Skip to main content
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 1
  • Cited by
    This chapter has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Ditmanson, Peter 1998. THE YONGLE REIGN AND THE TRANSFORMATION OFDAOXUE. Ming Studies, Vol. 1998, Issue. 1, p. 7.

  • Print publication year: 1988
  • Online publication date: March 2008

3 - The Hung-wu reign, 1368–1398



When Chu Yüan-chang proclaimed himself emperor of the Middle Kingdom in January 1368, his main advisers and supporters at court included three men whom he had named dukes during the previous year: the generals Hsu Ta and Ch'ang Yü-ch'un, and the civil official Li Shan-ch'ang. Hsü, from Hao-chou, Anhwei, had joined Chu's military camp in 1353. Along with thousands of other displaced persons who faced famine and disease, he began to turn against the established authority of the Yuan regime. Ch'ang Yü-ch'un was another Hao-chou native who became a warrior, and he joined Chu's camp in 1355. Li Shan-ch'ang, a native of Ting-yüan, Anhwei, stemmed from landlord stock and joined Chu in 1354. These three men were Chu's most trusted assistants in the years immediately following the establishment of the new regime. They constituted the core of the Anhwei-based group that put together the new dynasty.

During the years following the formation of this group, Chu Yüan-chang drew under his wing many other individuals, including men of arms and of learning. Among the men of learning, none ever received the recognition, status, and emoluments that Chu accorded to his military men. Although he made an effort to establish a credible civil regime based on traditional rituals and the Mandate of Heaven, during these early years the military retained the greater importance. This came about because the dynasty was the product of military campaigns to drive out the Mongol rulers, to establish a new power structure within China proper, and to unify Han Chinese rule over vast territories inhabited by hostile non-Han peoples in the west, the southwest, and the south.

