89B (Turnhout, 2011); trans. (partial) G. Webb and A. Walker, St Bernard of Clairvaux (London, 1960)
Geoffrey of Auxerre (c. 1120–post 1188)
De conversione aquae cum vino in sanguinem Domini (letter to Henry of Albano on the conversion of water and wine into the Lord’s blood); ed. C. Baronius, Annales ecclesiastici ad annum 1188, vol. xii (Antwerp, 1609), pp. 795–6
Epistola ad Albinum cardinalem et episcopum Albanensem. De condemnatione errorum Gilberti Porretani (letter on the condemnation of the errors of Gilbert of Poitiers); PL 185:587–96
Epistola ad Josbertum continens notulas in Orationem dominicam (letter containing notes on the Lord’s Prayer); PL 185:617–20
Expositio in Cantica canticorum (Exposition on the Song of Songs); ed. F. Gastaldelli, Goffredo di Auxerre, Expositio in Cantica canticorum, 2 vols. (Rome, 1974)
Fragmenta de vita et miraculis Sancti Bernardi (Fragments on the Life and Miracles of S. Bernard); ed. R. Lechat, ‘Fragmenta de vita et miraculis Sancti Bernardi’, Analecta Bollandiana, 20 (1932), 89–122; ed. and trans. R. Fassetta, Notes sur la vie et les miracles de saint Bernard: fragmenta, SCh 548 (Paris, 2011)
Libellus contra capitula gilberti pictaviensis episcopi (against Gilbert of Poitiers); PL 185:595–617
Super Apocalypsim (On the Apocalypse); ed. F. Gastaldelli, Ricerche su Goffredo d’Auxerre. Il compendio anonimo del ‘Super Apocalypsim’ (Rome, 1970); trans. J. Gibbons, Geoffrey of Auxerre: On the Apocalypse, CF 42 (Kalamazoo, MI, 2000)
Vita Prima, Books Three to Five; PL 185:301–68; ed. P. Verdeyen and C. Vande Veire, CCCM 89B (Turnhout, 2011); trans. (partial) G. Webb and A. Walker, St Bernard of Clairvaux (London, 1960)
Sermons
Sermo ad praelatos in concilio convocatos (Sermon for the Prelates Summoned to Council); PL 184:1095–102; ed. F. Gastaldelli, ‘Quattro sermoni “ad abbates” di Goffredo di Auxerre’, Cîteaux, 34 (1983), 161–200; ed. F. Gastaldelli, ‘Tre sermoni di Goffredo di Auxerre su San Benedetto’, in Gastaldelli, ‘Regola, spiritualita e crisi dell’ordine cisterciense in tre sermoni di Goffredo di Auxerre su San Benedetto’, Cîteaux, 31 (1980), 193–225
Gertrud of Helfta (the Great) (1256–1302?)
Exercitia spiritualia (Spiritual Exercises); ed. and trans. J. Hourlier et al., Gertrude la Grande: oeuvres spirituelles, 5 vols., SCh 127, 139, 143, 255 and 331 (Paris 1967–86), vol. i; trans. G.J. Lewis and J. Lewis, Gertrud the Great of Helfta: Spiritual Exercises, CF 49 (Kalamazoo, MI, 1989)
Legatus memorialis abundantiae divinae pietatis (Herald of God’s Loving-Kindness); ed. and trans. J. Hourlier et al., Gertrude la Grande: oeuvres spirituelles, 5 vols., SCh 127, 139, 143, 255 and 331 (Paris 1967–86), vols. ii–v; trans. A. Barratt, The Herald of God’s Loving-Kindness, 2 vols., CF 35 (Books 1–2) and CF 63 (Book 3) (Kalamazoo, MI, 1991 and 1999), Books 4 and 5 are projected
Gilbert of Hoyland (d. 1172)
Epistolae; PL 194:289–98; trans. L.C. Braceland, Gilbert of Hoyland: Treatises, Epistles and Sermons, CF 34 (Kalamazoo, MI, 1981)
Tractatus ascetici (Ascetic treatises); PL 184:251–90; trans. Braceland, Gilbert of Hoyland: Treatises, Epistles and Sermons
Sermons
Sermo: De semine verbi Dei (Sermon on the Seed of God’s Word); PL 184:288–90; trans. Braceland, Gilbert of Hoyland: Treatises, Epistles and Sermons
Sermo de eodem martyre (Sermon on the Same Martyr); trans. Braceland, Gilbert of Hoyland: Treatises, Epistles and Sermons
Sermo super evangelium secundum Matthaeum (Sermon on the Gospel according to Matthew); trans. Braceland, Gilbert of Hoyland: Treatises, Epistles and Sermons
Sermones super Cantica canticorum (Sermons on the Song of Songs); PL 184:9–252; trans. L.C. Braceland, Gilbert of Hoyland: Sermons on the Song of Songs, 3 vols., CF 14, 20 and 26 (Kalamazoo, MI, 1978–9)
Guerric of Igny (d. 1157)
Guerrici Abbatis Igniacensis Discipuli S. Bernardi Sermones per Annum (Sermons for the Liturgical Year); PL 185:11–220; trans. P. Deseille, Guerric d’Igny: Sermons, ed. and intro. J. Morson and H. Costello, 2 vols., SCh 166 and 202 (Paris 1970 and 1973); trans. by Monks of Mount Saint Bernard, Guerric of Igny: Liturgical Sermons, 2 vols., CF 8 and CF 32 (Shannon and Spencer, MA, 1971); trans. (partial) T. Merton, The Christmas Sermons of Bl. Guerric of Igny (Gethsemani Abbey, KY, 1959)
Guillaume de Digulleville/Deguileville (c. 1295–c. 1358)
Pèlerinage de Jésus Christ (a verse transposition of the Gospel); ed. J.J. Stürzinger, Le pèlerinage Jhesucrist de Guillamme de Deguileville (London, 1897); ed. P. Amblard, La vie de Jésus selon Guillaume de Digulleville (Paris, 1999)
Pèlerinage de l’âme (The Pilgrimage of the Soul); ed. J.J. Stürzinger, Le pèlerinage de l’âme de Guillaume de Deguileville (London, 1895); Middle English version; ed. R.P. McGerr (London and New York, 1989)
Pèlerinage de la vie humaine (The Pilgrimage of Human Life); ed. J.J. Stürzinger, Le pèlerinage de vie humaine de Guillaume de Deguileville (London, 1893); a Middle English translation by John Lydgate circulated widely in France and England; ed. A. Henry, The Pilgrimage of the Lyfe of the Manhode, 2 vols. (London and New York 1985 and 1988); ed. E. Clasby, The Pilgrimage of Human Life (New York, 1992)
Roman de la Fleur de Lys; ed. A. Piaget, Romania, 62 (1936), 317–58
Hélinand of Froidmont (c. 1160–1237)
Chronicon (Chronicle); PL 212:771–1082
De bono regimine principis (On Good Princely Rule); PL 212:735–42
De cognitione sui (On Self-Knowledge); PL 212:721–36
De reparatione lapsi (On Reconciling a Lapsed Brother); PL 212:745–60
Sanctorum Gereonis, Victoris, Cassii et Florentii Thebaeorum martyrum passio (account of the martyrdom of four monks of the Thebaid); ed. BHL 3446: Sanctorum Gereonis, Victoris, Cassii et Florentii Thebaeorum martyrum passio ab Helinando scripta; ed. AASS Octobris 5:36–40
Les Vers de la mort (Verses on death); ed. F. Wulff and E. Walbert, Les vers de la mort, par Hélinand de Froidmont (Paris, 1905); trans. J. Coppin, Les vers de la mort d’Hélinand de Froidmont (Paris, 1930); ed. and trans. J.L. Porter, Helinand of Froidmont: Verses on Death, CF 61 (Kalamazoo, MI and Spencer, MA, 1999)
Sermons
Twenty-eight sermons, PL 212:481–720; forty additional sermons, ed. J.B. Schneyer, Repertorium der lateinischen Sermones des Mittelalters für die Zeit von 1150–1350, 11 vols. (Münster, 1969–90), vol. ii (1970), p. 617–22 (Helinandus of Perseigne); ed. B.M. Kienzle, ‘Cistercian Preaching against the Cathars: Hélinand’s Unedited Sermon for Rogation, B.N. ms. lat. 14591’, Cîteaux, 39 (1988), 297–314; ed. B.M. Kienzle, ‘Mary Speaks against Heresy: Hélinand of Froidmont’s Unedited Purification Sermon, Paris B. N. ms. lat 14591’, Sacris Erudiri, 32 (1991), 291–308
Henry of Hautcrêt (d. 1231/2)
Three sermons ed. M. Meyer, ‘Henri, abbé de Hautcret et ses homélies’, Archives de la Société du canton de Fribourg, 1 (1850), 237–50
Herbert of Clairvaux/Herbert of Torres, or Mores (d. c. 1180)
Liber de miraculis (Book of Miracles); PL 185:1273–384; a critical edition is in preparation by S. Mula et al.
