Skip to main content
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 5
  • Cited by
    This chapter has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Kerr, Mary Margaret and Price, Rebecca H. 2018. The Palgrave Handbook of Dark Tourism Studies. p. 553.

    Stewart, Olivia G. and Jordan, Michelle E. 2017. “Some explanation here”: a case study of learning opportunities and tensions in an informal science learning environment. Instructional Science, Vol. 45, Issue. 2, p. 137.

    Asensio, Mikel and Pol, Elena 2017. Palgrave Handbook of Research in Historical Culture and Education. p. 755.

    Schettino, Patrizia 2016. Successful Strategies for Dealing With New Technology in Museums: A Case Study of Immersive Technology at the Immigration Museum, Melbourne. Museum International, Vol. 68, Issue. 1-2, p. 130.

    Pivec, Maja and Kronberger, Anika 2016. Virtual Museum: Playful Visitor Experience in the Real and Virtual World. p. 1.

  • Print publication year: 2014
  • Online publication date: November 2014

23 - Informal Learning in Museums

from Part IV - Learning Together
Recommend this book

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

The Cambridge Handbook of the Learning Sciences
  • Online ISBN: 9781139519526
  • Book DOI:
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to *


Achiam, M. F. (2012). A content-oriented model for science exhibit engineering. International Journal of Science Education, Part B, 1–19.
Allen, L., & Crowley, K. (in press). How museum educators change: Changing notions of learning through changing practice. Science Education.
Allen, L. B., & Crowley, K. (2014). Challenging beliefs, practices, and content: How museum educators change. Science Education, 98(1), 84–105.
Allen, S. (1997). Using scientific inquiry activities in exhibit explanations. Science Education, 81, 715–734.
Allen, S. (2004). Designs for learning: Studying science museum exhibits that do more than entertain. Science Education, 88 Supplement 1 (July), S17–S33.
Allen, S., & Gutwill, J. P. (2009). Creating a program to deepen family inquiry at interactive science exhibits. Curator, 52(3), 289–306.
Allwood, J., & Montgomery, B. (1989). Exhibition planning and design: A guide for exhibitors, designers and contractors. London: Batsford.
Anderson, D., Kisiel, J., & Storksdieck, M. (2006). School field trip visits: Understanding the teacher’s world through the lens of three international studies. Curator, 49(3), 365–386.
Ash, D. (2004). How families use questions at dioramas: Ideas for exhibit design. Curator, 47(1), 84–99.
Bamberger, Y., & Tal, T. (2007). Learning in a personal context: Levels of choice in a free choice learning environment in science and natural history museums. Science Education, 91, 75–95.
Barab, S. A., & Squire, K. D. (2004). Design-based research: Putting a stake in the ground. Journal of the Learning Sciences, 13(1), 1–14.
Beale, K. (Ed.) (2011). Museums at play – Games, interaction and learning. Edinburgh: MuseumsEtc.
Beer, V. (1987). Great expectations: Do museums know what visitors are doing? Curator, 30(3), 206–215.
Bennett, T. (1995). The birth of the museum. London: Routledge.
Bevan, B., & Xanthoudaki, M. (2008). Professional development for museum educators: Underpinning the underpinnings. The Journal of Museum Education, 33(2), 107–119.
Bitgood, S. (1988). A comparison of formal and informal learning. Technical Report No. 88-10, Jacksonville, AL: Center for Social Design.
Borun, M. J., & Dritsas, J. (1997). Developing family-friendly exhibits. Curator, 40(3), 178–196.
Borun, M. J., Dritsas, J. I., Johnson, N. E., Peter, K. F., Fadigan, K., Jangaard, A., ... Wenger, A. (1998). Family learning in museums: The PISEC perspective. Philadelphia, PA: The Franklin Institute.
Bruner, J. (1990). Acts of meaning. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Callanan, M., Cervantes, C., & Loomis, M. (2011). Informal learning. WIREs Cognitive Science, 2, 646–655.
Cameron, F., & Kenderdine, S. (Eds.) (2007). Theorizing digital cultural heritage: A critical discourse. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Castle, M. C. (2006). Blending pedagogy and content: A new curriculum for museum teachers. The Journal of Museum Education, 31(2), 123–132.
