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Book description

This is the second of two volumes of this authoritative history which review the Republican period. The titanic drama of the Chinese Revolution is one of the major world events of modern times. The fifteen authors of this volume are pioneers in its exploration and analysis, and their text is designed to meet the needs of non-specialist readers. After a preliminary overview stressing economic and social history, the History presents a narrative of events in China's foreign relations to 1931, and in the political history of the Nationalist government and its Communist opponents from 1927 to 1937. Subsequent chapters analyse key governmental, educational and literary - offering critical appraisal of the major achievements and problems in each of these areas. Finally, the volume examines China's war of resistance, the civil war to 1949, and the portentous development of the thought of Mao Tse-tung before coming to power.

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  • 1 - Introduction: perspectives on modern China's History
    pp 1-73
  • View abstract
    This chapter talks about Continental China and the account of recent work in the rapidly developing area of social history. It begins at a high level of generality by asserting that the Chinese revolution of the twentieth century has differed from all other national revolutions in two respects: the greater size of the population and the greater comprehensiveness of the changes it has confronted. The comprehensiveness of change in modern China is a matter of dispute between two schools of interpretation, which posit linear and cyclical patterns. The question of what happened to the Chinese economy in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries is a major focus of discussion. Commercialization permeated the agrarian economy during the Ch'ing. The Han Chinese in different regions and at different class levels had a common sense of identity and historical continuity. The horizontal class structure of late imperial China was theoretically divided by the Classics into the four occupational classes: scholar-gentry, peasants, artisans, and merchants.
  • 2 - China's international relations 1911–1931
    pp 74-115
  • View abstract
    This chapter looks at the external context of twentieth-century Chinese history, beginning naturally with the collapse of the old order. Certain patterns of Ch'ing response to encroachment may be seen all around the periphery of the empire. Instead of recognizing Outer Mongolia as a sovereign state open to international relations, Russia continued to recognize Chinese suzerainty. For Japan, the First World War provided the opportunity to stabilize its imperialist interests. The chapter lists the Japan's Twenty-One Demands. In less than half a year, the whole of Manchuria had fallen to the Japanese army and been severed from China. Japan had become the primary concern of Chinese foreign policy. Within less than a generation, a mere two decades, the East Asian regional order of the Ch'ing dynasty, the international legal order envisaged by the Washington Conference treaty powers, and the world revolutionary order dreamed of in Moscow, had all proved unavailing as an international matrix for the Chinese Republic.
  • 3 - Nationalist China during the Nanking decade 1927–1937
    pp 116-167
  • View abstract
    To many Chinese, Nationalist rule marked the beginning of a new era, when China would again be unified and strong, when there would be economic plenty for all, and when they would no longer feel shame at being Chinese. In September 1927, representatives of the Nanking and Hankow governments and of the Western Hills faction formed a 'Central Special Committee' which established a new, supposedly unified, Nationalist government at Nanking. This new government was no more stable than its predecessors. The two most powerful leaders in the Nationalist movement, Chiang Kai-shek and Wang Ching-wei, had been excluded from it. Under Chiang's aegis, the Nationalist government in Nanking was transformed into a military dictatorship. The Kuomintang membership by 1927 had become intolerably disparate, and Chiang Kai-shek accordingly began to screen out many of the members that to him appeared to be undesirables. In the process, he fundamentally altered the character of the Nationalist movement.
  • 4 - The Communist movement 1927–1937
    pp 168-229
  • View abstract
    The decade between the first and second united fronts, from the KMT-CCP break-up in mid-1927 to mid-1937, was a time of disaster, trial and tribulation for the Communist movement that brought it close to extinction. By the end of 1927 there appeared clearly two streams of communism in China - the rural Soviets and the urban leadership; the former had to be led by the latter, else the whole movement might have sunk into the traditional pattern of Chinese peasant rebellions. The theoretical framework of the CCP's strategy in this period was laid out in Wang Ming's famous pamphlet, The two lines, of July 1931 which made much of the crisis of postwar capitalism in its third stage of development, when the contradictions among imperialist powers became increasingly acute. Since the creation of the rural Soviets, tension as well as cooperation had developed between the 'white area' work and the land revolution.