Idung of Prüfening (wrote between 1153 and 1174)
Argumentum super quatuor quaestionibus (Discussion of Four Questions); ed. B. Pez, Thesaurus anecdotorum novissimus, 6 vols. (Augsburg, 1721–9), vol. ii, pp. 507–42; ed. R.B.C. Huygens, ‘Le moine Idung et ses deux ouvrages’, Studi Medievali, third series, 13 (1972), 291–470; trans. J.F. O’Sullivan et al., Cistercians and Cluniacs: The Case for Cîteaux, CF 33 (Kalamazoo, MI, 1977)
Dialogus duorum monachorum (Dialogue between Two Monks); ed. Martène and Durand, Thesaurus novus anecdotorum, 5 vols. (Paris, 1717), vol. v, pp. 1571–654; ed. R.B.C. Huygens, ‘Le moine Idung et ses deux ouvrages’; trans. O’Sullivan et al., Cistercians and Cluniacs
Isaac of Stella (c. 1100–c. 1169)
Epistola ad Joannem Episcopum Pictaviensem De Officio Missae (letter treatise on the Office of the Mass); PL 194:1889–96; trans. C. Waddell, ‘On the Canon of the Mass’, Liturgy, 11 (1977), 63–76; trans. D. Deme, The Selected Works of Isaac of Stella: A Cistercian Voice from the Twelfth Century (Aldershot, 2007)
Epistola de anima (letter treatise on the soul); PL 194:1875–90; trans. B. McGinn, Three Treatises on Man: A Cistercian Anthropology, CF 24 (Kalamazoo, MI, 1977), pp. 153–77; trans. Deme, The Selected Works of Isaac of Stella
Sermons on the liturgical year; PL 194:1689–876; ed. D. Pezzini, Isacco della Stella: I sermoni (Milan, 2006–7); ed. and trans. A. Hoste et al., Isaac de l’Étoile: Sermons, 3 vols., SCh 130, 207 and 339 (Paris, 1967, 1974 and 1987); trans. H. McCaffery, Isaac of Stella: Sermons on the Christian Year, intro. B. McGinn, CF 11 (Kalamazoo, MI, 1979), vol. ii is in preparation; trans. Deme, The Selected Works of Isaac of Stella
John of Forde (c. 1145–1214)
Vita beati Wulfrici anachoretae Haselburgiae (Life of Blessed Wulfric of Haselbury); ed. M. Bell, Wulfric of Haselbury (London, 1933); trans. P. Matarasso, John of Forde: The Life of Wulfric of Haselbury, CF 79 (Collegeville, MN, 2011)
Sermons
Sermo in dominica in ramis palmarum (Sermon for Palm Sunday); ed. C.H. Talbot, ‘Un sermon inédit de Jean de Ford’, COCR, 7 (1940), 36–45
Super extremam partem Cantici canticorum sermones cxx (One Hundred and Twenty Sermons on the Last Part of the Song of Songs); ed. E. Mikkers and H. Costello, CCCM 17 and 18 (Turnhout, 1970); trans. W.M. Beckett, John of Ford: On the Song of Songs, intro. H. Costello, 7 vols., CF 29, 39 and 43–7 (Kalamazoo, MI, 1977–84); trans. (selected passages) H. Costello, Sky-Blue is the Sapphire Crimson the Rose: Stillpoint of Desire in John of Ford, CF 69 (Kalamazoo, MI, 2006)
Odo of Cheriton (1180/90–1247)
One hundred and ninety-three sermons listed in Repertorium der lateinischen Sermones des Mittelalters für die Zeit von 1150–1350, 11 vols., ed. J.B. Schneyer (Münster, 1969–90), vol. iv.4, pp. 483–98
Odo of Morimond (d. 1161)
Five sermons in PL 188:1645–58; unedited sermons listed in Schneyer, ed., Repertorium, vol. iv.4, pp. 499–508
Ogerius of Locedio (d. 1214)
Fifteen sermons on the Last Supper; PL 184:879–950
Otto of Freising (d. 1158)
Gesta Friderici Imperatoris (The Deeds of Frederick Barbarossa, written with Rahewin); ed. G. Waitz, B. von Simon and F.J. Schmale, Ottonis Episcopi Frisingensis et Rahewini Gesta Frederici (Berlin, 1965); trans. C.C. Mierow and R. Emery, The Deeds of Frederick Barbarossa (Toronto, 1994; first pub. New York, 1953)
Historia de duabus civitatibus (History of the Two Cities); ed. A. Hofmeister and W. Lammers, Chronica, sive Historia de duabus civitatibus (Darmstadt, 1961); trans. C.C. Mierow, The Two Cities, ed. and intro. A.P. Evans and C. Knapp (New York, 1966; first pub. 1928)
Rancé, Armand-Jean Bouthillier de (1626–1700)
Letters; ed. A.J. Krailsheimer, Correspondance, 4 vols. (Paris and Cîteaux, 1993); trans. (partial) A.J. Krailsheimer, The Letters of Armand-Jean de Rancé, Abbot and Reformer of La Trappe, 2 vols., CS 80 and 81 (Kalamazoo, MI, 1984)
Serlo of Savigny (d. 1158)
Sermons; ed. B. Tissier, Bibliotheca Patrum Cisterciensium, 8 vols. (Paris, 1660–69), vol. vi, pp. 107–30; ed. and trans. L.C. Braceland, Serlo of Savigny and Serlo of Wilton: Seven Unpublished Works, CF 48 (Kalamazoo, MI, 1986); see also L.C. Braceland (ed.), Supplement to Serlo of Savigny and Serlo of Wilton: Eight Unpublished Works, CF 48, supplement (Kalamazoo, MI, 1986)
Serlo of Wilton (d. 1181)
Poems; ed. J. Öberg, Serlon de Wilton: Poèmes latins (Stockholm, 1965); ed. (selection) P. Dronke, Medieval Latin and the Rise of the European Love Lyric, 2 vols. (Oxford, 1968; first pub. 1965), vol. ii, pp. 493–512
Sermons; ed. and trans. Braceland, Serlo of Savigny and Serlo of Wilton: Seven Unpublished Works; see also Braceland (ed.), Supplement to Serlo of Savigny and Serlo of Wilton
Stephen Harding (abbot of Cîteaux 1108/9–33, d. 1134)
Homily; ed. J. Marilier, Chartes et documents concernant l’Abbaye de Cîteaux, 1098–1182 (Rome, 1961), item 23, pp. 54–5; trans. E.R. Elder, The New Monastery: Texts and Studies on the Earliest Cistercians, CF 60 (Kalamazoo, MI, 1998), pp. 45–6
Letter to the monks of Sherborne; see C. Waddell, ‘An Exegesis of the Letter of Saint Stephen Harding’, in E.R. Elder (ed.), Noble Piety and Reformed Monasticism (Kalamazoo, MI, 1981), pp. 10–39; repr. in The New Monastery, pp. 90–123
Monitum (preface to the reformed Cistercian hymnal); ed. C. Waddell, The Twelfth-Century Cistercian Hymnal, 2 vols. (Gethsemani Abbey, KY, 1984), ii, pp. 11–12; trans. C. Waddell, in E.R. Elder, The New Monastery, pp. 78–86
Stephen of Lexington (c. 1193–1260)
Letters; ed. B. Griesser, ‘Registrum epistolarum Stephani de Lexington abbatis de Stanlegia et de Savigniaco’, ASOC, 2 (1946), 1–118; 8 (1952), 182–378; trans. (partial) B.W. O’Dwyer, Stephen of Lexington: Letters from Ireland, 1228–1229, CF 28 (Kalamazoo, MI, 1982)
Stephen of Sawley (d. 1252)
De informatione mentis circa psalmarum diei et noctis (on the preparation of the mind for the Divine Office); ed. E. Mikkers, ‘De informatione mentis circa psalmarum diei et noctis’, Cîteaux, 23 (1972), 245–88; trans. J.F. O’Sullivan, Stephen of Sawley: Treatises, intro. B.K. Lackner, CF 36 (Kalamazoo, MI, 1984)
Meditationes de gaudiis beatae Mariae Virginis (Meditations on the Joys of Blessed Virgin Mary); ed. A. Wilmart, ‘Meditationes de gaudiis beatae Mariae Virginis’, Revue d’ascétique et de mystique, 10 (1929), 368–415; trans. O’Sullivan, Stephen of Sawley: Treatises
Speculum Novitii (Mirror for Novices); ed. E. Mikkers, ‘Un Speculum Novitii inédit d’Etienne de Sallay’, ASOC, 8 (1946), 17–68
Triplex exercitium (Threefold Exercise); ed. A. Wilmart, ‘Le triple exercise d’Etienne de Sallai’, Revue d’ascétique et de mystique, 11 (1930), 355–74
William of Saint Thierry (1080?–1148)
Aenigma fidei (The Enigma of Faith); PL 180:397–440; ed. P. Verdeyen, CCCM 89A (Turnhout, 2007), pp. 129–91; trans. M.-M. Davy, Deux traités sur la foi (Paris, 1959)
Brevis commentatio in Cantici canticorum priora duo capita (Brief Commentary on the Song of Songs); PL 184:407–36; ed. S. Ceglar and P. Verdeyen, CCCM 87 (Turnhout, 1997), pp. 155–96; trans. (excerpt) D. Turner, Eros and Allegory: Medieval Exegesis of the Song of Songs, CS 156 (Kalamazoo, MI, 1995), pp. 275–90
Commentarius in Cantica canticorum e scriptis Sancti Ambrosii (Commentary on the Song of Songs from the Writings of Saint Ambrose); PL 15:1947–2060; ed. A. van Burink, CCCM 87 (Turnhout, 1997), pp. 207–384
De contemplando deo (On Contemplating God); PL 184:367–80; ed. P. Verdeyen, CCCM 88 (Turnhout, 2003), pp. 153–73; ed. and trans. J. Hourlier, Guillaume de Saint-Thierry: La contemplation de Dieu, SCh 61 (Paris, 1999; first pub. 1959); ed. and trans. M.-M. Davy, Deux traités de l’amour de Dieu (Paris, 1953); trans. P. Lawson, William of Saint Thierry: On Contemplating God, Prayer, and Meditations, intro. J. Hourlier and J.M. Déchanet, CF 3 (Spencer, MA, 1971)
De natura corporis et animae libri duo (On the Nature of the Body and the Soul); PL 180:695–726; ed. P. Verdeyen, CCCM 88 (Turnhout, 2003), pp. 103–46; trans. B. Clark et al., Three Treatises on the Soul: A Cistercian Anthropology, intro. B. McGinn, CF 24 (Kalamazoo, MI, 1977)
De natura et dignitate amoris (On the Nature and Dignity of Love); PL 184:379–408; ed. P. Verdeyen, CCCM 88 (Turnhout, 2003), pp. 177–212; ed. M.-M. Davy, Deux traités de l’amour de Dieu (Paris, 1953); trans. T.X. Davis, William of Saint Thierry: On the Nature and Dignity of Love, intro. D.N. Bell, CF 30 (Kalamazoo, MI, 1998)
De sacramento altaris (On the Sacrament of the Altar), with Epistola ad Rupertum; PL 180:341–66; ed. P. Verdeyen, CCCM 88 (Turnhout, 2003), pp. 47–91
Disputatio adversus Petrum Abaelardum (Disputation against Peter Abelard); PL 180:249–82; ed. P. Verdeyen, CCCM 89A (Turnhout, 2007), pp. 17–59
