Skip to main content Accessibility help
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 19
  • Print publication year: 2018
  • Online publication date: May 2018

26 - Skilled Decision Theory: From Intelligence to Numeracy and Expertise

from Part V.I - Domains of Expertise: Professions
Arkes, H. R. (1991). Costs and benefits of judgment errors: Implications for debiasing. Psychological Bulletin, 110, 486498.
Arkes, H. R. (2016). A levels of processing interpretation of dual-system theories of judgment and decision making. Theory & Psychology, 26, 459475.
Baron, J. (1985). Rationality and intelligence. Cambridge University Press.
Baron, J. (2008). Thinking and deciding (4th edn.). Cambridge University Press.
Baron, J., & Brown, R. V. (eds.) (2012). Teaching decision making to adolescents. New York: Routledge.
Brase, G. L. (2014). The power of representation and interpretation: Doubling statistical reasoning performance with icons and frequentist interpretations of ambiguous numbers. Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 26, 8197.
Breakspear, S. (2012). The policy impact of PISA: An exploration of the normative effects of international benchmarking in school system performance. OECD Education Working Paper No. 71. Paris: OECD Publishing.
Bruine de Bruin, W., & Bostrom, A. (2013). Assessing what to address in science communication. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 110, 1406214068.
Bruine de Bruin, W., Parker, A. M., & Fischhoff, B. (2007). Individual differences in adult decision-making competence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 92, 938956.
Carroll, J. B. (1993). Human cognitive abilities: A survey of factor-analytic studies. Cambridge University Press.
Chang, W., Chen, E., Mellers, B., & Tetlock, P. (2016). Developing expert political judgment: The impact of training and practice on judgmental accuracy in geopolitical forecasting tournaments. Judgment and Decision Making, 11, 509526.
Chater, N., Tenenbaum, J. B., & Yuille, A. (2006). Probabilistic models of cognition: Conceptual foundations. Trends in Cognitive Science, 10, 287291.
Clegg, B. A., McKernan, B., Martey, R. M., Taylor, S. M., Stromer-Galley, J., Kenski, K., … & Shaw, A. (2015). Effective mitigation of anchoring bias, projection bias, and representativeness bias from serious game-based training. Procedia Manufacturing, 3, 15581565.
Cokely, E. T. (2009). Beyond generic dual processes: How should we evaluate scientific progress? PsycCritiques, 54, Article 10.
Cokely, E. T., Allan, J., Ghazal, S., Feltz, A., & Garcia-Retamero, R. (Forthcoming). General decision making skill and numeracy: Component abilities.
Cokely, E. T., & Feltz, A. (2009a). Adaptive variation in judgment and philosophical intuition. Consciousness and Cognition, 18, 356358.
Cokely, E. T., & Feltz, A. (2009b). Individual differences, judgment biases, and theory-of-mind: Deconstructing the intentional action side effect asymmetry. Journal of Research in Personality, 43, 1824.
Cokely, E. T., & Feltz, A. (2014). Expert intuition. In Osbeck, L. M. & Held, B. S. (eds.), Rational intuition: Philosophical roots, scientific investigations (pp. 213238). Cambridge University Press.
Cokely, E. T., Galesic, M., Schulz, E., Ghazal, S., & Garcia-Retamero, R. (2012). Measuring risk literacy: The Berlin Numeracy Test. Judgment and Decision Making, 7, 2547.
Cokely, E. T., Ghazal, S., Galesic, M., Garcia-Retamero, R., & Schulz, E. (2013). How to measure risk comprehension in educated samples. In Garcia-Retamero, R. & Galesic, M. (eds.), Transparent communication of health risks: Overcoming cultural differences (pp. 2952). New York: Springer.
Cokely, E. T., Ghazal, S., & Garcia-Retamero, R. (2014). Measuring numeracy. In Anderson, B. L. & Schulkin, J. (eds.), Numerical reasoning in judgments and decision making about health (pp. 1138). Cambridge University Press.
Cokely, E. T., & Kelley, C. M. (2009). Cognitive abilities and superior decision making under risk: A protocol analysis and process model evaluation. Judgment and Decision Making, 4, 2033.