Cone, C. A., & Kendall, K. (1978). Space, time, and family interaction: Visitor behavior at the Science Museum of Minnesota. Curator: The Museum Journal, 21(3), 245–258.
Cox-Petersen, A. M., Marsh, D. D., Kisiel, J., & Melber, L. M. (2003). Investigation of guided school tours, student learning, and science reform recommendations at a museum of natural history. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 40, 200–218.
Crowley, K., Barron, B. J., Knutson, K., & Martin, C. (in press). Interest and the development of pathways to science. To appear in K. A. Renninger, M. Nieswandt, & S. Hidi (Eds.), Interest in mathematics and science learning and related activity. Washington, DC: AERA.
Crowley, K., Callanan, M. A., Jipson, J., Galco, J., Topping, K., & Shrager, J. (2001). Shared scientific thinking in everyday parent-child activity. Science Education, 85(6), 712–732.
Crowley, K., & Jacobs, M. (2002). Islands of expertise and the development of family scientific literacy. In G. Leinhardt, K. Crowley, & K. Knutson (Eds.), Learning conversations in museums. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Davis, J., Gurian, E. H., & Koster, E. (2003), Timeliness: A discussion for museums. Curator: The Museum Journal, 46, 353–361
Dawson, E., & Jensen, E. (2011). Towards a contextual turn in visitor studies: Evaluating visitor segmentation and identity-related motivations. Visitor Studies, 14(2), 127–140.
Derry, S. J., Pea, R. D. et al. (2010). Conducting video research in the learning sciences: Guidance on selection, analysis, technology, and ethics. Journal of the Learning Sciences, 19(1), 3–53.
DeSantis, K., & Housen, A. (2001). A brief guide to developmental theory and aesthetic development. Visual Understanding in Education, 17.
DeWitt, J., & Storksdieck, M. (2008). A short review of school field trips: Key findings from the past and implications for the future. Visitor Studies, 11(2), 181–197.
Dierking, L. H., & Falk, J. H. (1994). Family behavior and learning in informal science settings: A review of the research. Science Education, 78(1), 57–72.
Dobbs, S., & Eisner, E. W. (1987). The uncertain profession: Educators in American art museums. Journal of Aesthetic Education, 21(4), 77–86.
Eberbach, C. E., & Crowley, K. (2009). From everyday to scientific observation: How children learn to observe the biologist’s world. Review of Educational Research, 79(1), 39–69.
Falk, J. H. (1997). Testing a museum exhibition design assumption: Effect of explicit labelling of exhibit clusters on visitor concept development. Science Education, 6(81), 679–687.
Falk, J. H., & Dierking, L. D. (1992). The museum experience. Washington, DC: Whalesback Books.
Falk, J. H., & Dierking, L. D. (2000). Learning from museums: Visitor experiences and the making of meaning. New York: AltaMira Press.
Falk, J. H., & Dierking, L. D. (2010). The 95% solution: School is not where most Americans learn most of their science. American Scientist, 98, 486–493.
Falk, J. H., Koran, J., Dierking, L. H., & Dreblow, L. (1985). Predicting visitor behavior. Curator, 28(4), 249–257.
Falk, J., Mousouri, T., & Coulson, D. (1998). The effects of visitors’ agendas on museum learning. Curator, 41(2), 107–120.
Fender, J. G., & Crowley, K. (2007). How parent explanation changes what children learn from everyday scientific thinking. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 28, 189–210.
Furberg, A., & Arnseth, H. C. (2009). Reconsidering conceptual change from a socio-cultural perspective: Analyzing students’ meaning making in genetics in collaborative learning activities. Cultural Studies of Science Education, 4, 157–191.
Gates, J. (2010). Clearing the path for Sisyphus: How social media is changing our jobs and our working relationships. Museums and the Web 2010: Proceedings, Denver, Colorado, Toronto: Archives & Museum Informatics.
Giaccardi, E. (2012). Heritage and social media: Understanding heritage in a participatory culture. New York: Routledge.