Epistola ad Fratres de Monte Dei/Epistola aurea (Letter to the Brothers of Mont-Dieu/The Golden Epistle); PL 184:307–54; ed. P. Verdeyen, CCCM 88 (Turnhout, 2003), pp. 225–89; ed. and trans. J. Déchanet, Guillaume de Saint-Thierry: Lettre aux Frères du Mont-Dieu, SCh 223 (Paris, 2004; first pub. 1976); trans. M.-M. Davy, Un traité de la vie solitaire (Paris, 1940); trans. T. Berkeley, William of Saint Thierry: The Golden Epistle, CF 12 (Spencer, MA, 1971)
Epistola Guillelmi abbatis (Letter of Abbot William), Ep 326 inter Bernardi; PL 182:531–3; ed. P. Verdeyen, CCCM 89A (Turnhout, 2007), pp. 3–15
Excerpta ex libris Sancti Gregorii Papae super Cantica canticorum (Excerpts from the Books of St Gregory the Great on the Song of Songs); PL 180:441–74; ed. P. Verdeyen, CCCM 87 (Turnhout, 1997), pp. 395–444
Expositio in epistolam ad Romanos (Exposition on the Letter to the Romans); PL 180:547–694; ed. P. Verdeyen, CCCM 88 (Turnhout, 2003); trans. Y.-A. Baudelet, Guillaume de Saint-Thierry: Exposé sur l’‘Épître aux Romains’ 1, ed. P. Verdeyen, SCh 544 (Paris, 2011); trans. J.B. Hasbrouck, William of Saint Thierry: Exposition on the Epistle to the Romans, ed. J.D. Anderson, CF 27 (Kalamazoo, MI, 1980)
Expositio super Cantica canticorum (Exposition on the Song of Songs); PL 180:473–546; ed. P. Verdeyen, CCCM 87 (Turnhout, 1997), pp. 19–133; ed. and trans. J.-M. Déchanet and M. Dumontier, Guillaume de Saint-Thierry: Exposé sur le ‘Cantique des Cantiques’, SCh 82 (Paris, 2007; first pub. 1962); trans. C. Hart, William of Saint Thierry: Exposition on the Song of Songs, CF 6 (Spencer, MA, 1968)
Meditativae orationes (Meditations); PL 180:205–48; ed. P. Verdeyen, CCCM 89 (Turnhout, 2005), pp. 3–80; ed. and trans. J. Hourlier, Guillaume de Saint-Thierry: Oraisons méditatives, SCh 324 (Paris, 1985); ed. and trans. M.-M. Davy, Meditativae orationes: texte et traduction (Paris, 1934); trans. P. Lawson, William of Saint Thierry: On Contemplating God, Prayer, and Meditations, intro. J. Hourlier and J.M. Déchanet, CF 3 (Spencer, MA, 1971)
Speculum fidei (The Mirror of Faith); PL 180:365–98A; ed. P. Verdeyen, CCCM 89A (Turnhout, 2007), pp. 81–127; ed. and trans. J. Déchanet, Guillaume de Saint-Thierry: Le miroir de la foi, SCh 301 (Paris, 1982); trans. M.-M. Davy, Deux traités sur la foi (Paris, 1959); trans. J.-M. Déchanet, Guillaume de Saint-Thierry: Le miroir de la foi (Bruges, 1946); trans. T.X. Davis, William of Saint Thierry: The Mirror of Faith, intro. E.R. Elder, CF 15 (Kalamazoo, MI, 1979)
Vita Prima, Book One; PL 185:225–66; ed. P. Verdeyen and C. Vande Veire, CCCM 89B (Turnhout, 2011); trans. M. Cawley, Bernard of Clairvaux: Early Biographies, vol. i, William of Saint Thierry (Lafayette, OR, 2000); trans. (partial) G. Webb and A. Walker, St Bernard of Clairvaux (London, 1960); trans. (excerpts) P. Matarasso, The Cistercian World: Monastic Writings of the Twelfth Century (London, 1993), pp. 15–41
Other Cistercian primary sources
Berman, C.H. (trans.), Women and Monasticism in Medieval Europe: Sisters and Patrons of the Cistercian Reform (Kalamazoo, MI, 2002)
Bouton, J. de la Croix and Damme, J.B. Van (eds.), Les plus anciens textes de Cîteaux, Cîteaux: Studia et Documenta 2 (Achel, 1974)
Bronseval, Claude de, Frère Claude de Bronseval: Peregrinatio Hispanica 1531–1533, ed. Cocheril, M., 2 vols. (Paris, 1970)
Broun, D. and Harrison, J. (eds.), Chronicle of Melrose Abbey: A Stratigraphic Edition, 2 vols. (Woodbridge, 2007–)
Canivez, J.-M. (ed.), Statuta Capitulorum Generalium Ordinis Cisterciensis ab anno 1116 ad annum 1786, 8 vols. (Louvain, 1933–41)
Choisselet, D. and Vernet, P. (eds.), Les ‘Ecclesiastica Officia’ cisterciens du XIIème siècle. Texte latin selon les manuscrits édités de Trente 1711, Ljubljana 31 et Dijon 114: version française, annexe liturgique, notes, index et tables, La documentation cistercienne 22 (Reiningue, 1989)
Eberbach, Conrad of, Exordium Magnum Cisterciense, ed. Griesser, B. (Rome, 1961; repr. Turnhout, 1994); trans. J. Berlioz, Conrad d’Eberbach: Le grand Exorde de Cîteaux ou Récit des débuts de l’Ordre cistercien (Turnhout, 1998); trans. B. Ward and P. Savage, The Great Beginning of Cîteaux, ed. E.R. Elder, CS 72 (Collegeville, MN, 2012)
Cotheret, N., Annales de Cîteaux, ed. Lekai, L. J. , ‘Les Annales de Cîteaux de Nicholas Cotheret (1680–1753)’, Analecta Cisterciensia, 40 (1984), 150–303; 41 (1985), 42–315; 42 (1986), 265–332; a reader-friendly version has been produced by Lekai, L. J., Nicolas Cotheret’s Annals of Cîteaux, CS 57 (Kalamazoo, MI, 1982)
Georges, D., ‘Proces Verbal de l’ètat spirituel & temporel de l’Abbaïe de la Trappe’, in Maupeou, Pierre, La vie du très-reverend père dom Armand Jean Le Bouthillier de Rancé (Paris, 1709), Book 4, pp. 251–71
Górecki, P. (ed.), A Local Society in Transition: the Henryków Book and Related Documents (Toronto, 2007)
Griesser, B.Die Ecclesiastica Officia Cisterciensis Ordinis des Cod. 1711 von Trient’, ASOC, 12 (1956), 153–288
Griesser, B. (ed.), ‘Consuetudines Domus Cisterciensis’, ASOC, 3 (1947), 138–46
Guignard, P. (ed.), ‘Les monuments primitifs de la règle cistercienne, publiés d’après les manuscrits de l’abbaye de Cîteaux (Dijon, 1878)
Hermans, V. (ed.), Actes des Chapitres Généraux des Congrégations Trappistes au XIXe siècle: 1835–1891 (Rome, 1975)
Johnson, A.O. and King, P. (eds.), The Tax Book of the Cistercian Order (Oslo, 1979)
Konrad, N., Die Enstehung der Österreichisch-Ungarischen Zisterzienserkongregation (1849–1869) (Rome, 1967)
Legendre, O. (ed.), Collectaneum exemplorum et visionum Clarevallense (Turnhout, 2005)
Leloczky, J.D. (ed.), Constitutiones et Acta Capitulorum Strictioris Observantiae Ordinis Cisterciensis (1624–1687) (Rome, 1967)
Lucet, B.Les codifications cisterciennes de 1237 et de 1257 (Paris, 1977)
Lucet, B. (ed.), La codification cistercienne de 1202 et son évolution ultérieure (Rome, 1964)
Manrique, A. (ed.), Annales Cistercienses, Lyons 1642–59, 4 vols. (Westmead, 1970)
Marilier, J.-M. (ed.), Chartes et documents concernant l’Abbaye de Cîteaux: 1098–1182 (Rome, 1961)
Matarasso, P. (ed.), The Cistercian World: Monastic Writings of the Twelfth Century (Harmondsworth, 1998)
Séjalon, H. (ed.), Nomasticon Cisterciense (Solesmes, 1892)
Talbot, C.H. (ed.), Letters from the English Abbots to the Chapter at Cîteaux 1442–1521 (London, 1967)
Tuyén, T. Nguyên-Dính-, ‘Histoire des controverses à Rome entre la Commune et l’Étroite Observance de 1662 à 1666’, Analecta Cisterciensia, 26 (1970), 3–247
Waddell, C.Narrative and Legislative Texts from Early Cîteaux, Cîteaux: Studia et Documenta 9 (Brecht, 1999)
Waddell, C.The Primitive Cistercian Breviary (Fribourg, 2007)
Waddell, C.The Twelfth-Century Cistercian Hymnal, 2 vols., Cistercian Liturgy Series 1–2 (Gethsemani Abbey, KY, 1984)
Waddell, C.Twelfth-Century Statutes from the Cistercian General Chapter,Cîteaux: Studia et Documenta 12 (Brecht, 2002)
Waddell, C. (ed.), Cistercian Lay Brothers: Twelfth-Century Usages with Related Texts, Cîteaux: Studia et Documenta 10 (Brecht, 2000)
Zakar, P., Histoire de la Stricte Observance de l’Ordre Cistercien depuis ses débuts jusqu’au Généralat du Cardinal Richelieu (1606–1635) (Rome, 1966)
Other primary sources
Constable, G. (ed.), The Letters of Peter the Venerable, 2 vols. (Cambridge, MA, 1967)
Félibien des Avaux, A., ‘Description de l’abbaye de la Trappe a Madame la Duchesse de Liancour’, in Reglemens de l’Abbaye de Nôtre-Dame de la Trappe (Paris, 1718)
Vitry, Jacques de, Historia Occidentalis, ed. Hinnebusch, J.F., The Historia Occidentalis of Jacques de Vitry (Fribourg, 1972)
Luscombe, D. (ed.), Peter Abelard’s ‘Ethics’ (Oxford, 1971)
William of Malmesbury, Gesta Regum Anglorum; ed. Mynors, R.A.B., Thomson, R.M. and Winterbottom, M., Gesta Regum Anglorum: The History of the English Kings, 2 vols. (Oxford, 2007)
Introduction: withdrawal and engagement
Auberger, J.-B., L’unanimité cistercienne primitive: mythe ou réalité?,Cîteaux: Studia et Documenta 3 (Achel, 1986)
Bell, D.N., Understanding Rancé: The Spirituality of the Abbot of La Trappe in Context, CS 205 (Kalamazoo, MI, 2005)
Bouchard, C., Holy Entrepreneurs: Cistercians, Knights, and Economic Exchange in Twelfth-Century Burgundy (London and Ithaca, NY, 1991)
Bruun, M.B., ‘Je ne comprends point cette sorte de mortification: Seventeenth-Century Fascination with the Trappists’, Transfiguration 2010/11 (2012), 125–60
Bruun, M.B., ‘The Wilderness as lieu de mémoire: Literary Deserts of Cîteaux and La Trappe’, in Negotiating Heritage: Memories of the Middle Ages, ed. M. B. Bruun, and Glaser, S. (Turnhout, 2008), pp. 21–42
Burton, J. and Kerr, J., The Cistercians in the Middle Ages (Woodbridge and Rochester, NY, 2011)
Elm, K., Joerissen, P. and Roth, H.J. (eds.), Die Zisterzienser: Ordensleben zwischen Ideal und Wirklichkeit (Cologne, 1981)
Felten, F.J. and Rösener, W. (eds.), Norm und Realität: Kontinuität und Wandel der Zisterzienser im Mittelalter (Berlin, 2009)
Freeman, E., Narratives of a New Order: Cistercian Historical Writing in England, 1150–1220 (Turnhout, 2002)