Cokely, E. T., Kelley, C. M., & Gilchrist, A. H. (2006). Sources of individual differences in working memory: Contributions of strategy to capacity. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 13, 991997.
Cokely, E. T., Schooler, L. J., & Gigerenzer, G. (2010). Information use for decision making. In Maack, M. N. & Bates, M. J. (eds.), Encyclopedia of library and information sciences (3rd edn.) (pp. 27272734). New York: Taylor & Francis.
Del Missier, F., Mäntylä, T., & Bruin, W. B. (2012). Decision-making competence, executive functioning, and general cognitive abilities. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 25, 331351.
Drane, J. F. (1984). Competency to give an informed consent: A model for making clinical assessments. Journal of the American Medical Association, 252, 925927.
Duckworth, A. L., & Seligman, M. E. (2005). Self-discipline outdoes IQ in predicting academic performance of adolescents. Psychological Science, 16, 939944.
Edwards, W. (1954). The theory of decision making. Psychological Bulletin, 51, 380417.
Ericsson, K. A. (ed.) (1991). The road to excellence: The acquisition of expert performance in the arts and sciences, sports and games. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Ericsson, K. A., Charness, N., Hoffman, R. R., & Feltovich, P. J. (eds.) (2006). The Cambridge handbook of expertise and expert performance. Cambridge University Press.
Ericsson, K. A., Chase, W. G., & Faloon, S. (1980). Acquisition of a memory skill. Science, 208, 11811182.
Ericsson, K. A., & Kintsch, W. (1995). Long-term working memory. Psychological Review, 102, 211245.
Ericsson, K. A., Krampe, R. T., & Tesch-Römer, C. (1993). The role of deliberate practice in the acquisition of expert performance. Psychological Review, 100, 363406.
Ericsson, K. A., Prietula, M. J., & Cokely, E. T. (2007). The making of an expert. Harvard Business Review, 85, 114121.
Ericsson, K. A., & Simon, H. A. (1980). Verbal reports as data. Psychological Review, 87, 215251.
Ericsson, K. A., & Simon, H. A. (1993). Protocol analysis. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Eskreis-Winkler, L., Shulman, E. P., Young, V., Tsukayama, E., Brunwasser, S. M., & Duckworth, A. L. (2016). Using wise interventions to motivate deliberate practice. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 111, 728744.
Evans, J. S. B., & Frankish, K. E. (2009). In two minds: Dual processes and beyond. Oxford University Press.
Feltz, A. (2015). Ethical information transparency and sexually transmitted infections. Current HIV Research, 13, 421431.
Feltz, A., & Cokely, E. T. (2009). Do judgments about freedom and responsibility depend on who you are? Personality differences in intuitions about compatibilism and incompatibilism. Consciousness and Cognition, 18, 342350.
Feltz, A., & Cokely, E. T. (2012). The philosophical personality argument. Philosophical Studies, 161, 227246.
Feltz, A., & Cokely, E. T. (2013). Predicting philosophical disagreement. Philosophy Compass, 8, 978989.
Feltz, A., & Cokely, E. T. (2016). Personality and philosophical bias. In Sytsma, J. & Buckwalter, W. (eds.), A companion to experimental philosophy (pp. 578589). New York: John Wiley.
Fischhoff, B. (2013). The sciences of science communication. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 110 (Supplement 3), 1403314039.
Fischhoff, B., Brewer, N. T., & Downs, J. T. (2012). Communicating risks and benefits: An evidence-based user’s guide. Silver Spring, MD: US Food and Drug Administration.
Fisher, R. A. (1952). The design of experiments. London: Macmillan.
Fong, G. T., Krantz, D. H., & Nisbett, R. E. (1986). The effects of statistical training on thinking about everyday problems. Cognitive Psychology, 18, 253292.
Fox, M. C., Ericsson, K. A., & Best, R. (2011). Do procedures for verbal reporting of thinking have to be reactive? A meta-analysis and recommendations for best reporting methods. Psychological Bulletin, 137, 316344.
Fox, M. C., & Mitchum, A. L. (2013). A knowledge-based theory of rising scores on “culture-free” tests. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 142, 9791000.
Fox, M. C., & Mitchum, A. L. (2014). Confirming the cognition of rising scores: Fox and Mitchum (2013) predicts violations of measurement invariance in series completion between age-matched cohorts. PloS One, 9, e95780.