Gleason, M. E., & Schauble, L. (1999). Parents’ assistance of their children’s scientific reasoning. Cognition and Instruction, 17(4), 343–378.
Grand, A. (2009). Engaging through dialogue: International experiences of café scientifique. In A. Grand, R. Holliman, J. Thomas, S. Smidt, & E. Scanlon (Eds.), Practising science communication in the information age: Theorising professional practices (pp. 209–226). London: Oxford University Press.
Greeno, J. G. (2006a). Learning in activity. In K. Sawyer (Ed.), The Cambridge handbook of the learning sciences (pp. 79–96). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Greeno, J. G. (2006b). Theoretical and practical advances through research on learning. In J. L. Green, G. Camilli, & P. B. Elmore (Eds.), Handbook of complementary methods in education research. Routledge.
Griffin, J. (1998). Learning science through practical experiences in museums. International Journal of Science Education, 20, 655–663.
Griffin, J., & Symington, D. (1997). Moving from task-oriented to learning-oriented strategies on school excursions to museums. Science Education, 81, 763–779.
Grinder, A. L., & McCoy, E. S. (1985). The good guide: A sourcebook for interpreters, docents, and tour guides. Scottsdale, AZ: Ironwood Press.
Grinter, R. E., Aoki, P. M., Hurst, A., Syzmanski, M. H., Thornton, J. D., & Woodruff, A. (2002). Revisiting the visit: Understanding how technology can shape the museum visit CSCW’02. New Orleans: ACM.
Gutwill, J. P., & Allen, S. (2010). Facilitating family group inquiry at science museum exhibits. Science Education, 94, 710–742.
Hatala, M., Tanenbaum, K., Wakkary, R., Muise, K., Mohabbati, B., Corness, G., Budd, J., & Loughin, T. (2009). Experience structuring factors affecting learning in family visits to museums. In U. Cress, V. Dimitrova, & M. Specht (Eds.), Learning in the synergy of multiple disciplines (Vol. 4th European Conference on Technology Enhanced Learning, EC-TEL 2009 Proceedings. Nice, France, September 29–October 2, pp. 37–52). Berlin: Springer-Verlag.
Hauser, W., Noschka-Roos, A., Reussner, E., & Zahn, C. (2009). Design-based research on digital media in a museum environment. Visitor Studies, 12(2), 182–198.
Heath, C., & Vom Lehn, D. (2002). Misconstruing interaction. In Hinton, M. (Ed.), The proceedings of interactive learning in museums of art and design. London: Victoria and Albert Museum.
Hein, G. E. (1998). Learning in the museum. New York: Routledge.
Hooper-Greenhill, E. (1992). Museums and the shaping of knowledge. New York: Routledge.
Horst, H. A., Herr-Stephenson, B. et al. (2008). Media ecologies. Digital Youth Project.
Housen, A. (1999). Eye of the beholder: Research, theory and practice: Aesthetic and art education: A transdisciplinary approach. Lisbon, Portugal: Visual Understanding in Education.
Housen, A. (2001–2002). Aesthetic thought, critical thinking and transfer. Arts and Learning Research Journal, 18(1), 99–131.
Housen, A. (2001). Voices of viewers: Iterative research, theory, and practice. Arts and Learning Research Journal, 17.1, 2–12.
Hsi, S. (2002). The electronic guidebook: A study of user experiences using mobile web content in a museum setting. IEEE International Workshop on Wireless and Mobile Technologies in Education (WMTE’02). Växjö, Sweden: IEEE.
Irwin, B., Pegram, E., & Gay, H. (2013). New directions, new relationships: The Smithsonian’s Twenty-first Century Learning in Natural History Settings Conference and the Natural History Museum, London. Curator: The Museum Journal, 56(2), 273–278.
Katz, J. E., LaBar, W., & Lynch, E. (Eds.) (2011). Creativity and technology: Social media, mobiles and museums. Edinburgh: MuseumsEtc.
Kelly, L. (2010). How Web 2.0 is changing the nature of museum work. Curator: The Museum Journal, 53(4), 405–410.
Kim, K. Y., & Crowley, K. (2010). Negotiating the goal of museum inquiry: How families engineer and experiment. In M. K. Stein & L. Kucan (Eds.), Instructional explanations in the disciplines. New York: Springer.
Kisiel, J. (2003). Teachers, museums and worksheets: A closer look at the learning experience. Journal of Science Teacher Education, 14, 3–21.