Hall, J., ‘The Legislative Background to the Burial of Laity and Other Patrons in Cistercian Abbeys’, Cîteaux, 56 (2005), 363–71
Hall, J., Sneddon, S. and Sohr, N., ‘Table of Legislation Concerning the Burial of Laity and other Patrons in Cistercian Abbeys’, Cîteaux, 56 (2005), 373–418
Harper-Bill, C., ‘Cistercian Visitation in the Late Middle Ages: The Case of Hailes Abbey’, Historical Research, 53 (1980), 103–14
Jamroziak, E., The Cistercian Order in Medieval Europe: 1090–1500 (Harlow, in press)
Jamroziak, E., ‘Making and Breaking the Bonds: Yorkshire Cistercians and Their Neighbours’, in Perspectives for an Architecture of Solitude: Essays on Cistercians, Art and Architecture in Honour of Peter Fergusson, ed. Kinder, T.N. (Turnhout, 2004), pp. 198–206
Jamroziak, E.Survival and Success on Medieval Borders: Cistercian Houses in Medieval Scotland and Pomerania from the Twelfth to the Late Fourteenth Century (Turnhout, 2011)
Jamroziak, E. and Burton, J. (eds.), Religious and Laity in Western Europe 1000–1400: Interaction, Negotiation, and Power (Turnhout, 2006)
Kasper, C. and Schreiner, K. (eds.), Zisterziensische Spiritualität: Theologische Grundlagen, funktionale Voraussetzungen und bildhafte Ausprägungen im Mittelalter (St. Ottilien, 1994)
Krailsheimer, A.J., Armand-Jean de Rancé, Abbot of La Trappe: His Influence in the Cloister and the World (Oxford, 1974)
Lackner, B. K., ‘The Liturgy of Early Cîteaux’, in Studies in Medieval Cistercian History presented to Jeremiah F. O’Sullivan, ed. Pennington, M.B., CS 13 (Shannon, 1971), 1–34
Lekai, L.J., The Cistercians: Ideals and Reality (Kent, OH, 1977)
Lekai, L.J., ‘Ideals and Reality in Early Cistercian Life and Legislation’, in Cistercian Ideals and Reality, ed. Sommerfeldt, J.R., CS 60 (Kalamazoo, MI, 1978), pp. 4–29
Müller, A. and Stöber, K. (eds.), Self-Representation of Medieval Religious Communities (Berlin, 2009)
Newman, M.G., The Boundaries of Charity: Cistercian Culture and Ecclesiastical Reform 1098–1180 (Stanford, CA, 1996)
Rudolph, C., ‘The Principal Founders and the Early Artistic Legislation of Cîteaux’, in Studies in Cistercian Art and Architecture, 3, ed. Lillich, M.P. (Kalamazoo, MI, 1982), pp. 1–45
Schneider, A., A. Wienand, W. Bickel and Coester, E. (eds.), Die Cistercienser: Geschichte, Geist, Kunst (Cologne, 1974)
Sonntag, J., Klosterleben im Spiegel des Zeichenhaften: Symbolisches Denken und Handeln hochmittelaterlicher Mönche zwischen Dauer und Wandel, Regel und Gewohnheit (Münster, 2008)
Untermann, M., Forma Ordinis: Die mittelalterliche Baukunst der Zisterzienser (Munich and Berlin, 2001)
Waddell, C., ‘The Cistercian Dimension of the Reform of La Trappe’, in Cistercians in the Late Middle Ages, ed. Elder, E.R., CS 64 (Kalamazoo, MI, 1981), pp. 102–61
Ward, B., ‘The Desert Myth’, in One Yet Two: Monastic Tradition East and West, ed. Pennington, B.M., CS 29 (Kalamazoo, MI, 1976), pp. 183–99
Wardrop, J., Fountains Abbey and Its Benefactors, CS 91 (Kalamazoo, MI, 1987)
Foundation and twelfth century
Auberger, J.-B., L’unanimité cistercienne primitive: mythe ou réalité, Cîteaux: Studia et Documenta 3 (Achel, 1986)
Berman, C.H., The Cistercian Evolution: The Invention of a Religious Order in Twelfth-Century Europe (Philadelphia, PA, 1999)
Bouchard, C., Holy Entrepreneurs: Cistercians, Knights, and Economic Exchange in Twelfth-Century Burgundy (London and Ithaca, NY, 1991)
Bredero, A.H., Bernard of Clairvaux: Between Cult and History (Grand Rapids, MI, 1996)
Burton, J. and Kerr, J., The Cistercians in the Middle Ages (Woodbridge and Rochester, NY, 2011)
Constable, G., The Reformation of the Twelfth Century (Cambridge, 1998)
Elder, E.R. (ed.), The New Monastery: Texts and Studies on the Earliest Cistercians, CF 60 (Kalamazoo, MI, 1998)
France, J., Separate but Equal: Cistercian Lay Brothers 1120–1350, (Collegeville, MN and Kalamazoo, MI, 2012)
Kienzle, B.M., Cistercians, Heresy, and Crusade in Occitania, 1145–1229: Preaching the Lord’s Vineyard (Rochester, NY, 2001)
Lackner, B.K., The Eleventh-Century Background of Cîteaux (Washington, DC, 1972)
Lefèvre, J.A., ‘Que savons-nous du Cîteaux primitif?’, Revue d’histoire ecclésiastique, 51 (1956), 4–51
Lekai, L.J., The Cistercians: Ideals and Reality (Kent, OH, 1977)
Lester, A., Making Cistercian Nuns: Gender, Society and Religious Reform in Medieval Champagne (Ithaca, NY, 2011)
McGuire, B.P., The Difficult Saint: Bernard of Clairvaux and His Tradition, CS 126 (Kalamazoo, MI, 1991)
Mahn, J.-B., L’ordre cistercien et son gouvernement, des origines au milieu du XIIIe siècle (1098–1265) (Paris, 1951)
Newman, M.G., The Boundaries of Charity: Cistercian Culture and Ecclesiastical Reform 1098–1180 (Stanford, CA, 1996)
‘Text and Authority in the Formation of the Cistercian Order: The Early Cistercians Read Gregory the Great’, in Reforming the Church before Modernity: Patterns, Problems and Approaches, ed. Hamilton, L. and Belitto, C. (Farnham, 2005), pp. 173–98
Pranger, M.B., Bernard of Clairvaux and the Shape of Monastic Thought: Broken Dreams (Leiden, 1994)
Rudoph, C., The ‘Things of Greater Importance’: Bernard of Clairvaux’s ‘Apologia’ and the Medieval Attitude toward Art (Philadelphia, PA, 1990)
Van Engen, J., ‘The “Crisis of Cenobitism” Reconsidered: Benedictine Monasticism in the Years 1050–1150’, Speculum, 61 (1986), 269–304
The Cistercian Order 1200–1600
Elder, E.R. (ed.), Cistercians in the Late Middle Ages, CS 64 (Kalamazoo, MI, 1981)
Freeman, E., ‘“Houses of a Peculiar Order”: Cistercian Nunneries in Medieval England, with Special Attention to the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries’, Cîteaux, 55 (2004), 245–86
Grundmann, H., Religious Movements in the Middle Ages (Notre-Dame and London, 1995; first pub. in German 1935)
King, A.A., Cîteaux and Her Elder Daughters (London, 1954)
King, P., The Finances of the Cistercian Order in the Fourteenth Century, CS 85 (Kalamazoo, MI, 1985)
King, P., Western Monasticism, CS 185 (Kalamazoo, MI, 1999)
Lekai, L.J., The Cistercians: Ideals and Reality (Kent, OH, 1977)
Nichols, J.A. and Shank, L.T. (eds.), Hidden Springs: Cistercian Monastic Women, 2 vols. CS113 (Kalamazoo, MI, 1995)
Norton, C. and Park, D. (eds.), Cistercian Art and Architecture in the British Isles (Cambridge, 1986)
Oram, R. (ed.), Life on the Edge: The Cistercian Abbey of Balmerino (Scotland), thematic issue of Cîteaux, 59 (2008)
The Cistercian Order since 1600
Bell, D.N., Understanding Rancé: The Spirituality of the Abbot of La Trappe in Context, CS 205 (Kalamazoo, MI, 2005)
Bouton, J. de la Croix, Les moniales cisterciennes: Livre premier: Histoire externe: Deuxième partie: du XVIe siècle à nos jours (Grignan, 1987)
Friedlander, C., Décentralisation et identité cistercienne 1946–1985. Quelle autonomie pour les communautés? (Paris, 1988)
Guerout, G., ‘La communauté de La Trappe face à la Révolution, 13 février 1790–3 juin 1792’, Cîteaux, 40 (1989), 376–477
Kervingant, M. de la Trinité, A Monastic Odyssey, CS 171 (Kalamazoo, MI, 1999)
Kinder, T.N. (ed.), Réformes et continuité dans l’Ordre de Cîteaux: de l’Étroite Observance à la Stricte Observance (Brecht and Cîteaux, 1995)
Konrad, N., Die Enstehung der Österreichisch-Ungarischen Zisterzienserkongregation (1849–1869) (Rome, 1967)
Krailsheimer, A.J., Armand-Jean de Rancé, Abbot of La Trappe: His Influence in the Cloister and the World (Oxford, 1974)
Lehner, U.L., Enlightened Monks: The German Benedictines 1740–1803 (Oxford, 2011)
Lekai, L.J., The Cistercians: Ideals and Reality (Kent OH, 1977), pp. 91–204
Lekai, L.J., Nicholas Cotheret’s ‘Annals of Cîteaux’: Outlined from the French Original (Kalamazoo, MI, 1982)
Pacaut, M., Les moines blancs: histoire de l’ordre de Cîteaux (Paris, 1993), pp. 309–63
Tescari, A. (ed.), The Cistercian Order of the Strict Observance in the Twentieth Century, vol. i, From 1892 to the Close of the Second Vatican Council; vol. ii, From the Second Vatican Council to the End of the Century (Rome, 2008)
Tuyén, T. Nguyên-Dính-, ‘Histoire des controverses à Rome entre la Commune et l’Étroite Observance de 1662 à 1666’, Analecta Cisterciensia, 26 (1970), 3–247
Un homme et son temps: l’Abbé de Rancé. Actes du colloque de La Trappe 23–29 octobre 2000, pour le troisième centenaire de la mort de Rancé (Bégrolle-en-Mauges, 2004)
Waddell, C., ‘The Cistercian Dimension of the Reform of La Trappe’, in Cistercians in the Late Middle Ages, ed. Elder, E.R., CS 64 (Kalamazoo, MI, 1981), pp. 102–61
Zakar, P., Histoire de la Stricte Observance de l’Ordre Cistercien depuis ses débuts jusqu’au Généralat du Cardinal Richelieu (1606–1635) (Rome, 1966)
Useful information can be found on the official websites of both Orders: and . From the latter can be downloaded the document Observantiae: Continuity and Reforms in the Cistercian Family, which deals with the period discussed in this chapter.