Frederick, S. (2005). Cognitive reflection and decision making. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 19, 2542.
Gal, I. (2003). Teaching for statistical literacy and services of statistics agencies. American Statistician, 57, 8084.
Garcia-Retamero, R., & Cokely, E. T. (2011). Effective communication of risks to young adults: Using message framing and visual aids to increase condom use and STD screening. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 17, 270287.
Garcia-Retamero, R., & Cokely, E. T. (2013). Communicating health risks with visual aids. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 22, 392399.
Garcia‐Retamero, R., & Cokely, E. T. (2014). The influence of skills, message frame, and visual aids on prevention of sexually transmitted diseases. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 27, 179189.
Garcia-Retamero, R., & Cokely, E. T. (2017). Designing visual aids that promote risk literacy: A systematic review of health research and evidence-based design heuristics. Human Factors, 59, 582627.
Garcia-Retamero, R., Cokely, E. T., Ghazal, S., & Joeris, A. (2016a). Measuring graph literacy without a test: A brief subjective assessment. Medical Decision Making, 36, 854867.
Garcia-Retamero, R., Cokely, E. T., & Hoffrage, U. (2015). Visual aids improve diagnostic inferences and metacognitive judgment calibration. Frontiers in Psychology, 6, 932.
Garcia-Retamero, R., Cokely, E. T., Wicki, B., & Joeris, A. (2016b). Improving risk literacy in surgeons. Patient Education and Counseling, 99, 11561161.
Garcia-Retamero, R., Wicki, B., Cokely, E. T., & Hanson, B. (2014). Factors predicting surgeons’ preferred and actual roles in interactions with their patients. Health Psychology, 33, 920928.
Ghazal, S. (2014). Component numeracy skills and decision making. PhD Dissertation, Michigan Technological University.
Ghazal, S., Cokely, E. T., & Garcia-Retamero, R. (2014). Predicting biases in very highly educated samples: Numeracy and metacognition. Judgment and Decision Making, 9, 1534.
Gigerenzer, G. (2015). Risk savvy: How to make good decisions. New York: Penguin.
Gigerenzer, G., & Gaissmaier, W. (2011). Heuristic decision making. Annual Review of Psychology, 62, 451482.
Gigerenzer, G., & Goldstein, D. G. (1996). Reasoning the fast and frugal way: Models of bounded rationality. Psychological Review, 103, 650669.
Gigerenzer, G., Todd, P. M., & the ABC Research Group (1999). Simple heuristics that make us smart. Oxford University Press.
Ginsburg, L., Manly, M., & Schmitt, M. J. (2006). The components of numeracy. NCSALL Occasional Paper. Boston, MA: National Center for the Study of Adult Learning and Literacy.
Goldman, S. R., & Pellegrino, J. W. (1984). Deductions about induction. Advances in the Psychology of Human Intelligence, 2, 149197.
Gould, S. J. (1996). The mismeasure of man. New York: W. W. Norton.
Hacking, I. (2006). The emergence of probability: A philosophical study of early ideas about probability, induction and statistical inference. Cambridge University Press.
Hanushek, E. A., & Woessmann, L. (2010). The economics of international differences in educational achievement. NBER Working Paper No. 15949. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research.
Hastie, R., & Dawes, R. M. (eds.) (2010). Rational choice in an uncertain world: The psychology of judgment and decision making. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Heckman, J. J. (1995). Lessons from the bell curve. Journal of Political Economy, 103, 10911120.
Herrnstein, R. J., & Murray, C. (1994). The bell curve: Intelligence and class structure in American life. New York: Free Press.
Holland, J. H., Holyoak, K. J., Nisbett, R. E., & Thagard, P. R. (1986). Induction: Processes of inference, learning, and discovery. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Holyoak, K. J., & Morrison, R. G. (eds.) (2005). The Cambridge handbook of thinking and reasoning. Cambridge University Press.
Huff, D. (1954). How to lie with statistics. New York: W. W. Norton.
Hunt, E., & Wittmann, W. (2008). National intelligence and national prosperity. Intelligence, 36, 19.
