Skip to main content
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 3
  • Cited by
    This chapter has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Li, Li MaBouDi, HaDi Egertová, Michaela Elphick, Maurice R. Chittka, Lars and Perry, Clint J. 2017. A possible structural correlate of learning performance on a colour discrimination task in the brain of the bumblebee. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, Vol. 284, Issue. 1864, p. 20171323.

    Sternberg, Robert J. 2012. Intelligence. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Cognitive Science, Vol. 3, Issue. 5, p. 501.

    Sternberg, Robert J. 2012. Handbook of Psychology, Second Edition.

  • Print publication year: 2011
  • Online publication date: June 2012

Chapter 18 - Biological Basis of Intelligence

from Part IV - Biology of Intelligence
Recommend this book

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

The Cambridge Handbook of Intelligence
  • Online ISBN: 9780511977244
  • Book DOI:
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to *


Amat, J. A., Bansal, R., Whiteman, R., Haggerty, R., Royal, J., & Peterson, B. S. (2008). Correlates of intellectual ability with morphology of the hippocampus and amygdala in healthy adults. Brain and Cognition, 66(2), 105–114.
Barrett, P. T., & Eysenck, H. J. (1994). The relationship between evoked-potential component amplitude, latency, contour length, variability, zero-crossings, and psychometric intelligence. Personality and Individual Differences, 16(1), 3–32.
Bishop, S. J., Fossella, J., Croucher, C. J., & Duncan, J. (2008). COMT val(158)met genotype affects recruitment of neural mechanisms supporting fluid intelligence. Cerebral Cortex, 18(9), 2132–2140.
Bouchard, T. J., Jr. (2009). Genetic influence on human intelligence (Spearman's g): how much? Ann Hum Biol, 36(5), 527–544.
Chalke, F. C., & Ertl, J. (1965). Evoked potentials and intelligence. Life Sci, 4(13), 1319–1322.
Chiang, M. C., Barysheva, M., Shattuck, D. W., Lee, A. D., Madsen, S. K., Avedissian, C., et al. (2009). Genetics of brain fiber architecture and intellectual performance. J Neurosci, 29(7), 2212–2224.
Colom, R., Haier, R. J., Head, K., Alvarez-Linera, J., Quiroga, M. A., Shih, P. C., et al. (2009). Gray matter correlates of fluid, crystallized, and spatial intelligence: Testing the P-FIT model. Intelligence, 37(2), 124–135.
Colom, R., Jung, R. E., & Haier, R. J. (2006a). Distributed brain sites for the g-factor of intelligence. NeuroImage, 31(3), 1359–1365.
Colom, R., Jung, R. E., & Haier, R. J. (2006b). Finding the g-factor in brain structure using the method of correlated vectors. Intelligence, 34(6), 561.
Colom, R., Jung, R. E., & Haier, R. J. (2007). General intelligence and memory span: Evidence for a common neuroanatomic framework. Cognitive Neuropsychology, 24(8), 867–878.
Deary, I. J., Johnson, W., & Houlihan, L. M. (2009). Genetic foundations of human intelligence. Hum Genet, 126(1), 215–232.
Diamond, M. C., Scheibel, A. B., Murphy, G. M., Jr., & Harvey, T. (1985). On the brain of a scientist: Albert Einstein. Exp Neurol, 88(1), 198–204.
Duncan, J., Emslie, H., Williams, P., Johnson, R., & Freer, C. (1996). Intelligence and the frontal lobe: The organization of goal-directed behavior. Cognit Psychol, 30(3), 257–303.
Duncan, J., Seitz, R. J., Kolodny, J., Bor, D., Herzog, H., Ahmed, A., et al. (2000). A neural basis for general intelligence. Science, 289(5478), 457–460.
Ertl, J. P., & Schafer, E. W. (1969). Brain response correlates of psychometric intelligence. Nature, 223(204), 421–422.
Geake, J. G., & Hansen, P. C. (2005). Neural correlates of intelligence as revealed by fMRI of fluid analogies. NeuroImage, 26(2), 555–564.