Kisiel, J. (2006). Making field trips work. The Science Teacher, 73(1), 46–48.
Kisiel, J., Rowe, S., Vartabedian, M. A., & Kopczak, C. (2012). Evidence for family engagement in scientific reasoning at interactive animal exhibits. Sci. Ed., 96, 1047–1070.
Klopfer, E., Perry, J., Squire, K., Jan, M.-F., & Steinkuehler, C. (2005). Mystery at the Museum: A collaborative game for museum education. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the 2005 Conference on Computer Support for Collaborative Learning: Learning 2005: The Next 10 Years! Taipei, Taiwan.
Knutson, K., & Crowley, K. (2010). Connecting with art: How families talk about art in a museum setting. In M. K. Stein & L. Kucan (Eds.), Instructional explanations in the disciplines. New York: Springer.
Knutson, K., Crowley, K., Russell, J., & Steiner, M. A. (2011). Approaching art education as an ecology: Exploring the role of museums. Studies in Art Education, 52(4), 310–322.
Leinhardt, G., Crowley, K., & Knutson, K. (Eds.) (2002). Learning conversations in museums. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Leinhardt, G., & Knutson, K. (2004). Listening in on museum conversations. Walnut Creek, CA: Altamira Press.
Louw, M. & Crowley, K. (2013). New ways of looking and learning in natural history museums: The use of gigapixel imaging to bring science and publics together. Curator: The Museum Journal, 52(1), 87–104.
Marty, P. F., Sayre, S., & Fillipini Fantoni, S. (2011). Personal digital collections: Involving users in the co-creation of digital cultural heritage. In G. Styliaras, D. Koukopoulos, & F. Lazarinis (Eds). Handbook of research on technologies and cultural heritage: Applications and environments (pp. 285–304). Hershey, PA: IGI Global.
Matusov, E., & Rogoff, B. (1995). Evidence of development from people’s participation in communities of learners. In J. H. Falk & L. D. Dierking (Eds.), Public institutions for personal learning: Establishing a research agenda (pp. 97–104). Washington, DC: American Association of Museums.
McManus, P. (1985). Worksheet induced behavior in the British museum (natural history). Journal of Biological Education, 19(3), 237–242.
Melber, L. M. (2007). Maternal scaffolding in two museum exhibition halls. Curator, 50(3), 341–354.
Miles, R. S. (1993). Grasping the greased pig: Evaluation of educational exhibits, museum visitor studies in the 90s. London: Science Museum.
Mortensen, M. F., & Smart, K. (2007). Free-choice worksheets increase students’ exposure to curriculum during museum visits. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 44(9), 1389–1414.
Naismith, L., Lonsdale, P., Vavoula, G., & Sharples, M. (2006). Report 11: Literature review in mobile technologies and learning. In FutureLab (Ed.), FutureLab Series. Bristol.
National Research Council (NRC). (2009). Learning science in informal environments: People, places, and pursuits. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
Palmquist, S. D., & Crowley, K. (2007). From teachers to testers: Parents’ role in child expertise development in informal settings. Science Education, 91(5), 712–732.
Perry, J., & Nellis, R. (2012). Augmented learning: Evaluating mobile location-based games at the zoo. Paper presented at the ISTE 2012, San Diego.
Pierroux, P. (2001). Information and communication technology in art museums. In G. Liestøl & T. Rasmussen (Eds.), Internett i endring (Internet and change) (pp. 87–103). Oslo: Novus.
Pierroux, P. (2005). Dispensing with formalities in art education research. Nordisk Museologi, 2, 76–88.
Pierroux, P. (2010). Guiding meaning on guided tours: Narratives of art and learning in museums. In A. Morrison (Ed.), Inside multimodal composition (pp. 417–450). Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press.
Pierroux, P. (2011). Real life meaning in second life art. In S. Østerud, B. Gentikow, & E. G. Skogseth (Eds.), Literacy practices in late modernity: Mastering technological and cultural convergences (pp. 177–198). Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press.
Pierroux, P., Bannon L., et al. (2007). MUSTEL: Framing the design of technology-enhanced learning activities for museum visitors. International Cultural Heritage Informatics Meeting (ICHIM). Toronto: Archives & Museum Informatics.