Jaeggi, S. M., Buschkuehl, M., Jonides, J., & Shah, P. (2011). Short- and long-term benefits of cognitive training. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 108, 1008110086.
Jasper, J. D., Bhattacharya, C., & Corser, R. (2017). Numeracy predicts more effortful and elaborative search strategies in a complex risky choice context: A process‐tracing approach. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 30, 224235.
Jaynes, E. T. (2003). Probability theory: The logic of science. Cambridge University Press.
Kahan, D. M., Jenkins‐Smith, H., & Braman, D. (2011). Cultural cognition of scientific consensus. Journal of Risk Research, 14, 147174.
Kahneman, D. (2003). A perspective on judgment and choice: Mapping bounded rationality. American Psychologist, 58, 697720.
Kahneman, D. (2011). Thinking, fast and slow. New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux.
Keller, N., Cokely, E. T., Katsikopoulos, K. V., & Wegwarth, O. (2010). Naturalistic heuristics for decision making. Journal of Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making, 4, 256274.
Klein, G. (1999). Sources of power: How people make decisions. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Kutner, M., Greenburg, E., Jin, Y., & Paulsen, C. (2006). The health literacy of America’s adults: Results from the 2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy. NCES 2006-483. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics.
Kyllonen, P. C., & Christal, R. E. (1990). Reasoning ability is (little more than) working-memory capacity?! Intelligence, 14, 389433.
Larrick, R. P. (2014). Debiasing. In Koehler, D. J. & Harvey, N. (eds.), Blackwell handbook of judgment and decision making (pp. 316338). Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.
Larrick, R. P., Morgan, J. N., & Nisbett, R. E. (1990). Teaching the use of cost-benefit reasoning in everyday life. Psychological Science, 1, 362370.
Lindsay, D. S. (2015). Replication in psychological science. Psychological Science, 26, 18271832.
Lindskog, M., Winman, A., Juslin, P., & Poom, L. (2013). Measuring acuity of the approximate number system reliably and validly: The evaluation of an adaptive test procedure. Frontiers in Psychology, 4, Article 510.
Lipkus, I. M., Samsa, G., & Rimer, B. K. (2001). General performance on a numeracy scale among highly educated samples. Medical Decision Making, 21, 3744.
McCabe, D. P., Roediger, H. L. III, McDaniel, M. A., Balota, D. A., & Hambrick, D. Z. (2010). The relationship between working memory capacity and executive functioning: Evidence for a common executive attention construct. Neuropsychology, 24, 222243.
Mellers, B., Stone, E., Atanasov, P., Rohrbaugh, N., Metz, S. E., Ungar, L., … & Tetlock, P. (2015a). The psychology of intelligence analysis: Drivers of prediction accuracy in world politics. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 21, 114.
Mellers, B., Stone, E., Murray, T., Minster, A., Rohrbaugh, N., Bishop, M., … & Ungar, L. (2015b). Identifying and cultivating superforecasters as a method of improving probabilistic predictions. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 10, 267281.
Mellers, B., Ungar, L., Baron, J., Ramos, J., Gurcay, B., Fincher, K., & … Tetlock, P. E. (2014). Psychological strategies for winning a geopolitical forecasting tournament. Psychological Science, 25, 11061115.
Morewedge, C. K., Yoon, H., Scopelliti, I., Symborski, C. W., Korris, J. H., & Kassam, K. S. (2015). Debiasing decisions: Improved decision making with a single training intervention. Policy Insights from the Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 2, 129140.
Moshman, D. (2000). Diversity in reasoning and rationality: Metacognitive and developmental considerations. Educational Psychology Papers and Publications, 46, 689690.
Moxley, J. H., Ericsson, K. A., Charness, N., & Krampe, R. T. (2012). The role of intuition and deliberative thinking in experts’ superior tactical decision-making. Cognition, 124, 7278.
Newall, P. W. (2016). Downside financial risk is misunderstood. Judgment and Decision Making, 11, 416422.
Nisbett, R. E., Aronson, J., Blair, C., Dickens, W., Flynn, J., Halpern, D. F., & Turkheimer, E. (2012). Intelligence: New findings and theoretical developments. American Psychologist, 67, 130159.