Centres and peripheries
Flanagan, M.T., ‘Irish Royal Charters and the Cistercian Order’, in Charters and Charter Scholarship in Britain and Ireland, ed. Flanagan, M.T. and Green, J.A. (Basingstoke, 2005)
France, J., The Cistercians in Scandinavia, CS 131 (Kalamazoo, MI, 1992)
Goez, E., Pragmatische Schriftlichkeit und Archivpflege der Zisterzienser: Ordenszentralismus und regionale Vielfalt, namentlich in Franken und Altbayern (1098–1525) (Münster, 2003)
Jamroziak, E., The Cistercian Order in Medieval Europe: 1090–1500 (Harlow, in press)
Jamroziak, E., ‘Making and Breaking the Bonds: Yorkshire Cistercians and Their Neighbours’, in Perspectives for an Architecture of Solitude: Essays on Cistercians, Art and Architecture in Honour of Peter Fergusson, ed. Kinder, T.N. (Turnhout, 2004), pp. 198–206
Jamroziak, E.Survival and Success on Medieval Borders: Cistercian Houses in Medieval Scotland and Pomerania from the Twelfth to the Late Fourteenth Century (Turnhout, 2011)
Jamroziak, E. and Burton, J. (eds.), Religious and Laity in Western Europe 1000–1400: Interaction, Negotiation, and Power (Turnhout, 2006)
McGuire, B.P., The Cistercians in Denmark, Their Attitudes, Roles, and Functions in Medieval Society, CS 35 (Kalamazoo, MI, 1982)
McGuire, B.P., ‘Norm and Practice in Early Cistercian Life’, in Norm und Praxis in Alltag des Mittelalters und der frühen Neuzeit, ed. Jaritz, G. (Vienna, 1997), pp. 107–24
Oberste, J., Visitation und Ordensorganisation: Formen sozialer Normierung, Kontrolle und Kommunikation bei Cisterziensern, Prämonstratensern und Cluniazensern (12.–frühes 14. Jahrhundert) (Münster, 1995)
Pressouyre, L. (ed.), L’espace cistercien (Paris, 1994)
Tsougarakis, N.I., The Latin Religious Orders in Medieval Greece, 1204–1500 (Turnhout, 2012)
The Cistercian community
Cassidy-Welch, M., Monastic Spaces and Their Meanings: Thirteenth-Century English Cistercian Monasteries (Turnhout, 2001)
Constable, G., ‘Famuli and Conversi at Cluny’, Revue bénédictine, 83 (1973), 326–50
Donnelly, J.S., The Decline of the Medieval Cistercian Laybrotherhood (New York, 1949)
France, J., Separate but Equal: Cistercian Lay Brothers 1120–1350 (Collegeville, MN and Kalamazoo, MI, 2012)
Newman, M.G., ‘Crucified by the Virtues: Monks, Lay Brothers, and Women in Thirteenth-Century Cistercian Saints’ Lives’, in Gender and Difference in the Middle Ages, ed. Farmer, S. and Pasternak, C.B. (Minneapolis, MN, 2003), pp. 182–208
Williams, D.H., The Cistercians in the Early Middle Ages (Leominster, 1998)
Constitutions and the General Chapter
Berman, C.H., The Cistercian Evolution: The Invention of a Religious Order in Twelfth-Century Europe (Philadelphia, PA, 1999)
Cocheril, M., Dictionnaire des monastères cisterciens, La documentation cistercienne 18 (Rochefort, 1976)
McGuire, B.P., ‘Bernard’s Concept of a Cistercian Order: Vocabulary and Context’, Cîteaux, 54 (2003), 225–49
McGuire, B.P., ‘Charity and Unanimity: The Invention of the Cistercian Order. A Review Article’, Cîteaux, 51 (2000), 285–97
McGuire, B.P.The Difficult Saint: Bernard of Clairvaux and His Tradition, CS 126 (Kalamazoo, MI, 1991)
McGuire, B.P.Friendship and Community: The Monastic Experience 350–1250, CS 95 (Kalamazoo, MI, 1988)
Waddell, C., ‘The Myth of Cistercian Origins: C.H. Berman and the Manuscript Sources’, Cîteaux, 51 (1999), 299–360
Nuns
Berman, C.H., ‘Cistercian Nuns and the Development of the Order: The Abbey of Saint-Antoine-des-Champs outside Paris’, in The Joy of Learning and the Love of God, ed. Elder, E.R., CS 160 (Kalamazoo, MI, 1995), pp. 121–56
Berman, C.H., ‘Cistercian Women and Tithes’, Cîteaux, 49 (1998), 95–128
Berman, C.H. ‘The Economic Practices of Cistercian Women’s Communities: A Preliminary Look’, in Studiosorum Speculum: Studies in Honor of Louis J. Lekai, O.Cist, ed. Swietek, F.R. and Sommerfeldt, J.R., CS 141 (Kalamazoo, MI, 1993), pp. 15–32
Berman, C.H.The Labors of Hercules, the Cartulary, Church and Abbey for Nuns of La Cour-Notre-Dame-de-Michery’, Journal of Medieval History, 26 (2000), 33–70
Berman, C.H.Were There Twelfth-Century Cistercian Nuns?’, Church History, 68 (1999), 824–64
Berman, C.H. (trans.), Women and Monasticism in Medieval Europe: Sisters and Patrons of the Cistercian Reform (Kalamazoo, MI, 2002)
Bonis, A., Dechavanne, S. and Wabont, M. (eds.), Cîteaux et les femmes (Paris, 2001)
Bouton, J. de la Croix, Les moniales cisterciennes, 4 vols. (Grignan, 1987)
Boyd, C.E., A Cistercian Nunnery in Medieval Italy: The Story of Rifreddo in Saluzzo, 1220–1300 (Cambridge, MA, 1943)
Degler-Spengler, B., ‘The Incorporation of Cistercian Nuns into the Order in the Twelfth and Thirteenth Century’, in Hidden Springs: Cistercian Monastic Women, ed. Nichols, J.A. and Shank, L.T., 2 vols., CS 113 (Kalamazoo, MI, 1995), vol. i, pp. 85–134
France, J., The Cistercians in Medieval Art (Stroud, 1998), chapter 9, ‘The Nuns’
France, J., The Cistercians in Scandinavia, CS 131 (Kalamazoo, MI, 1992), pp. 159–84 on nuns
Freeman, E, ‘A Cistercian Monk Writes to a Cistercian Nun: John Godard’s Treatise for the Abbess of Tarrant, England, c. 1250’, CSQ, 45 (2010), 331–51
Freeman, E, ‘“Houses of a Peculiar Order”: Cistercian Nunneries in Medieval England, with Special Attention to the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries’, Cîteaux, 55 (2004), 245–87
Kulke, W.-H., Zisterzienserinnenarchitektur des 13. Jahrhunderts in Südfrankreich (Munich and Berlin, 2006)
Lekai, L.J., The Cistercians: Ideals and Reality (Kent, OH, 1977), chapter 22, ‘Cistercian Nuns’
Lester, A.E., ‘Cares beyond the Walls: Cistercian Nuns and the Care of Lepers in Twelfth- and Thirteenth-Century Northern France’, in Religious and Laity in Western Europe 1000–1400: Interaction, Negotiation, and Power, ed. Jamroziak, E. and Burton, J. (Turnhout, 2006), pp. 197–224
Lester, A.E., ‘Cleaning House in 1399. Disobedience and the Demise of Cistercian Convents in Northern France at the End of the Middle Ages’, in Oboedientia: Zu Formen und Grenzen von Macht und Unterordnung im mittelalterlichen Religiosentum, ed. Barret, S. and Melville, G. (Münster, 2005), pp. 423–43
Nichols, J.A. and Shank, L.T. (eds.), Hidden Springs: Cistercian Monastic Women, 2 vols., CS 113 (Kalamazoo, MI, 1995)
Thompson, S., ‘The Problem of the Cistercian Nuns in the Twelfth and Early Thirteenth Centuries’, in Medieval Women, ed. Baker, D. (Oxford, 1978), pp. 227–52
Waddell, C., ‘One Day in the Life of the Savigniac Nun: Jehanne de Deniscourt’,CSQ, 26 (1991), 134–51, reconstruction of a day in the life of a Cistercian nun, based on Stephen of Lexington’s visitation register
Williams, D.H., The Cistercians in the Early Middle Ages (Trowbridge, 1998), chapter 20, ‘The Nunneries’
Agriculture and economies
Berman, C.H., The Cistercian Evolution: The Invention of a Religious Order in Twelfth-Century Europe (Philadelphia, PA, 1999)
Berman, C.H., ‘Cistercian Women and Tithes’, Cîteaux, 49 (1998), 95–128
Berman, C.H.Medieval Agriculture, the Southern-French Countryside, and the Early Cistercians: A Study of Forty-Three Monasteries (Philadelphia, PA, 1986)
Berman, C.H.Two Medieval Women’s Control of Property and Religious Benefactions in France: Eleanor of Vermandois and Blanche of Castile’, Viator, 41 (2010), 151–82
Boyd, C.E., A Cistercian Nunnery in Medieval Italy: The Story of Rifreddo in Saluzzo, 1220–1300 (Cambridge, MA, 1943)
Constable, G., Monastic Tithes from Their Origins to the Twelfth Century (Cambridge, 1964)
Donkin, R.A., The Cistercians: Studies in the Geography of Medieval England and Wales (Toronto, 1978)
Donnelly, J.S., The Decline of the Medieval Cistercian Laybrotherhood (New York, 1949)
Pressouyre, L. and Benoit, P. (eds.), L’hydraulique monastique: milieux, réseaux, usages (Grâne, 1996)
Art
Bony, P., ‘An Introduction to the Study of Cistercian Seals: The Virgin as Mediatrix, then Protectrix on the Seals of Cistercian Abbeys’, Studies in Cistercian Art and Architecture, 3, ed. M.P. Lillich, CS 89 (Kalamazoo, MI, 1987), pp. 201–40
Cahn, W., ‘The Rule and the Book: Cistercian Book Illumination in Burgundy and Champagne’, in Monasticism and the Arts, ed. Vernon, T. (Syracuse, NY, 1984), pp. 139–72
Frings, J. and Gerchow, J., Krone und Schleier: Kunst aus mittelalterlichen Frauenklöstern (Munich, 2005)