Recommend this book

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

The Cambridge History of China
  • Online ISBN: 9781139054751
  • Book DOI:
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to *
Chai Shan, comp. Chu ssu chih chang. 1380; rpt. Vols. 43–50 of Hsüan-lan t'ang ts'ung shu ', ed. Chen-to, Cheng, 1940–1941; rpt. Taipei: Chung-yang t'u-shu kuan, 1981.
Chan, Hok-lam (Ch'en Hsüeh-lin). “Chang Chung and his prophecy: The transmission of the legend of an early Ming Taoist.” Oriens Extremus, 20, No. 1 (July 1973).
Chan, Wing-tsit, tr. and comp. A source book in Chinese philosophy. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1963.
Ch'ang, Pi-te. “Yü chih Ta kao ch'ien, hsü, san pien hsü lu.” In T'an an ch'ün shu t'i shih. Taipei: Han-hua wen-hua shih-yeh kung-ssu, 1972.
Chang, Wei-hua. Ming tai hai wai mao i chien lun. Shanghai: Hsüeh-hsi sheng-huo ch'u-pan she, 1955; rpt. Shanghai: Jen-min ch'u-pan she, 1956.
Chang, Wei-jen, comp. Chung-kuo fa chih shih shu mu, 3 vols. Taipei: Chung-yang yen-chiu yüan li-shih yü-yen yen-chiu so, 1976.
Chang, George Jer-lang. “The village elder system of the early Ming dynasty.” Ming Studies, 7 (1978).
Ch'en, Ho. Ming chi. 1871; rpt. Vol. B83–86 of Ssu pu pei yao, ed. Fei-k'uei, Lu et al. 1936; rpt. Taipei: Chung-hua shu-chü, 1965.
Ch'en, Wen-shih. Ming Hung-wu Chia-ching chien ti hai chin cheng ts'e. Taipei: T'ai-wan ta-hsüeh wen-hsüeh yuan, 1966.
Ch'iu, Shu-sen. “Yüan mo Hung-chin chün ling hsiu P'eng Ying-yü hsi sheng ti shih chien ho ti tien wen t'i.” Yüan shih chi pei fang min tsu shih yen chiu chi k'an, I (July 1977).
Danjō, Hiroshi. “Min ōchō seiritsu ki no kiseki – Kōbu-chō no gigoku jiken to keishi mondai o megutte.” Tōyōshi kenkyū, 37, No. 3 (December 1978).
Farmer, Edward L. Early Ming government: The evolution of dual capitals. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1976.
Franke, Wolfgang. An introduction to the sources of Ming history. Kuala Lumpur and Singapore: University of Malaya Press, 1968.
Goodrich, L. Carrington.Who was T'an-hua in 1385?Ming Studies, 3 (1976).
Goodrich, L. Carrington and Fang, Chaoying, ed. Dictionary of Ming biography. New York and London: Columbia University Press, 1976.
Hsia, Hsieh, comp. Ming t'ung chien. Ca. 1870; rpt. Peking: Chung-hua shu-chü, 1959.
Hsiao, Kung-ch'üan. Rural China: Imperial control in the nineteenth century. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1960.
Hsieh, Ying-fang. Kuei ch'ao kao. Ca. late Yüan (1271–1368) period; rpt. Vol. 37 of Ssu pu ts'ung k'an, 3rd series, ed. Yüan-chi, Chang. Shanghai: Shang-wu yin-shu kuan, 1935–36.
Huang, Chang-chien. “Lun Ming ch'u ti ssu fu kuan ping lun Ming ch'u tien ko ta hsüeh shih chih she chih chi tung kung kuan shu chih p'ing po chu ssu ch'i shih.”. In his Ming Ch'ing shih yen chiu ts'ung kao. Taipei: T'ai-wan Shang-wu yin-shu kuan, 1977.
Huang, Chang-chien. “Lun ‘[Huang Ming] Tsu hsün lu’ pan hsing nien tai ping lun Ming ch'u feng chien chu wang chih tu.”. Chung yang yen chiu yüan li shih yü yen yen chiu so chi k'an (Bulletin of the Institute of History and Philology, Academia Sinica), 32 (1961). Rpt. in his Ming Ch'ing shih yen chiu ts'ung kao. Taipei: T'ai-wan Shang-wu yin-shu kuan, 1977.
Huang, Chang-chien. “‘Ta Ming lü kao’ k'ao.” Chung yang yen chiu yüan li shih yü yen yen chiu so chi k'an (Bulletin of the Institute of History and Philology, Academia Sinica), 24 (1953), pp. 107–34. Rpt. in his Ming Ch'ing shih yen chiu ts'ung kao, Taipei: T'ai-wan Shang-wu yin-shu kuan, 1977.
Hucker, Charles O.Governmental organization of the Ming dynasty.” Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies, 21 (1958) and 23 (1960–61).
Hucker, Charles O. The Ming dynasty: Its origins and evolving institutions. Michigan papers in Chinese studies, No. 34. Ann Arbor: Center for Chinese Studies, The University of Michigan, 1978.
Ko, Sa-kyǒng and Chi, Kim, comps. Tae-Myǒngnyul chikhae. 1395; rpt. Seoul: Chōsen sōtokufu chūsūin 1936, and Seoul: Pǒpchech'ǒ, 1964.
Langlois, John D. Jr. and Sun, K'o-K'uan. “Three teachings syncretism and the thought of Ming T'ai-tsu.” Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies, 43, No. 1 (June 1983).
Legge, James, trans. The Chinese classics. 1870; 2nd ed., 5 vols. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1893; rpt. Hong Kong: University of Hong Kong Press, 1960; 2nd ed. Taipei: Chin-hsüeh shu-chü, 1969.