  • 5 - The agrarian system
    pp 230-269
    • By Ramon H. Myers, Hoover Institution on War, Revolution and Peace, Palo Alto
  • View abstract
    Agrarian conditions would change after the First World War when in many regions the rural market systems were disturbed from outside by sharp shifts in supply and demand. In heavily populated areas these changes in supply or demand required reallocation of resources in order to avoid large-scale unemployment and a fall in rural income. Due to the failure of state and local administration to maintain law and order or provide economic assistance, such market readjustments had very high social costs. Before describing these conditions of agrarian crisis it is necessary to outline and clarify the agrarian system of this period. The rapid commercialization of agriculture that occurred from the 1870s to the First World War enabled most villagers to feed more people and support the gradual expansion of a small urban sector. This agrarian system made many adjustments to new market forces without rural unemployment becoming serious, without importing large quantities of food from abroad, and without creating serious inflation.
  • 6 - Peasant movements
    pp 270-328
  • View abstract
    This chapter on the peasant movement could usefully be balanced by one devoted to the peasant condition and its evolution. K'ang-tsu (resistance to land rents) is a privileged category among the non-Communist peasant actions recorded in the People's Republic of China, because it best represents the struggle of the exploited against the exploiters. By the early 1940s, the iniquities of conscription and the exactions of the army had become comparable even to taxation as a factor leading to peasant agitation. The spontaneous peasant movements show three main characteristics. The first is the weakness of class consciousness among the peasantry, a weakness illustrated by the comparative rarity and traditional nature of the social movements directed against the wealthy. The second is their parochialism. The third characteristic of peasant agitation, namely its almost invariably defensive nature. The first encounter between professional revolutionaries and villagers was led by the pioneer of the Communist peasant movement, P'eng P'ai, in two counties of eastern Kwangtung.
  • 7 - The development of local government
    pp 329-360
  • View abstract
    Managerial work by local elites was accompanied by an outpouring of theoretical writing. The focus in local government had been an important part of the 'Restoration' in the 1860s, when China was faced with widespread chaos and devastation in the wake of the mid-century rebellions. As a movement pledged to social transformation as well as national unification, the Nationalists of the 1920s came to power committed to carrying out Sun Yat-sen's vision of a democratic China. The evolution of the Nationalist government's policy toward local administration embodied a general trend away from Sun's conception of local self-government and toward a more rigorous system of bureaucratic control. Liang Shu-ming's rural reconstruction experiment in Shantung achieved at least a temporary protection by political authorities, and relied on a radically nativist Confucian reformism. Rural reconstruction thus involved a broad range of types: Westerninfluenced and nativist, educational and military, populist and bureaucratic. Predictably, the Nanking authorities became involved in rural reconstruction too.
  • 8 - The growth of the academic community 1912–1949
    pp 361-420
  • View abstract
    This chapter focuses on the academic community and its institutional achievements in the first half of the twentieth century. It discusses the unexplored story with three main facets. First, China's intellectual history has outpaced her institutional history, and as known more about the late Ch'ing schools of Neo-Confucian thought, the Sung and Han learning, New Text and Old Text scholarship, even the T'ung-ch'eng school, than one does about the network of academies, libraries, printing shops and patrons that sustained Confucian scholarship. Second, in China's relations with Japan, politics has thus far eclipsed the academic story. Most of the thousands of Chinese students who went to Tokyo returned to careers of service in their homeland; not all by any means became revolutionaries. Third, the educational influences streaming into China from Europe and America constitute a vast terrain of unimaginable variety and unexplored proportions. Nearly all the nations and all the disciplines were involved in this largest of all cultural migrations.
  • 9 - Literary trends: the road to revolution 1927–1949
    pp 421-491
  • View abstract
    The success of the Communist Revolution stripped modern Chinese literature of its urban component. Most literary historians agree that the May Thirtieth incident marked a crucial turning point: modern Chinese literature moved, in the memorable phrase of Ch'eng Fang-wu, from ' literary revolution' to ' revolutionary literature'. The leadership of the league of Left-wing Writers consisted nominally of an executive committee of seven standing members: Hsia Yen, Hung Ling-fei, Feng Nai-ch'ao, Ch'ien Hsing-ts'un, T'ien Han, Cheng Po-ch'i and Lu Hsun. The seven-year record of the league was one of continuous debates against all kinds of ' enemies': beginning with Lu Hsun's polemic with the liberal Crescent Moon Society, the league combated successively the conservative proponents of 'nationalist literature', the left-leaning 'third category' writers, and finally some of its own members in the debate on' mass language' and in the famous battle of the ' two slogans' connected with the league's sudden dissolution in 1956.