Heslop, T.A., ‘Cistercian Seals in England and Wales’, in Cistercian Art and Architecture in the British Isles, ed. Norton, C. and Park, D. (Cambridge, 1986), pp. 266–83
Hörsch, M., ‘Tendenzen der Zisterzienser-Literatur der letzten zehn Jahre unter besondere Berücksichtigung kunsthistorischer Studien zu den Ordensklöstern in Mitteleuropa’, Cîteaux, 58 (2007), 131–70
Kratzke, C., Das Zisterzienserkloster Dargun in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern: Studien zur Bau- und Kunstgeschichte (Petersberg, 2004)
Laabs, A., Malerei und Plastik im Zisterzienserorden: Zum Bildgebrauch zwischen sakralen Zeremoniell und Stiftermemoria 1250–1430 (Petersberg, 2000)
Lillich, M.P. (ed.), Studies in Cistercian Art and Architecture, 6 vols., CS 66, CS 69, CS 89, CS 134, CS 167, CS 194 (Kalamazoo, MI, 1982–2005)
Norton, C., ‘Early Cistercian Tile Pavements’, in Cistercian Art and Architecture in the British Isles, ed. Norton, C. and Park, D. (Cambridge, 1986), pp. 228–55
Norton, C., ‘Table of Cistercian Legislation on Art and Architecture’, in Cistercian Art and Architecture in the British Isles, ed. Norton, C. and Park, D. (Cambridge, 1986), pp. 317–93
Norton, C., ‘Varietates Pavimentorum: contribution à l’étude de l’art cistercien in France’, Cahiers archéologiques, 31 (1983), 68–113
Reilly, D., ‘Bernard of Clairvaux and Christian Art’, in A Companion to Bernard of Clairvaux, ed. McGuire, B.P. (Leiden, 2011), pp. 279–304
Rudolph, C., The ‘Things of Greater Importance’: Bernard of Clairvaux’s ‘Apologia’ and the Medieval Attitude toward Art (Philadelphia, PA, 1990)
Rudolph, C., Violence and Daily Life: Reading, Art and Polemics in the Cîteaux ‘Moralia in Job’ (Princeton, NJ, 1997)
Schumann, D. (ed.), Sachkultur und religiöse Praxis (Berlin, 2007)
Talbot, C.H., ‘The Cistercian Attitude towards Art: The Literary Evidence’, in Cistercian Art and Architecture in the British Isles, ed. Norton, C. and Park, D. (Cambridge, 1986), pp. 56–64
Zakin, H.J., ‘French Cistercian Grisaille Glass’, Gesta, 2 (1974), 17–28
Załuska, Y., L’enluminure et le scriptorium de Cîteaux au XIIe siècle (Nuits-Saint-Georges, 1989)
Libraries and scriptoria
Bell, D.N., ‘Cistercian Scriptoria in England: What They Were and Where They Were’, Cîteaux, 57 (2006), 45–68
Bell, D.N., An Index of Authors and Works in Cistercian Libraries in Great Britain, CS 130 (Kalamazoo, MI, 1992)
Bell, D.N. ‘The Libraries of Religious Houses in the Late Middle Ages’, in The Cambridge History of Libraries in Britain and Ireland: I, ed. Webber, T. and Leedham-Green, E. (Cambridge, 2004), pp. 126–51
Bell, D.N.The Library of Cîteaux in the Fifteenth Century: Primus inter pares or Unus inter multos?’, Cîteaux, 50 (1999), 103–34
Bell, D.N. ‘Monastic Libraries: 1400–1557’, in The Cambridge History of the Book in Britain: III, ed. Hellinga, L. and Trapp, J.B. (Cambridge, 1999), pp. 229–54
Bell, D.N.Printed Books in English Cistercian Monasteries’, Cîteaux, 53 (2002), 127–62
Bell, D.N.A Treasure-House for Monks: The Cistercian General Chapter and the Power of the Book from the Twelfth Century to 1787’, Cîteaux, 58 (2007), 95–122
Bell, D.N.What Nuns Read: Books and Libraries in Medieval English Nunneries, CS 158 (Kalamazoo, MI, 1995)
Bell, D.N. ‘What Nuns Read: The State of the Question’, in The Culture of Medieval English Monasticism, ed. Clark, J.G. (Woodbridge, 2007), pp. 113–33
Bondéelle-Souchier, A., Bibliothèques cisterciennes dans la France médiévale: répertoire des abbayes d’hommes (Paris, 1991)
Bondéelle-Souchier, A., ‘Les moniales cisterciennes et leurs livres manuscrits dans la France d’ancien régime’, Cîteaux, 45 (1994), 193–337
Dimier, A., ‘Les premiers cisterciens étaient-ils ennemis des études?’,Studia Monastica, 4 (1962), 69–91
Doyle, A.I., ‘Production by the Monastic Orders in England (c. 1375–1530): Assessing the Evidence’, in Medieval Book Production: Assessing the Evidence, ed. Brownrigg, L.L. (Los Altos Hills, CA, 1990), pp. 1–19
Doyle, A.I., ‘Publication by Members of the Religious Orders’, in Book Production and Publishing in Britain 1375–1475, ed. Griffiths, J. and Pearsall, D. (Cambridge, 1989), pp. 109–23
Schneider, A., ‘Skriptorien und Bibliotheken der Cistercienser’, in Die Cistercienser: Geschichte, Geist, Kunst, ed. Schneider, A., Wienand, A., Bickel, W. and Cöster, E. (Cologne, 1974), pp. 399–433
Sharpe, R., ‘Library Catalogues and Indexes’, in The Cambridge History of the Book in Britain: II, ed. Morgan, N. and Thomson, R.M. (Cambridge, 2008), pp. 197–218
Doyle, A.I., ‘The Medieval Librarian’, in The Cambridge History of Libraries in Britain and Ireland: I, ed. Webber, T. and Leedham-Green, E. (Cambridge, 2004), pp. 218–41
Talbot, C.H., ‘The English Cistercians and the Universities’, Studia Monastica, 4 (1962), 197–220
Cistercian architecture or architecture of the Cistercians?
Aubert, M. and de Maillé, A., L’architecture cistercienne en France, 2 vols. (Paris, 1948)
Cassidy-Welch, M., Monastic Spaces and Their Meanings: Thirteenth-Century English Cistercian Monasteries (Turnhout, 2001)
Coomans, T., L’abbaye de Villers-en-Brabant: construction, configuration et signification d’une abbaye cistercienne gothique (Brussels, 2000)
Coomans, T., ‘Cistercian Nuns and Princely Memorials: Dynastic Burial Churches in the Cistercian Abbeys of the Medieval Low Countries’, in Sépulture, mort et représentation du pouvoir au moyen âge/Tod, Grabmal und Herrschaftsräpresentation im Mittelalter, ed. Margue, M. (Luxembourg, 2006), pp. 683–734, 775–98
Coppack, G., The White Monks: The Cistercians in Britain 1128–1540 (Stroud, 1998)
Elm, K., Joerissen, P. and Roth, H.J. (eds.), Die Zisterzienser: Ordensleben zwischen Ideal und Wirklichkeit, 2 vols. (Cologne, 1980–2)
Fergusson, P., Architecture of Solitude: Cistercian Abbeys in Twelfth-Century England (Princeton, NJ, 1984)
Fergusson, P. and Harrison, S., Rievaulx Abbey: Community, Architecture, Memory (New Haven, CT and London, 1999)
Hall, J. and Kratzke, C. (eds.), Sepulturae cistercienses: Burial, Memorial and Patronage in Medieval Cistercian Monasteries, thematic issue of Cîteaux, 56 (2005)
Kinder, T.N., Cistercian Europe: Architecture of Contemplation (Grand Rapids, MI, 2002)
Kinder, T.N. (ed.), Perspectives for an Architecture of Solitude: Essays on Cistercians, Art and Architecture in Honour of Peter Fergusson (Turnhout, 2004)
Kratzke, C., Das Zisterzienserkloster Dargun in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern: Studien zur Bau- und Kunstgeschichte (Petersberg, 2004)
Kulke, W.-H., Zisterzienserinnenarchitektur des 13. Jahrhunderts in Südfrankreich (Munich and Berlin, 2006)
Lillich, M.P. (ed.), Studies in Cistercian Art and Architecture, 6 vols., CS 66, CS 69, CS 89, CS 134, CS 167, CS 194 (Kalamazoo, MI, 1982–2005)
Lindemann-Merz, G., Infirmarien – Kranken- und Sterbehäuser der Mönche: Eine architekturhistorische Betrachtung der Infirmariekomplexe nordenglischer Zisterzienserklöster (Munich, 2009)
Norton, C. and Park, D. (eds.), Cistercian Art and Architecture in the British Isles (Cambridge, 1986)
Plouvier, M. and Saint-Denis, A. (eds.), Pour une histoire monumentale de l’abbaye de Cîteaux 1098–1998, Cîteaux: Studia et Documenta 8 (Vitreux, 1998)
Pressouyre, L. (ed.), L’espace cistercien (Paris, 1994)
Pressouyre, L. and Benoit, P. (eds.), L’hydraulique monastique: milieux, réseaux, usages (Grâne, 1996)
Pressouyre, L. and Kinder, T.N. (eds.), Saint Bernard et le monde cistercien (Paris, 1990)
Robinson, D., The Cistercians in Wales: Architecture and Archaeology, 1130–1540 (London, 2005)
Rüffer, J., Orbis Cisterciensis: Zur Geschichte der monastischen ästhetischen Kultur im Mittelalter (Berlin, 1999)
Stalley, R., Cistercian Monasteries of Ireland (New Haven, CT and London, 1987)
Untermann, M., Forma Ordinis: Die mittelalterliche Baukunst der Zisterzienser (Munich and Berlin, 2001)
van der Meer, F., Atlas de l’ordre cistercien (Paris and Brussels, 1965)
Bernard of Clairvaux: his first and greatest miracle was himself
Arabeyre, P., Berlioz, J. and Poirrier, P. (eds.), Vies et légendes de saint Bernard de Clairvaux: création, diffusion, réception (XIIe–XXe siècles) (Brecht and Cîteaux, 1993)
Aubé, P., Saint Bernard de Clairvaux (Paris, 2003)
Bertrand, D. and Lobrichon, G. (eds.), Bernard de Clairvaux: histoire, mentalités, spiritualité, SCh 380 (Paris, 1992)