Geake, J. G., & Hansen, P. C. (2010). Functional neural correlates of fluid and crystallized analogizing. NeuroImage, 49, 3489–3497.
Gignac, G., Vernon, P. A., & Wickett, J. C. (2003). Factors influencing the relationship between brain size and intelligence. In H. Nyborg (Ed.), The scientific study of general intelligence (pp. 93–106). Amsterdam: Pergamon.
Glascher, J., Tranel, D., Paul, L. K., Rudrauf, D., Rorden, C., Hornaday, A., et al. (2009). Lesion mapping of cognitive abilities linked to intelligence. Neuron, 61(5), 681–691.
Gray, J. R., Chabris, C. F., & Braver, T. S. (2003). Neural mechanisms of general fluid intelligence. Nat Neurosci, 6(3), 316–322.
Haier, R. J. (1993). Cerebral glucose metabolism and intelliegnce. In P. Vernon (Ed.), Biological approaches to the study of human intelligence (pp. 317–332). Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
Haier, R. J. (2009). Neuro-intelligence, neuro-metrics and the next phase of brain imaging studies. Intelligence, 37(2), 121–123.
Haier, R. J. (2009, November–December). What does a smart brain look like?Scientific American Mind, 26–33.
Haier, R. J., Alkire, M. T., White, N. S., Uncapher, M. R., Head, E., Lott, I. T., et al. (2003). Temporal cortex hypermetabolism in Down syndrome prior to the onset of dementia. Neurology, 61(12), 1673–1679.
Haier, R. J., & Benbow, C. P. (1995). Sex differences and lateralization in temporal lobe glucose metabolism during mathematical reasoning. Developmental Neuropsychology, 11(4), 405–414.
Haier, R. J., Chueh, D., Touchette, P., Lott, I. T., et al. (1995). Brain size and cerebral glucose metabolic rate in nonspecific mental retardation and Down syndrome. Intelligence, 20(2), 191–210.
Haier, R. J., Colom, R., Schroeder, D. H., Condon, C. A., Tang, C., Eaves, E., et al. (2009). Gray matter and intelligence factors: Is there a neuro-g? Intelligence, 37(2), 136–144.
Haier, R. J., Head, K., Head, E., & Lott, I. T. (2008). Neuroimaging of individuals with Down's syndrome at-risk for dementia: Evidence for possible compensatory events. NeuroImage, 39(3), 1324–1332.
Haier, R. J., & Jung, R. E. (2007). Beautiful minds (i.e., brains) and the neural basis of intelligence. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 30(02), 174–178.
Haier, R. J., Jung, R. E., Yeo, R. A., Head, K., & Alkire, M. T. (2004). Structural brain variation and general intelligence. NeuroImage, 23(1), 425–433.
Haier, R. J., Jung, R. E., Yeo, R. A., Head, K., & Alkire, M. T. (2005). The neuroanatomy of general intelligence: Sex matters. NeuroImage, 25(1), 320–327.
Haier, R. J., Karama, S., Leyba, L., & Jung, R. E. (2009). MRI assessment of cortical thickness and functional activity changes in adolescent girls following three months of practice on a visual-spatial task. BMC Res Notes, 2, 174.
Haier, R. J., Siegel, B., Tang, C., Abel, L., & Buchsbaum, M. S. (1992). Intelligence and changes in regional cerebral glucose metabolic-rate following learning. Intelligence, 16(3–4), 415–426.
Haier, R. J., Siegel, B. V., Jr., Crinella, F. M., & Buchsbaum, M. S. (1993). Biological and psychometric intelligence: Testing an animal model in humans with positron emission tomography. In E. Douglas & K. Detterman (Eds.), Individual differences and cognition (pp. 317–331): New York, NY: Ablex.
Haier, R. J., Siegel, B. V., Jr., MacLachlan, A., Soderling, E., Lottenberg, S., & Buchsbaum, M. S. (1992). Regional glucose metabolic changes after learning a complex visuospatial/motor task: A positron emission tomographic study. Brain Res, 570(1–2), 134–143.