Okan, Y., Garcia-Retamero, R., Cokely, E. T., & Maldonado, A. (2015). Improving risk understanding across ability levels: Encouraging active processing with dynamic icon arrays. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 21, 178194.
Osman, M. (2004). An evaluation of dual-process theories of reasoning. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 11, 9881010.
Paas, F. G. (1992). Training strategies for attaining transfer of problem-solving skill in statistics: A cognitive-load approach. Journal of Educational Psychology, 84, 429434.
Pachur, T., & Galesic, M. (2013). Strategy selection in risky choice: The impact of numeracy, affect, and cross‐cultural differences. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 26, 260271.
Parker, A. M., & Fischhoff, B. (2005). Decision‐making competence: External validation through an individual‐differences approach. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 18, 127.
Paulos, J. A. (1988). Innumeracy: Mathematical illiteracy and its consequences. London: Macmillan.
Peters, E. (2012). Beyond comprehension: The role of numeracy in judgments and decisions. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 21, 3135.
Peters, E. (2017). Educating good decisions. Behavioural Public Policy, 1, 162176.
Peters, E., & Bjalkebring, P. (2015). Multiple numeric competencies: When a number is not just a number. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 108, 802822.
Peters, E., Hibbard, J., Slovic, P., & Dieckmann, N. (2007). Numeracy skill and the communication, comprehension, and use of risk-benefit information. Health Affairs, 26, 741748.
Peters, E., Shoots-Reinhard, B., Tompkins, M. K., Schley, D., Meilleur, L., Sinayev, A., … & Crocker, J. (2017). Improving numeracy through values affirmation enhances decision and STEM outcomes. PloS ONE, 12, e0180674.
Peters, E., Västfjäll, D., Slovic, P., Mertz, C. K., Mazzocco, K., & Dickert, S. (2006). Numeracy and decision making. Psychological Science, 17, 407413.
Petrova, D., Garcia-Retamero, R., Catena, A., Cokely, E. T., Herredia Carrasco, A., Arrebola Moreno, A., & Ramírez Hernández, J. A. (2017a). Numeracy predicts risk of pre-hospital decision delay: A retrospective study of acute coronary syndrome survival. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 51, 292306.
Petrova, D., Garcia-Retamero, R., & Cokely, E. T. (2015). Understanding the harms and benefits of cancer screening: A model of factors that shape informed decision making. Medical Decision Making, 35, 847858.
Petrova, D., Kostopoulou, O., Delaney, B. C., Cokely, E. T., & Garcia-Retamero, R. (2017b). Strengths and gaps in physicians’ risk communication: A scenario study of the influence of numeracy on cancer screening communication. Medical Decision Making. DOI: 0272989X17729359.
Petrova, D., van der Pligt, J., & Garcia‐Retamero, R. (2014). Feeling the numbers: On the interplay between risk, affect, and numeracy. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 27, 191199.
Raiffa, H. (1968). Decision analysis: Introductory lectures on choices under uncertainty. New York: Random House.
Reyna, V. F. (2004). How people make decisions that involve risk: A dual process approach. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 13, 6066.
Reyna, V. F. (2008). A theory of medical decision making and health: Fuzzy trace theory. Medical Decision Making, 28, 850865.
Reyna, V. F., & Brainerd, C. J. (1995). Fuzzy-trace theory: An interim synthesis. Learning and Individual Differences, 7, 175.
Reyna, V. F., Nelson, W. L., Han, P. K., & Dieckmann, N. F. (2009). How numeracy influences risk comprehension and medical decision making. Psychological Bulletin, 135, 943973.
Rittle-Johnson, B., & Koedinger, K. R. (2001). Using cognitive models to guide instructional design: The case of fraction division. Proceedings of the Cognitive Science Society, 23.
Rubinstein, A. (2013). Response time and decision making: An experimental study. Judgment and Decision Making, 8, 540551.
Savage, L. J. (1954). The foundations of statistics. New York: John Wiley.
Schlaifer, R., & Raiffa, H. (1961). Applied statistical decision theory. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Schley, D. R., & Peters, E. (2014). Assessing “economic value”: Symbolic-number mappings predict risky and riskless valuations. Psychological Science, 25, 753761.