Bredero, A.H., Bernard of Clairvaux: Between Cult and History (Grand Rapids, MI, 1996)
Casey, M., ‘Reading Saint Bernard: The Man, the Medium, the Message’, in A Companion to Bernard of Clairvaux, ed. McGuire, B.P. (Leiden, 2011), pp. 62–107
Commission d’histoire de l’ordre de Cîteaux (ed.), Bernard de Clairvaux (Paris, 1953), esp. chronological tables, pp. 567–619
Dinzelbacher, P., Bernhard von Clairvaux: Leben und Werk des berühmten Zisterziensers (Darmstadt, 1998)
Holdsworth, C., ‘Bernard as Father Abbot’, in A Companion to Bernard of Clairvaux, ed. McGuire, B.P. (Leiden, 2011), pp. 169–219
McGuire, B.P., ‘Bernard’s Life and Works: A Review’, in A Companion to Bernard of Clairvaux, ed. McGuire, B.P. (Leiden, 2011), pp. 18–61
McGuire, B.P., The Difficult Saint: Bernard of Clairvaux and His Tradition, CS 126 (Kalamazoo, MI, 1991)
McGuire, B.P., (ed.), A Companion to Bernard of Clairvaux (Leiden, 2011)
Picard, A. and Boglioni, P., ‘Miracle et thaumaturgie dans la vie de saint Bernard’, in Vies et légendes de saint Bernard de Clairvaux: création, diffusion, réception (XIIe–XXe siècles), ed. Arabeyre, P., Berlioz, J. and Poirrier, P. (Brecht and Cîteaux, 1993), pp. 36–59
Vacandard, E., Vie de Saint Bernard, 2 vols. (Paris 1920; first pub. 1895)
Williams, W., Saint Bernard of Clairvaux (Westminster 1952; first pub. 1935)
Bernard of Clairvaux: work and self
Bruun, M.B., Parables: Bernard of Clairvaux’s Mapping of Spiritual Topography (Leiden, 2007)
Evans, G.R., The Mind of St Bernard of Clairvaux (Oxford, 1993)
Gilson, É., The Mystical Theology of Bernard of Clairvaux, CS 120 (Kalamazoo, MI, 1990; first pub. in French 1934; first pub. in English 1940)
Holdsworth, C., ‘Bernard as Father Abbot’, in A Companion to Bernard of Clairvaux, ed. McGuire, B.P. (Leiden, 2011), pp. 169–219
Leclercq, J., The Love of Learning and the Desire for God (New York, 1961 and later; first pub. in French 1957)
Leclercq, J., Monks and Love in Twelfth-Century France (Oxford, 1979)
Lubac, H. de, Medieval Exegesis: The Four Senses of Scripture, 3 vols. (Grand Rapids, MI and Edinburgh, 1998–2009; first pub. in French 1959–63)
McGinn, B., ‘Bernard of Clairvaux: “That Contemplative”’, in The Presence of God, vol. ii, The Growth of Mysticism: Gregory the Great through the Twelfth Century (New York, 1995), pp. 158–224
Morris, C., The Discovery of the Individual, 1050–1200 (New York, 1972)
Pranger, M.B., Bernard of Clairvaux and the Shape of Monastic Thought: Broken Dreams (Leiden, 1994)
Pranger, M.B., ‘The Concept of Death in Bernard’s Sermons on the Song of Songs’, Cîteaux, 42 (1991), 85–93
Pranger, M.B. ‘Killing Time: An Essay on the Monastic Notion of Speed’, in Medieval Monastic Preaching, ed. Muessig, C. (Leiden, 1998), pp. 319–33
Pranger, M.B.Mystical Tropology in Bernard of Clairvaux’, Bijdragen: tijdschrift voor filosofie en theologie, 52 (1991), 428–35
Pranger, M.B.The Virgin Mary and the Complexities of Love-Language in the Works of Bernard of Clairvaux’, Cîteaux, 40 (1989), 112–38
Rudolph, C., The ‘Things of Greater Importance’: Bernard of Clairvaux’s ‘Apologia’ and the Medieval Attitude toward Art (Philadelphia, PA, 1990)
Vacandard, E., Vie de Saint Bernard, abbé de Clairvaux, 2 vols. (Paris, 1920; first pub. 1895)
Early Cistercian writers
Bell, D.N., ‘The Ascetic Spirituality of Baldwin of Ford’, Cîteaux, 31 (1980), 227–50
Bell, D.N., The Image and Likeness: The Augustinian Spirituality of William of Saint Thierry, CS 78 (Kalamazoo, MI, 1984)
Boquet, D., L’ordre de l’affect au moyen âge: autour de l’anthropologie affective d’Aelred de Rievaulx (Caen, 2005)
Brouette, É., Dimier, A. and Manning, E. (eds.), Dictionnaire des auteurs cisterciens, La documentation cistercienne 16 (Rochefort, 1975–9)
Burton, P.-A., Aelred de Rievaulx (1110–1167): essai de biographie existentielle et spirituelle (Paris, 2010)
Burton, P.-A., Bibliotheca Aelrediana secunda: une bibliographie cumulative (1962–1996) (Louvain-la-Neuve, 1997)
Casey, M., ‘Beatrice of Nazareth (1200–68): Cistercian Mystic’ and ‘Beatrice of Nazareth: The Seven Modes of Love (a Translation)’, Tjurunga: Australasian Benedictine Review, 50 (1996), 44–70 and 71–82
Casey, M., ‘Herbert of Clairvaux’s Book of Wonderful Happenings’, CSQ, 25 (1990), 37–64
Costello, H., ‘The Idea of the Church in the Sermons of John of Ford’,Cîteaux, 21 (1970), 236–64
Costello, H. and Holdsworth, C.J. (eds.), A Gathering of Friends: The Learning and Spirituality of John of Forde, CS 161 (Kalamazoo, MI, 1996)
Cowdrey, H.E.J., ‘Quidam frater Stephanus nomine, anglicus natione: The English Background of Stephen Harding’, Revue bénédictine, 101 (1991), 322–40; repr. in E.R. Elder (ed.), The New Monastery: Texts and Studies on the Earliest Cistercians, CF 60 (Kalamazoo, MI, 1998), pp. 57–77
Cowdrey, H.E.J., ‘Stephen Harding and Cistercian Monasticism’, Cîteaux, 49 (1998), 209–19
De Ganck, R., Beatrice of Nazareth in Her Context, CS 121 (Kalamazoo, MI, 1991)
Cowdrey, H.E.J., ‘The Three Foundations of Bartholomew of Tienen’, Cîteaux, 37 (1986), 49–75
De Ganck, R.Towards Unification with God, CS 122 (Kalamazoo, MI, 1991)
Elder, E.R., ‘Bernard of Clairvaux and William of Saint Thierry’, in A Companion to Bernard of Clairvaux, ed. McGuire, B.P. (Leiden, 2011), pp. 108–32
Elder, E.R.Noble Piety and Reformed Monasticism, CS 65 (Kalamazoo, MI, 1981)
Elder, E.R. (ed.), Goad and Nail, CS 84 (Kalamazoo, MI, 1985)
Hallier, A., The Monastic Theology of Aelred of Rievaulx (Spencer, MA, 1969; first pub. in French 1959)
Häring, N.M., ‘The Writings against Gilbert of Poitiers by Geoffrey of Auxerre’, Analecta Cisterciensia, 22 (1966), 3–83
Holdsworth, C.J., ‘John of Ford and English Cistercian Writings 1167–1214’,Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, fifth series, 11 (1961), 117–36
Hollywood, A., ‘Inside Out: Beatrice of Nazareth and Her Hagiographer’, in Gendered Voices: Medieval Saints and Their Interpreters, ed. Mooney, C.M. (Philadelphia, PA, 1999), pp. 78–98
Hoste, A., Bibliotheca Aelrediana: A Survey of the Manuscripts, Old Catalogues, Editions and Studies Concerning St. Aelred of Rievaulx (Steenbrugge, 1962)
Kienzle, B.M., ‘Cistercian Views of the City in the Sermons of Helinand of Froidmont’, in Medieval Sermons and Society: Cloister, City, University, ed. J. Hamesse, B.M. Kienzle, Thayer, A. and Stoudt, D.L. (Louvain-le-Neuve, 1998), pp. 165–82
Kienzle, B.M., ‘Deed and Word: Helinand’s Toulouse Sermons’, in Erudition at God’s Service, ed. Sommerfeldt, J.R., CF 98 (Kalamazoo, MI, 1987), pp. 267–76 and 277–90
Leclercq, J., The Love of Learning and the Desire for God (New York, 1961 and later; first pub. in French 1957)
McGinn, B., The Golden Chain: a study in the Theological Anthropology of Isaac of Stella, CS 15 (Spencer, MA, 1972)
McGinn, B., The Presence of God, vol. ii, The Growth of Mysticism: Gregory the Great through the Twelfth Century (New York, 1994)
McGuire, B.P., Brother and Lover: Aelred of Rievaulx (New York, 1994)
Merton, T., ‘Father and Son Cistercians of the Twelfth Century: Blessed Amadeus of Hauterive, “the Elder”, and Saint Amadeus, Bishop of Lausanne’, CSQ, 43 (2008), 379–90
Merton, T., The Feast of Freedom: Monastic Formation according to Adam of Perseigne (Gethsemani Abbey, KY, [n.d.]), repr. as introduction to The Letters of Adam of Perseigne 1, trans. Perigo, G., CF 21 (Kalamazoo, MI, 1976)
Morson, J., Christ the Way: The Christology of Guerric of Igny, CS 25 (Kalamazoo, MI, 1976)
Nemes, B.J., ‘Gertrude of Helfta’s “Legatus divinae pietatis”: Text Production and Authorship in the Revelatory Literature of Helfta’, in Companion to Medieval Northern German Mysticism, ed. Andersen, E.A. and Lähnemann, H. (Leiden, in press)
Nichols, J.A. and Shank, L.T. (eds.), Hidden Springs: Cistercian Monastic Women, CS 113 (Kalamazoo, MI, 1995)
Paden, W.D., ‘De Monachis rithmos facientibus: Hélinand de Froidmont, Bertran de Born, and the Cistercian General Chapter of 1199’, Speculum, 55 (1980), 669–85
Pedersen, E.M. Wiberg, ‘Image of God – Image of Mary – Image of Woman: On the Theology and Spirituality of Beatrice of Nazareth’, CSQ, 29 (1994), 209–20