  • 10 - Japanese aggression and China's international position 1931–1949
    pp 492-546
  • View abstract
    The story of China's international position from 1931 to 1949 indicates that Japanese aggression, and the ways in which other nations coped with it, served steadily to transform the country from being a weak victim of invasion into a world power, a partner in defining a stable framework of peace. The two factors, China's relative insignificance in international economic relations, and its increasing domestic unity, provided the background of the country's troubles after 1931. On the eve of the Manchurian incident, Chiang Kai-shek's authority had been steadily extended, having weathered serious challenges from some warlords and party dissidents. The Chinese-Japanese conflict over Manchuria was a clash of forces between an industrial country going through severe economic difficulties and a predominantly agricultural society determined to regain and retain national rights. Two years after the Mukden incident, it was clear that while the Manchurian crisis might have given the powers an excellent opportunity to solidify the postwar international system.
  • 11 - Nationalist China during the Sino-Japanese War 1937–1945
    pp 547-608
  • View abstract
    The war with Japan was surely the most momentous event in the history of the Republican era in China. During the Nanking decade, Chiang had particularly stressed modernization of the armed forces. Most dramatic of Nationalist China's several acts of wartime mobilization was the removal of population, government, schools and factories from the coastal areas to the interior. General Wedemeyer similarly insisted that ' the Nationalist Government of China, far from being reluctant to fight as pictured by Stilwell and some of his friends among the American correspondents, had shown amazing tenacity and endurance in resisting Japan', whereas 'no communist Chinese forces fought in any of the major engagements of the Sino-Japanese war'. The Ichigo offensive had inflicted terrible losses upon Nationalist China. The demoralization of Nationalist China was largely due to the corrosive effects of inflation and the changing political and military aims of the government.
  • 12 - The Chinese Communist movement during the Sino-Japanese War 1937–1945
    pp 609-722
  • View abstract
    The three periods, 1937-8, 1939-43, and 1944-5 were the principal phases of the Communist movement during the Sino-Japanese War. The outbreak of war transformed the political and military environment for all Chinese parties and forced the Chinese Communists into fundamental reconsideration of all important policies, of strategy and of tactics. The principal issues confronting Party Central during the first year and a half of the war were the following: The united front; Military strategy and tactics; and Leaders and leadership. At the outbreak of the war, Mao Tse-tung's position in the Chinese Communist movement was that of primus inter pares. The Communists used the euphemism ' friction' to describe their conflicts with the Nationalists during the middle years of the war. Chinese Communist Party and its principal armies expanded greatly during the Sino-Japanese War. The Japanese were preparing for their greatest military offensive in China since 1937-8, Operation Ichigo.
  • 13 - The KMT-CCP conflict 1945–1949
    pp 723-788
  • View abstract
    Hurley's mission was to unify the military forces in China for defeating Japan. Political Consultative Conference (PCC) met from 11 to 31 January 1946 for the purpose of seeking a peaceful solution to the KMT-CCP conflict. For a time it was the chief focus of popular attention and even after the hopes were shown to be illusory, the authority of the PCC agreements was invoked by the government to legitimize a number of its subsequent political actions. The CCP and the Democratic League refused to participate on the grounds that the KMT had not honoured the terms of the PCC resolutions on government reorganization. The strident anti-American themes of the official CCP pronouncements that pursued Stuart out of China in August 1949 were matched by the uncompromising anti-Communist tones which dominated contemporary American diplomatic reports and public opinion in general. Together these Chinese and American postures indicated differences so great that they would require more than two decades to surmount.
  • 14 - Mao Tse-Tung's thought to 1949
    pp 789-870
  • View abstract
    This chapter seeks to document and interpret the development of Mao Tse-tung's thought during the first three decades of his active political life. Manifestly, Mao Tse-tung's was able to work effectively in such a formal context because he attached primary importance to national unification and China's struggle to throw off the domination of the imperialists, and accepted that, for the moment, the Kuomintang and its army were the best instrument for achieving this. Mao had already in 1939-40 characterized the regime to be established after the war as a 'joint dictatorship of several revolutionary classes', and had made it fairly clear that this dictatorship was to be under the effective control of the proletariat, or of its ' vanguard', the Chinese Communist Party. Mao sought to promote, in the period from 1939 onwards, a 'new democratic' revolution in China which would be a kind of functional equivalent of the capitalist stage in the development of European society.