Schulz, E., Cokely, E. T., & Feltz, A. (2011). Persistent bias in expert judgments about free will and moral responsibility: A test of the expertise defense. Consciousness and Cognition, 20, 17221731.
Schwartz, L. M., Woloshin, S., Black, W. C., & Welch, H. G. (1997). The role of numeracy in understanding the benefit of screening mammography. Annals of Internal Medicine, 127, 966972.
Simon, H. A. (1956). Rational choice and the structure of the environment. Psychological Review, 63, 129138.
Simon, H. A. (1957). A bounded-rationality model of rational choice. In Simon, H. A., Models of man, social and rational: Mathematical essays on rational human behavior in a social setting. New York: John Wiley.
Simon, H. A. (1990). Invariants of human behavior. Annual Review of Psychology, 41, 120.
Simons, D. J., Boot, W. R., Charness, N., Gathercole, S. E., Chabris, C. F., Hambrick, D. Z., & Stine-Morrow, E. A. (2016). Do “brain-training” programs work? Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 17, 103186.
Soll, J. B., Milkman, K. L., & Payne, J. W. (2015). A user’s guide to debiasing. In Keren, G. & Wu, G. (eds.), The Wiley Blackwell handbook of judgment and decision making (pp. 924951). Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.
Stanovich, K. E. (1999). Who is rational? Studies of individual differences in reasoning. New York: Psychology Press.
Stanovich, K. E. (2016). The comprehensive assessment of rational thinking. Educational Psychologist, 51, 2334.
Stanovich, K. E., & West, R. F. (2000). Advancing the rationality debate. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 23, 701717.
Stanovich, K. E., West, R. F., & Toplak, M. E. (2016). The rationality quotient: Toward a test of rational thinking. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Steen, L. A. (ed.) (1990). On the shoulders of giants: New approaches to numeracy. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
Thaler, R. H., & Sunstein, C. R. (2008). Nudge: Improving decisions about health, wealth, and happiness. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Thompson, V. A., Turner, J. A. P., & Pennycook, G. (2011). Intuition, reason, and metacognition. Cognitive Psychology, 63, 107140.
Torgerson, C., Porthouse, J., & Brooks, G. (2005). A systematic review of controlled trials evaluating interventions in adult literacy and numeracy. Journal of Research in Reading, 28, 87107.
Traczyk, J., & Fulawka, K. (2016). Numeracy moderates the influence of task-irrelevant affect on probability weighting. Cognition, 151, 3741.
Trevena, L. J., Zikmund-Fisher, B. J., Edwards, A., Gaissmaier, W., Galesic, M., Han, P. K., … & Ozanne, E. (2013). Presenting quantitative information about decision outcomes: A risk communication primer for patient decision aid developers. BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making, 13, S2S7.
Tversky, A., & Kahneman, D. (1985). The framing of decisions and the psychology of choice. In Covello, V. T., Mumpower, J. L., Stallen, P. J. M., & Uppuluri, V. R. R. (eds.), Environmental impact assessment, technology assessment, and risk analysis (pp. 107129). Berlin: Springer.
Von Neumann, J., & Morgenstern, O. (1944). Theory of games and economic behavior. Princeton University Press.
Weller, J. A., Dieckmann, N. F., Tusler, M., Mertz, C. K., Burns, W. J., & Peters, E. (2013). Development and testing of an abbreviated numeracy scale: A Rasch analysis approach. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 26(2), 198212.
Woller-Carter, M. (2016). Development of the intelligent graphs for everyday risky decisions tutor. PhD Dissertation, Michigan Technological University.
Woller-Carter, M., Okan, Y., Cokely, E. T., & Garcia-Retamero, R. (2012). Communicating and distorting risks with graphs: An eye-tracking study. In Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting (Vol. 56, No. 1, pp. 17231727). Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.
Xin, Y. P., & Jitendra, A. K. (1999). The effects of instruction in solving mathematical word problems for students with learning problems: A meta-analysis. Journal of Special Education, 32, 207225.
Yates, J. F. (1990). Judgment and decision making. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Ybarra, V. T., Cokely, E. T., Adams, C., Woller-Carter, M., Allan, J. N., Feltz, A., & Garcia-Retamero, R. (2017). Training graph literacy: Developing the Outreach Platform. Proceedings of the Cognitive Science Society, 29.