Pedersen, E.M. Wiberg, ‘The Incarnation of Beatrice of Nazareth’s Theology’, in New Trends in Feminine Spirituality: The Holy Women of Liège and Their Impact, ed. Dor, J., Johnson, L. and Wogan, J.-Browne, (Turnhout, 1999), pp. 61–79
Sommerfeldt, J.R., Aelred of Rievaulx: Pursuing Perfect Happiness (New York, 2005)
Squire, A., Aelred of Rievaulx: A Study, CS 50 (Kalamazoo, MI, 1981; first pub. 1969)
Stercal, C., Stephen Harding: A Biographical Sketch and Texts (Kalamazoo, MI, 2008; pub. in Italian 2001)
The spiritual teaching of the early Cistercians
Bell, D.N., The Image and Likeness: The Augustinian Spirituality of William of Saint Thierry, CS 78 (Kalamazoo, MI, 1984)
Bouyer, L., The Cistercian Heritage (London, 1958; first pub. in French 1955)
Brooke, O., Studies in Monastic Theology, CS 37 (Kalamazoo, MI, 1980)
Casey, M., Athirst for God: Spiritual Desire in Bernard of Clairvaux’s Sermons on the Song of Songs, CS 77 (Kalamazoo, MI, 1987)
Gilson, É., The Mystical Theology of Saint Bernard (London 1940; repr. Kalamazoo, MI, 1990; first pub. in French 1934)
Hallier, A., The Monastic Theology of Aelred of Rievaulx CS2 (Spencer, MA, 1969; first pub. in French 1959)
Hiss, W., Die Anthropologie Bernhards von Clairvaux (Berlin, 1964)
Köpf, U., Religiöse Erfahrung in der Theologie Bernhards von Clairvaux (Tübingen, 1980)
Leclercq, J., The Love of Learning and the Desire for God (New York, 1961 and later; first pub. in French 1957)
McGinn, B., The Golden Chain: The Theological Anthropology of Isaac of Stella, CS 15 (Spencer, MA, 1972)
McGinn, B., ‘Isaac of Stella on the Divine Nature’, Analecta Cisterciensia, 29 (1973), 1–53
McGinn, B. The Presence of God, vol. ii, The Growth of Mysticism: Gregory the Great through the Twelfth Century (New York, 1994)
Pranger, M.B., Bernard of Clairvaux and the Shape of Monastic Thought: Broken Dreams (Leiden, 1994)
Sommerfeldt, J.R. (ed.), Bernardus Magister, CS 135 (Spencer, MA, 1992)
Sommerfeldt, J.R.Spiritualité cistercienne: histoire et doctrine (Paris, 1998)
Squire, A., Aelred of Rievaulx: A Study, CS 50 (Kalamazoo, MI, 1981; first pub. 1969)
Stickelbroeck, M., Mysterium Venerandum: Der trinitarische Gedanke im Werk des Bernhard von Clairvaux (Münster, 1994)
Verdeyen, P., Guillaume de Saint-Thierry: premier auteur mystique des Pays-Bas (Turnhout, 2003)
Verdeyen, P., La théologie mystique de Guillaume de Saint-Thierry (Paris, 1990)
Cistercians in dialogue: bringing the world into the monastery
Bautier, R.-H., ‘Paris au temps d’Abélard’, in Abélard en son temps, ed. Jolivet, J. (Paris, 1981), pp. 21–77
Boquet, D., L’ordre de l’affect au moyen âge: autour de l’anthropologie affective d’Aelred de Rievaulx (Caen, 2005)
Bredero, A.H., ‘Cluny et Cîteaux: les origines de la controverse’, in Cluny et Cîteaux au douzième siècle: l’histoire d’une controverse monastique, ed. Bredero, A.H. (Amsterdam, 1985)
Brouette, É., Dimier, A. and Manning, E. (eds.), Dictionnaire des auteurs cisterciens, La documentation cistercienne 16 (Rochefort, 1975–9)
Canivez, J.-M., ‘Albéric ou Aubry’, in Spiritualité cistercienne: histoire et doctrine (Paris, 1998), pp. 221–4
Constable, G., ‘Renewal and Reform in Religious Life: Concepts and Realities’, in Renaissance and Renewal in the Twelfth Century, ed. Benson, R. and Constable, G. (Cambridge, 1982), pp. 37–67
Cowdrey, H.E.J., ‘Quidam frater Stephanus nomine, Anglicus natione: The English Background of Stephen Harding’, Revue bénédictine, 101 (1991), 322–40
Cowdrey, H.E.J., ‘Stephen Harding and Cistercian Monasticism’, Cîteaux, 49 (1998), 209–19
Debuisson, M., ‘La provenance des premiers cisterciens d’après les lettres et les vitae de Bernard de Clairvaux’, Cîteaux, 43 (1994), 5–118
Foreville, R. (ed.), Les mutations socio-culturelles au tournant des XIe–XIIe siècles (Paris, 1984)
Fossier, R., ‘L’essor économique de Clairvaux’, in Bernard de Clairvaux, ed. Commission d’histoire de l’ordre de Cîteaux (Paris, 1953), pp. 77–93
Fossier, R., ‘L’installation et les premières années de Clairvaux’, in Bernard de Clairvaux, ed. Commission d’histoire de l’ordre de Cîteaux (Paris, 1953), pp. 95–114
Fossier, R. ‘Le modèle cistercien’, in Saint Bernard et le monde cistercien, ed. Pressouyre, L. and Kinder, T.N. (Paris, 1992), pp. 65–6
Jolivet, J., Arts du langage et théologie chez Abélard (Paris, 1969)
Leclercq, J., The Love of Learning and the Desire for God (New York, 1961 and later; first pub. in French 1957)
McGuire, B.P., ‘The First Cistercian Renewal and a Changing Image of Saint Bernard’, in McGuire, , The Difficult Saint: Bernard of Clairvaux and His Tradition, CS 126 (Kalamazoo, MI, 1991), pp. 153–87
McGuire, B.P., ‘A Lost Clairvaux Exemplum Collection Found: The Liber Visionum et Miraculorum Compiled under Prior John of Clairvaux (1171–1179)’, Analecta Cisterciensia, 39 (1983), 26–62
Mikkers, E., ‘Robert de Molesme’, in Spiritualité cistercienne: histoire et doctrine (Paris, 1998), pp. 430–32
Morson, J., ‘Arnulphe (Arnoul) de Boheries’, in Dictionnaire des auteurs cisterciens, ed. É. Brouette, A. Dimier and E. Manning, La documentation cistercienne 16 (Rochefort, 1975–9)
Reilly, D., ‘Education, Liturgy and Practice in Early Cîteaux’, in Understanding Monastic Practices of Oral Communication, ed. Vanderputten, S. (Turnhout, 2011), pp. 79–108
Riché, P., Écoles et enseignement dans l’Occident chrétien de la fin du Ve siècle au milieu du XIe siècle (Paris, 1979)
Riché, P., ‘La vie scolaire et la pédagogie au Bec au temps de Lanfranc et de saint Anselme’, in Les mutations socio-culturelles au tournant des XIe–XIIe siècles, ed. Foreville, R. (Paris, 1984), pp. 213–27
Rijk, L. de, ‘Peter Abälard: Meister und Opfer des Scharfsinns’, in Petrus Abaelardus (1079–1142): Person, Werk und Wirkung, ed. Thomas, R. (Trier, 1980), pp. 125–38
Southern, R.W., St. Anselm: A Portrait in a Landscape (Cambridge, 1990)
Stercal, C., Stephen Harding: A Biographical Sketch and Texts, CS 226 (Kalamazoo, MI, 2008; first pub. in Italian 2001)
Verbaal, W., ‘The Council of Sens Reconsidered: Masters, Monks or Judges?’,Church History, 74 (2005), 460–93
Verbaal, W., Een middeleeuws drama (Kapellen-Kampen, 2004)
Verbaal, W.The Preaching of Community: Bernard of Clairvaux’s Sermons and the School of Experience’, Medieval Sermon Studies, 48 (2004), 75–90
Verbaal, W. ‘Teste Quintiliano: Jean de Salisbury et Quintilien: un exemple de la crise des autorités au XIIe siècle’, in Quintilien ancien et moderne, ed. Galand, P. (Turnhout, 2010), pp. 155–70
Verbaal, W. ‘Tussen het klooster en de school’, in De Duinenabdij van Koksijde: Cisterciënzers in de Lage Landen, ed. Vanclooster, D. (Tielt, 2005), pp. 25–45
Verdeyen, P., Guillaume de Saint-Thierry: premier auteur mystique des Pays-Bas (Turnhout, 2003)
Preaching
Casey, M., ‘An Introduction to Aelred’s Chapter Discourses’, CSQ, 45 (2010), 279–314
Holdsworth, C., ‘Were the Sermons of St. Bernard on the Song of Songs Ever Preached?’, in Medieval Monastic Preaching, ed. Muessig, C. (Leiden, 1998), pp. 295–318
Kienzle, B.M., ‘Mary Speaks against Heresy: An Unedited Sermon of Hélinand for the Purification, Paris, B.N. ms. lat. 14591’, Sacris Erudiri, 32 (1991), 291–308
Kienzle, B.M. (ed.), The Sermon, Typologie des sources du moyen âge occidental 81–3 (Turnhout, 2000)
Mohrmann, C., Praedicare-tractare-sermo: études sur le latin des chrétiens, 2 vols. (Rome, 1961)
Muessig, C. (ed.), Medieval Monastic Preaching (Leiden, 1998)
Stiegman, E., ‘The Literary Genre of Bernard of Clairvaux’s Sermones Super Cantica Canticorum’, in Simplicity and Ordinariness, ed. Sommerfeldt, J.R., CS 61 (Kalamazoo, MI, 1980), pp. 68–93
Verbaal, W., ‘Réalités quotidiennes et fiction littéraire dans les Sermons sur le Cantique de Bernard de Clairvaux’, Cîteaux, 51 (2000), 201–18
Waddell, C., ‘The Liturgical Dimension of Twelfth-Century Cistercian Preaching’, in Medieval Monastic Preaching, ed. Muessig, C. (Leiden, 1998), pp. 335–49
Liturgy
Backaert, B., ‘L’évolution du calendrier cistercien’, COCR, 11 (1950), 81–94, 302–16; 12 (1951), 108–27
King, A.A., Liturgies of the Religious Orders (London, 1955)
Maître, C., (ed.), Bernard de Clairvaux: Office de Saint Victor, Prologue à l’antiphonaire, Lettre 398, SCh 527 6 (Paris ,2009)
Marosszéki, S.R., Les origines du chant cistercien, ASOC, 8 (Rome, 1952)
Scarcez, A., L’antiphonaire 12A–B de Westmalle dans l’histoire du chant cistercien au XIIe siècle (Turnhout, 2011)