Haier, R. J., Siegel, B. V., Nuechterlein, K. H., Hazlett, E., Wu, J. C., Paek, J., et al. (1988). Cortical glucose metabolic-rate correlates of abstract reasoning and attention studied with positron emission tomography. Intelligence, 12(2), 199–217.
Haier, R. J., White, N. S., & Alkire, M. T. (2003). Individual differences in general intelligence correlate with brain function during nonreasoning tasks. Intelligence, 31(5), 429–441.
Hatazawa, J., Brooks, R. A., Di Chiro, G., & Bacharach, S. L. (1987). Glucose utilization rate versus brain size in humans. Neurology, 37(4), 583–588.
Head, E., Lott, I. T., Patterson, D., Doran, E., & Haier, R. J. (2007). Possible compensatory events in adult Down syndrome brain prior to the development of Alzheimer disease neuropathology: Targets for non-pharmacological intervention. Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, 11(1), 61–76.
Hulshoff Pol, H. E., Schnack, H. G., Posthuma, D., Mandl, R. C. W., Baare, W. F., van Oel, C., et al. (2006). Genetic contributions to human brain morphology and intelligence. J. Neurosci., 26(40), 10235–10242.
Hutchinson, A. D., Mathias, J. L., Jacobson, B. L., Ruzic, L., Bond, A. N., & Banich, M. T. (2009). Relationship between intelligence and the size and composition of the corpus callosum. Experimental Brain Research, 192(3), 455–464.
Jensen, A. R. (1998). The g factor: The science of mental ability. Westport, CT: Praeger.
Jensen, A. R. (2006). Clocking the mind: Mental chronometry and individual differences. New York, NY: Elsevier.
Johnson, W., Jung, R. E., Colom, R., & Haier, R. J. (2008). Cognitive abilities independent of IQ correlate with regional brain structure. Intelligence, 36(1), 18–28.
Jung, R., & Haier, R. (2007). The parieto-frontal integration theory (P-FIT) of intelligence: Converging neuroimaging evidence. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 30(02), 135–154.
Jung, R. E., Gasparovic, C., Chavez, R. S., Caprihan, A., Barrow, R., & Yeo, R. A. (2009). Imaging intelligence with proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Intelligence, 37(2), 192–198.
Karama, S., Ad-Dab'bagh, Y., Haier, R. J., Deary, I. J., Lyttelton, O. C., Lepage, C., et al. (2009). Positive association between cognitive ability and cortical thickness in a representative US sample of healthy 6- to 18-year-olds. Intelligence, 37(4), 431–442.
Keller, K., & Menon, V. (2009). Gender differences in the functional and structural neuroanatomy of mathematical cognition. NeuroImage, 47(1), 342–352.
Lashey, K. S. (1964). Brain mechanisms and intelligence. New York, NY: Hafner.
Lee, K. H., Choi, Y. Y., Gray, J. R., Cho, S. H., Chae, J. H., Lee, S., et al. (2006). Neural correlates of superior intelligence: Stronger recruitment of posterior parietal cortex. NeuroImage, 29(2), 578–586.
Li, J., Yu, C., Li, Y. H., Liu, B., Liu, Y., Shu, N., et al. (2009). COMT Val158Met modulates association between brain white matter architecture and IQ. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B-Neuropsychiatric Genetics, 150B(3), 375–380.
Li, Y. H., Liu, Y., Li, J., Qin, W., Li, K. C., Yu, C. S., et al. (2009). Brain anatomical network and intelligence. Plos Computational Biology, 5(5), 1–17.
Luders, E., Narr, K. L., Bilder, R. M., Szeszko, P. R., Gurbani, M. N., Hamilton, L., et al. (2008). Mapping the relationship between cortical convolution and intelligence: Effects of gender. Cereb Cortex, 18(9), 2019–2026.
Luders, E., Narr, K. L., Bilder, R. M., Thompson, P. M., Szeszko, P. R., Hamilton, L., et al. (2007). Positive correlations between corpus callosum thickness and intelligence. NeuroImage, 37(4), 1457–1464.