  • Bibliographical Essays
    pp 871-907
  • View abstract
    This bibliography contains a list of reference materials and works related to the history of China. In the growing flood of publication on modern Chinese history, especially from the PRC, research aids and documentary materials seem to be increasing even faster than historical studies that make use of them. In recent years contact and exchange among historians of China have increased rapidly between the three major sinological areas of China, Japan and the Atlantic community, but less rapidly with the fourth major area, the Soviet Union. Unfortunately, there are few monographs dealing with China's own foreign policy in the 1930s. This in part reflects the paucity of documentation, but also the scholars' predominant interest in examining Chinese domestic politics, in particular Nationalist-Communist relations. The anomaly of studying Chinese foreign affairs mostly through Japanese and Western sources will someday be rectified.
Abe, Yoshinori, trans. ‘Anki tochi chōsa nikki’ (A diary of land investigation in Anhwei), part 2, in SMR: Mantetsu chōsa geppō, 19.1 (Jan. 1939)
Abend, Hallett et al. Can China survive? New York: Ives Washburn, 1936
Ai, Ssu-ch'i. Ta-chung che-hsueh (Philosophy for the masses). Shanghai: Tu-shu sheng-huo, 1936
Ai, Ssu-ch'i. Che-hsueh yü sheng-huo (Philosophy and life). Shanghai: Tu-shu sheng-huo, 1937
Alitto, Guy S.Rural elites in transition: China's cultural crisis and the problem of legitimacy’, in Jones, Susan Mann, ed. Select papers from the Center for Far Eastern Studies, University of Chicago, 3 (1978–9)
Alitto, Guy S. The last Confucian: Liang Shu-ming and the Chinese dilemma of modernity. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1978
Altman, Albert A. and Schiffrin, Harold Z.. ‘Sun Yat-sen and the Japanese: 1914–16’. Modern Asian Studies, 6.4 (Oct. 1972)
Amano, Motonosuke. Chūgoku nōgyō no shomondai (Problems of Chinese agriculture). 2 vols. Tokyo: Gihōdo, 1952
Amano, Motonosuke. Chūgoku nōgyō shi kenkyū (A study of the history of Chinese agriculture). Tokyo: Ochanomizu,, 1962
Amano, Motonosuke. Chūgoku nōgyō no chiiki teki tenkai (Regional development of Chinese agriculture). shosha, Ryūkei, 1979
Amano, Motonosuke. Shina nōgyō keizai ron (On the Chinese agricultural economy). Tokyo: Kaizōsha, vol. 1, 1940 and vol. 2, 1942
Amano, Motonosuke. Shina nōson zakki (Miscellaneous notes on Chinese villages). Tokyo: Seikatsusha, 1942
Arkush, R. David. Fei Xiaotong and sociology in revolutionary China. Cambridge, Mass.: Council on East Asian Studies, Harvard University, 1981
Asada, Kyōji. Nihon Teikokushugika no Chūgoku—Chūgoku senryō chiiki keizai no kenkyū (China under Japanese imperialism: studies of the economy of occupied China). Tokyo: Rakuyū shobō, 1981
Ash, Robert. Land tenure in pre-revolutionary China: Kiangsu province in the 1920s and 1930s. London: Contemporary China Institute, School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, 1976
Atwell, William. ‘Notes on silver, foreign trade, and the late Ming economy’. CSWT 3.8 (Dec. 1977)
Aubert, Claude, Bianco, Lucien, Cadart, Claude, and Domenach, Jean-Luc. Regards froids sur la Chine. Paris: Editions du Seuil, 1976
Averill, Stephen C.The shed people and the opening of the Yangzi high-lands’. Modern China, 9.1 (Jan. 1983)
Bōeicho, bōei kensujo senshi shitsu. Hokushi no chiansen (Pacification war in North China). 2 vols., map folios. Tokyo: Asagumo shimbunsha, 1968
Baba, Kuwatarō. ‘Shina chihō gyōsei seido no kenkyū’ (The local government system of China). Shina kenkyū (Research on China), 1927.12
Bachrack, Stanley D. The Committee of One Million: ‘China Lobby’ politics, 1953–1971. New York: Columbia University Press, 1976
Balazs, Étienne. Chinese civilization and bureaucracy: variations on a theme, trans. by Wright, H. M.. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1964
Bamba, Nobuya. Japanese diplomacy in a dilemma: new light on Japan's China policy, 1924–1929. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press; Kyoto: Minerva Press, 1972
Barnett, A. Doak. China on the eve of Communist takeover. New York: Praeger, 1963
Barnett, A. Doak, ed. Chinese Communist politics in action. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1969
Barrett, David D. Dixie Mission: the United States Army Observer Group in Yenan, 1944. Berkeley: Center for Chinese Studies, University of California, 1970
Bastid, Marianne. ‘La diplomatic française et la révolution chinoise de 1911’. Revue d'histoire moderne et contemporaine, 16 (April-June 1969)