Pierroux, P., Krange, I., & Sem, I. (2011). Bridging contexts and interpretations: Mobile blogging on art museum field trips. Mediekultur. Journal of Media and Communication Research, 50, 25–44.
Pierroux, P., & Ludvigsen, S. (2013). Communication interrupted: Textual practices and digital interactives in art museums. In K. Schrøder & K. Drotner (Eds.), The connected museum: Social media and museum communication (pp. 153–176). London: Routledge.
Ramey-Gassert, L., Walberg, H. J. III, & Walberg, H. J. (1994). Reexamining connections: Museums as science learning environments. Science Education, 78(4), 345–363.
Ravelli, L. (1996). Making language accessible: Successful text writing for museum visitors. Linguistics and Education, 8, 367–387.
Reisman, M. (2008). Using design-based research in informal environments. The Journal of Museum Education, 33(2), 175–185.
Rennie, L. J., & Johnston, D. J. (2004). The nature of learning and its implications for research on learning from museums. Sci. Ed., 88, S4–S16.
Rice, D., & Yenawine, P. (2002). A conversation on object-centered learning in art museums. Curator: The Museum Journal, 45(4), 289–301.
Roberts, L. C. (1997). From knowledge to narrative: Educators and the changing museum. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press.
Roth, W.-M. (2001). Situating cognition. The Journal of the Learning Sciences, 10(1 & 2), 27–61.
Russo, A., Watkins, J. J. et al. (2007). Social media and cultural interactive experiences in museums. Nordic Journal of Digital Literacy, 1, 19–29.
Screven, C. G. (1986). Exhibitions and information centers: Some principles and approaches. Curator, 29(2), 109–137.
Selvakumar, M., & Storksdieck, M. (2013). Portal to the public: Museum educators collaborating with scientists to engage museum visitors with current science. Curator: The Museum Journal, 56(1), 69–78.
Siegel, D., Esterly, J., Callanan, M., Wright, R., & Navarro. R. (2007). Conversations about science across activities in Mexican-descent families. International Journal of Science Education, 29(12), 1447–1466.
Silverman, L. H. (1995). Visitor meaning-making in museums for a new age. Curator, 38, 161–170.
Stapp, C. B. (1984). Defining museum literacy. Roundtable Reports, 9(1), 3–4.
Steier, R., & Pierroux, P. (2011). “‘What is ‘the concept’?’ Sites of conceptual understanding in a touring architecture workshop. Nordic Journal of Digital Literacy, 6(3), 138–156.
Tallon, L., & Walker, K. (Eds.) (2008). Digital technologies and the museum experience: Handheld guides and other media. Lanham, MD: AltaMira Press.
Trant, J. (2006). Exploring the potential for social tagging and folksonomy in art museums: Proof of concept. New Review of Hypermedia and Multimedia, 12(1), 83–105.
Vavoula, G., Sharples, M., Rudman, P., Meek, J., & Lonsdale, P. (2009). Myartspace: Design and evaluation of support for learning with multimedia phones between classrooms and museums. Computers & Education, 53(2), 286–299.
Vom Lehn, D., & Heath, C. (2005). Accounting for new technology in museum exhibitions. Marketing Management, 7(3), 11–21.
Vom Lehn, D., Heath, C. et al. (2001). Exhibiting interaction: Conduct and collaboration in museums and galleries. Symbolic Interaction, 24(2), 189–216.
Vygotsky, L. S. (1986). Thought and language. Cambridge, MIT Press.
Watson, B., & Werb, S. R. (2013). One hundred strong: A colloquium on transforming natural history museums in the twenty-first century. Curator: The Museum Journal, 56(2), 255–265.
Wertsch, J. (1991). Voices of the mind. A sociocultural approach to mediated action. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Wertsch, J. (2002). Voices of collective remembering. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.
Wishart, J., & Triggs, P. (2010). MuseumScouts: Exploring how schools, museums and interactive technologies can work together to support learning. Computers & Education, 54(3), 669–678.
Yenawine, P., & Rice, D. (2002). A conversation on object-centered learning in art museums. Curator 45.4, 289–299.