Luders, E., Narr, K. L., Thompson, P. M., & Toga, A. W. (2009). Neuroanatomical correlates of intelligence. Intelligence, 37(2), 156–163.
Masunaga, H., Kawashima, R., Horn, J. L., Sassa, Y., & Sekiguchi, A. (2008). Neural substrates of the Topology Test to measure fluid reasoning: An fMRI study. Intelligence, 36(6), 607–615.
Matzel, L. D., Han, Y. R., Grossman, H., Karnik, M. S., Patel, D., Scott, N., et al. (2003). Individual differences in the expression of a “general” learning ability in mice. Journal of Neuroscience, 23(16), 6423–6433.
McDaniel, M. A. (2005). Big-brained people are smarter: A meta-analysis of the relationship between in vivo brain volume and intelligence. Intelligence, 33(4), 337–346.
Miller, E. (1994). Intelligence and brain myelination. Personality and individual differences, 17, 803–832.
Nachev, P., Mah, Y. H., & Husain, M. (2009). Functional neuroanatomy: The locus of human intelligence. Curr Biol, 19(10), R418–420.
Narr, K. L., Woods, R. P., Thompson, P. M., Szeszko, P., Robinson, D., Dimtcheva, T., et al. (2007). Relationships between IQ and regional cortical gray matter thickness in healthy adults. Cereb Cortex, 17(9), 2163–2171.
Neubauer, A. C., & Fink, A. (2009a). Intelligence and neural efficiency. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 33(7), 1004–1023.
Neubauer, A. C., & Fink, A. (2009b). Intelligence and neural efficiency: Measures of brain activation versus measures of functional connectivity in the brain. Intelligence, 37(2), 223–229.
Neubauer, A. C., Fink, A., & Schrausser, D. G. (2002). Intelligence and neural efficiency: The influence of task content and sex on the brain-IQ relationship. Intelligence, 30(6), 515–536.
Neubauer, A. C., Freudenthaler, H. H., & Pfurtscheller, G. (1997). Intelligence and spatio-temporal patterns of event-related cortical desynchronization. Journal of Psychophysiology, 11(4), 375–375.
O'Callaghan, M. A., & Carroll, D. (1982). Psychosurgery: A scientific analysis. Ridgewood, NJ: George A. Bogden.
Parks, R. W., Loewenstein, D. A., Dodrill, K. L., Barker, W. W., Yoshii, F., Chang, J. Y., et al. (1988). Cerebral metabolic effects of a verbal fluency test – a PET scan study. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 10(5), 565–575.
Peper, J. S., Brouwer, R. M., Boomsma, D. I., Kahn, R. S., & Poll, H. E. H. (2007). Genetic influences on human brain structure: A review of brain imaging studies in twins. Human Brain Mapping, 28(6), 464–473.
Perfetti, B., Saggino, A., Ferretti, A., Caulo, M., Romani, G. L., & Onofrj, M. (2009). Differential patterns of cortical activation as a function of fluid reasoning complexity. Human Brain Mapping, 30(2), 497–510.
Posthuma, D., De Geus, E. J., Baare, W. F., Hulshoff Pol, H. E., Kahn, R. S., & Boomsma, D. I. (2002). The association between brain volume and intelligence is of genetic origin. Nat Neurosci, 5(2), 83–84.
Prabhakaran, V., Smith, J. A., Desmond, J. E., Glover, G. H., & Gabrieli, J. D. (1997). Neural substrates of fluid reasoning: An fMRI study of neocortical activation during performance of the Raven's Progressive Matrices Test. Cognit Psychol, 33(1), 43–63.
Reed, T. E., & Jensen, A. R. (1992). Conduction-velocity in a brain nerve pathway of normal adults correlates with intelligence level. Intelligence, 16(3–4), 259–272.
Reed, T. E., & Jensen, A. R. (1993). Choice-reaction time and visual pathway nerve-conduction velocity both correlate with intelligence but appear not to correlate with each other – Implications for information-processing. Intelligence, 17(2), 191–203.