Beal, John Robinson. Marshall in China. Garden City, New York: Doubleday, 1970
Becker, C. H., Falski, M., Langevin, P. and Tawney, R. H. The reorganisation of education in China. Paris: League of Nations, 1932
Bedeski, Robert E. State-building in modern China: the Kuomintang in the prewar period. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1981
Belden, Jack. China shakes the world. New York: Harper, 1949
Benton, Gregor. ‘The “second Wang Ming line” (1935–38)’. CQ 61 (March 1975)
Bercé, Yves-Marie. Croquants et nu-pieds. Paris: Gallimard/Julliard, 1974
Bercé, Yves-Marie. Histoire des Croquants: étude des soulèvements populaires au XVIIème siècle dans le sud-ouest de la France. 2 vols. Geneva: Droz, 1974
Bergson, Abram. The economics of Soviet planning. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1961
Berlin, Isaiah. Washington despatches, 1941–45: weekly political reports from the British Embassy, ed. by Nicholas, H. G.. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1981
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Bertram, James M. First act in China: the story of the Sian mutiny. New York: Viking, 1938. Also published as Crisis in China: the story of the Sian mutiny. London: Macmillan, 1937
Bianco, Lucien. ‘Les paysans et la révolution: Chine 1919–49’. Politique étrangère (Paris), 2 (1968)
Bianco, Lucien. ‘La mauvaise administration provinciale en Chine (Anhui, 1931)’. Revue d'histoire moderne et contemporaine (Paris), 16 (April-June 1969)
Bianco, Lucien. Origins of the Chinese Revolution, 1915–49. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1971
Bianco, Lucien. ‘Peasants and revolution: the case of China’. The Journal of Peasant Studies, 2.3 (April 1975)
Biggerstaff, Knight. The earliest modern government schools in China. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1961
Billingsley, Philip R.Bandits, bosses, and bare sticks: beneath the surface of local control in early Republican China’. Modern China, 7.3 (July 1981)
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Birch, Cyril. ‘Lao She: the humourist in his humour’. CQ 8 (Oct.-Dec. 1961)
Bisson, Thomas Arthur. Japan in China. New York: Macmillan, 1938
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Blum, Robert M. Drawing the line: the origin of the American containment policy in East Asia. New York: Norton, 1982
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Borg, Dorothy and Heinrichs, Waldo, eds. Uncertain years: Chinese-American relations, 1947–1950. New York: Columbia University Press, 1980
Borg, Dorothy and Okamoto, Shumpei, eds. Pearl Harbor as history: Japanese-American relations 1931–1941. New York: Columbia University Press, 1973
Borg, Dorothy. American policy and the Chinese revolution, 1925–1928. New York: Institute of Pacific Relations and Macmillan, 1947
Borg, Dorothy. The United States and the Tar Eastern crisis of 1933–1938. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1964
Borthwick, Sally. Education and social change in China: the beginnings of the modern era. Stanford: Hoover Institution Press, 1983
Bowers, John Z., M.D. Western medicine in a Chinese palace: Peking Union Medical College, 1917–1951. New York: Josiah Macy, Jr. Foundation, 1972
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Brandt, Conrad, Schwartz, Benjamin and Fairbank, John K. A documentary history of Chinese communism. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press; London: Allen & Unwin, 1952
Brandt, Conrad. Stalin's failure in China 1924–1927. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1958
Brandt, Vincent S. R.Landlord-tenant relations in Republican China’. Papers on China, 17 (1963)
Braun, Otto. A Comintern agent in China 1932–1939, trans, by Moore, Jeanne. Intro. by Wilson, Dick. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1982. First published in German in 1975 as Chinestsche Aufzeichnungen (1932–1939). Berlin: Deitz Verlag (GDR)
Brown, Edward J. Russian literature since the revolution. New York: Collier, 1963; rev. edn., 1969
Brunnert, H. S., and Hagelstrom, V. V., rev. by Kolessoff, N. T., trans. from Russian by Beltchenko, A. and Moran, E. E.. Present day political organization of China. Shanghai: Kelly & Walsh, 1912
Buck, David D. Urban change in China: politics and development in Tsinan, Shantung, 1890–1949. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1978
Buck, John Lossing. Chinese farm economy. Nanking: University of Nanking, 1930.