Rypma, B., & Prabhakaran, V. (2009). When less is more and when more is more: The mediating roles of capacity and speed in brain-behavior efficiency. Intelligence, 37(2), 207–222.
Schafer, E. W. (1982). Neural adaptability: A biological determinant of behavioral intelligence. Int J Neurosci, 17(3), 183–191.
Schmithorst, V. J. (2009). Developmental sex differences in the relation of neuroanatomical connectivity to intelligence. Intelligence, 37(2), 164–173.
Schmithorst, V. J., & Holland, S. K. (2006). Functional MRI evidence for disparate developmental processes underlying intelligence in boys and girls. NeuroImage, 31(3), 1366–1379.
Schmithorst, V. J., & Holland, S. K. (2007). Sex differences in the development of neuroanatomical functional connectivity underlying intelligence found using Bayesian connectivity analysis. NeuroImage, 35(1), 406.
Schmithorst, V. J., Holland, S. K., & Dardzinski, B. J. (2008). Developmental differences in white matter architecture between boys and girls. Human Brain Mapping, 29(6), 696–710.
Shaw, P., Greenstein, D., Lerch, J., Clasen, L., Lenroot, R., Gogtay, N., et al. (2006). Intellectual ability and cortical development in children and adolescents. Nature, 440(7084), 676–679.
Silverman, P. H. (2004). Rethinking genetic determinism. The Scientist, 18(10), 32–33.
Song, M., Zhou, Y., Li, J., Liu, Y., Tian, L., Yu, C., et al. (2008). Brain spontaneous functional connectivity and intelligence. NeuroImage, 41(3), 1168–1176.
Spearman, C. (1904). General intelligence objectively determined and measured. American Journal of Psychology, 15, 201–293.
Thompson, P. M., Cannon, T. D., Narr, K. L., van Erp, T., Poutanen, V. P., Huttunen, M., et al. (2001). Genetic influences on brain structure. Nat Neurosci, 4(12), 1253–1258.
Thompson, R., Crinella, F. M., & Yu, J. (1990). Brain mechanisms in problem solving and intelligence: A survey of the rat brain. New York, NY: Plenum Press.
Toga, A. W., & Thompson, P. M. (2005). Genetics of brain structure and intelligence. Annu Rev Neurosci, 28, 1–23.
Van den Heuvel, M. P., Stam, C. J., Kahn, R. S., & Hulshoff Pol, H. E. (2009). Efficiency of functional brain networks and intellectual performance. J Neurosci, 29(23), 7619–7624.
Van Der Maas, H. L. J., Dolan, C. V., Grasman, R., Wicherts, J. M., Huizenga, H. A., & Raijmakers, M. E. J. (2006). A dynamical model of general intelligence: The positive manifold of intelligence by mutualism. Psychological Review, 113(4), 842–861.
van Leeuwen, M., Peper, J. S., van den Berg, S. M., Brouwer, R. M., Pol, H. E. H., Kahn, R. S., et al. (2009). A genetic analysis of brain volumes and IQ in children. Intelligence, 37(2), 181–191.
Van Rooy, C., Stough, C., Pipingas, A., Hocking, C., & Silberstein, R. B. (2001). Spatial working memory and intelligence – Biological correlates. Intelligence, 29(4), 275–292.
Vernon, P. A. (1993). Intelligence and neural efficiency. In D. K. Detterman (Ed.), Current topics in human intelligence: Individual differences and cognition (Vol. 3, pp. 171–188). Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
Waiter, G. D., Deary, I. J., Staff, R. T., Murray, A. D., Fox, H. C., Starr, J. M., et al. (2009). Exploring possible neural mechanisms of intelligence differences using processing speed and working memory tasks: An fMRI study. Intelligence, 37(2), 199–206.
Wartenburger, I., Heekeren, H. R., Preusse, F., Kramer, J., & Van Der Meer, E. (2009). Cerebral correlates of analogical processing and their modulation by training. NeuroImage, 48(1), 291–302.