Buck, John Lossing. Land utilization in China: a study of 16,786 farms in 168 localities, and 38,256 farm families in twenty-two provinces in China, 1929–1933. 3 vols. Nanking: University of Nanking; Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1937; 2nd printing, New York: Paragon Book Reprint Corp., 1964
Buck, John Lossing, et al. There is another China. New York: King's Crown Press, 1948. (Ann Arbor: University Microfilms International, 1980).
Buck, Peter. American science and modern China 1876–1936. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1980
Buckley, Thomasy H. The United States and the Washington Conference, 1921–1922. Knoxville: University of Tennessee, 1970
Buhite, Russell D. Patrick J. Hurley and American foreign policy. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1973
Bullock, Mary Brown. An American transplant: the Rockefeller Foundation and Peking Union Medical College. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1980
Bunker, Gerald E. The peace conspiracy: Wang Ching-wei and the China War, 1937–1941. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1972
Bush, Richard C. The politics of cotton textiles in Kuomintang China, 1927–1937. New York: Garland Publishers, 1982
Butow, Robert J. C. Tojo and the coming of the war. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1961
Buxbaum, David C.Some aspects of civil procedure and practice at the trial level in Tanshui and Hsinchu from 1789 to 1895’. JAS 30.2 (Feb. 1971)
Caillard, Duval and Guillet, Gricourt. À travers la Normandie des XVIIème et XVIIIème siècles. Caen: Cahier des Annales de Normandie no. 3, 1963
Carlson, Evans Fordyce. The Chinese army: its organization and military efficiency. New York: Institute of Pacific Relations, 1940
Carrère d'Encausse, H. and Schram, S. Marxism and Asia. London: Allen Lane, The Penguin Press, 1969
Ch'ü, Ch'iu-pai. ‘Chi-an ti ch'ü-te he sang-shih’ (The conquest and loss of Chi-an). Shih hua (True words) (Shanghai), 2 (9 Dec. 1930)
Ch'ü, Chih-sheng. K'ang-chan chi-li (A personal account of the war of resistance). Taipei, Chung-hua, 1965
Ch'ü, T'ung-tsu. Local government in China under the Ch'ing. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1962
Ch'en, Chen and Yao, Lo. Chung-kuo chin-tai kung-yeh shih tzu-liao (Source materials on the history of modern industry in China). 4 collections (chi) totalling 6 vols. Peking: San-lien, 1957–61
Ch'en, Chen-hanCheng-fu yin-hang hsueh-shu chi-kuan yü fu-hsing nung-ts'un’ (Government, banks, academic institutions, and revival of the villages). Kuo-wen chou-pao, 10.46 (20 Nov. 1933), articles
Ch'en, Cheng-mo. Ko-sheng nung-kung ku-yung hsi-kuan chi hsu-kung chuang-k'uang (Hiring practices in agriculture and industry and the supply of and demand for labour in various provinces). Nanking: Chung-shan wen-hua chiao-yü kuan 1935
Ch'en, Chih-mai. Chung-kuo cheng-fu (The Chinese government). 3 vols. 2nd edn. Shanghai: CP, 1946
Ch'en, Chih-mai. ‘Chan-shih li-fa wen-t'i’ (Problems of wartime legislation). Hsin-cking-chi, 2.3 (16 July 1949)
Ch'en, Chih-mai. ‘Ch'iu-hsueh yü chih-hsueh [of Tsiang T'ing-fu]’ (Study and research [of Tsiang T'ing-fu]), in Chiang T'ing-fu ti chih-shih yü sheng-p'ing (The life and deeds of Tsiang T'ing-fu). Taipei: Chuan-chi wen-hsueh, 1967
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Ch'en, Hsueh-chao. Man-tsou chieh-fang-ch'ü (Wanderings in the liberated areas). Shanghai: Shang-hai ch'u-pan kung-ssu, 1950
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