Li, Chin-hua. Ming tai ch'ih chuan shu k'ao. Harvard-Yenching sinological index series supplement, No. 3. ed. Yeh, Hung. Peiping: Harvard-Yenching Institute, 1932.
Liu, Ts'un-jen. “Tao tsang pen san sheng chu Tao te ching hui chien.” In his Ho feng t'ang tu shu chi. Hong Kong: Lung-men, 1977, Vol. I.
Lo, Ping-mien. “Ming T'ai-tsu ti wen hsüeh t'ung chih shu.” Chung-kuo hsüeh jen, 3 (1971).
Lung, Wen-pin, comp. Ming hui yao. 1887; rpt. Peking: Chung-hua shu-chü, 1956.
Ming, T'ai-tsu. Chiao min pang wen. 1398. In Huang Ming chih shu, ed. Lu, Chang. 1579; rpt. Tokyo: Koten kenkyūkai, 1966–67.
Ming, T'ai-tsu. Hsiao-ling chao ch'ih. After 1398; rpt. in Ming ch'ao k'ai kuo wen hsien. In No. 34 of Chung-kuo shih hsüeh ts'ung shu, ed. Hsiang-hsiang, Wu. Taipei: Hsüeh-sheng shu-chü, 1966, IV.
Ming, T'ai-tsu. Huang Ming tsu hsün lu. 1373; rpt. in Ming ch'ao k'ai kuo wen hsien. In No. 34 of Chung-kuo shih hsüeh ts'ung shu, ed. Hsiang-hsiang, Wu. Taipei: Hsüeh-sheng shu-chü, 1966, III. p..
Ming, T'ai-tsu. Kao huang ti yü chih wen chi, ed. Chiu-kao, Hsü. N.p., 1535; rpt. Taipei, 1965; rpt. Kyoto: Kyōto daigaku, 1973.
Ming, T'ai-tsu. Yü chih wen chi. Undated Ming edition. In No. 22 of Chung-kuo shih hsüeh ts'ung shu, ed. Hsiang-hsiang, Wu. Taipei: Hsüeh-sheng shu-chü, 1965.
Naitō, Kenkichi. “Dai Min ryō kaisetsu.” Rpt. in Chūgoku hōseishi kōshō, ed. Kenkichi, Naitō, No. 21 of Ōsaka shiritsu daigaku hōgaku sōsho. Tokyo: Yūhikaku, 1963.
Serruys, Henri. (Sino-Mongol relations during the Ming. I) The Mongols in China during the Hung-wu period (1368–1398). In Mélanges chinois et bouddhiques, Vol. II, 1956–59. Bruxelles: l'Institut beige des hautes études chinoises, 1959.
So, Kwan-wai (Su Chün-wei). Japanese piracy in Ming China during the sixteenth century. East Lansing: Michigan State University Press, 1975.
Sung, Lien. Sung Wen-hsien kung ch'üan chi. Early Ming; rpt. Vol. D114–16 of Ssu-pu pei-yao, ed. Fei-k'uei, Lu et al. Taipei: Chung-hua shu-chü, 1970.
T'an, Ch'ien, comp. Kuo ch'üeh. Ca. 1653; rpt. ed. Tsung-hsiang, Chang. Peking: Ku-chi ch'u-pan she, 1958.
Taylor, Romeyn.Ming T'ai-tsu and the gods of the walls and moats.” Ming Studies, 4 (1977).
Taylor, Romeyn.Ming T'ai-tsu and the nobility of merit.” Ming Studies, 2 (1976).
Teng, Ssu-yü. “Ming Ta kao yü Ming ch'u cheng chih she hui.” Yen-ching hsüeh pao, 20 (1936) ; rpt. in T'ai-tsu, Ming, Ming ch'ao k'ai kuo wen hsien. In No. 34 of Chung-kuo shih hsüeh ts'ung shu, ed. Hsiang-hsiang, Wu. Taipei: Hsüeh-sheng shu-chü, 1966. I, front matter.
Tsukamoto, Shunkō. “Kobūtei to butsu dō ni kyō.” Gifu daigaku kenkyū hōkoku (jimbun kagaku), 14 (Maṛch 1966).
Tu, Lien-che (Lienche Tu Fang). “Ming ch'ao kuan hsüan lu.” Ch'ing-hua hsüeh pao (Tsing Hua Journal of Chinese Studies), NS 5, No. 2 (December 1966)..
Wang, Ch'ung-wu. Ming pen chi chiao chu. Chung yang yen chin yüan li shih yü yen yen chiu so chi k'an (Bulletin of the Institute of History and Philology, Academia Sinica), special publication, No. 27. Shanghai: Shang-wu yin-shu kuan, 1948; facsimile rpt. Hong Kong: Lung-men shu-tien, 1967.
Wang, Ch'ung-wu. “Ming tai ti shang t'un chih tu.” Yü kung, 5, No. 12 (August 1936).
Wang, Gungwu. “Early Ming relations with southeast Asia: A background essay.” In The Chinese world order: Traditional China's foreign relations, ed. Fairbank, John K.. Harvard East Asian Series, No. 32. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, 1968 ; rpt. in Community and nation: Essays on Southeast Asia and the Chinese, sel. Anthony Reid. Asian Studies Association of Australia, Southeast Asia Publication Series, No. 6. Singapore: Heinemann Educational Books (Asia), 1981.
Wei, Ch'ing-yüan. Ming tai huang ts'e chih tu. Peking: Chung-hua shu-chü, 1961.
Wu, Chi-hua. “Ming tai chien kuo tui wai ti chi pen t'ai tu chi chüeh ts'e.” Tung fang wen hua (Journal of Oriental Studies), 16, No. 1–2 (1978).
Wu, Han. Chu Yüan-chang chuan. Shanghai, 1949; revised edition of 1965; rpt. Peking: Sheng-huo tu-shu hsin-chih san-lien shu-tien, 1979. (Earlier version Ts'ung seng po tao huang ch'üan. 1944)
Wu, Han. “Hu Wei-yung tang an k'ao.” Yen-ching hsüeh pao, 15 (June 1934).
Yamane, Yukio. “‘Genmatsu no hanran’ to Minchō shihai no kakuritsu.” In Vol. 12 of Iwanami kōza sekai rekishi. Tokyo: Iwanami shoten, 1971.
Yang, I-fan. “Hung-wu san shih nien Ta Ming lü k'ao.” Hsüeh hsi yü ssu k'ao, 5 (1981).
Yang, Lien-sheng. “Ming local administration.” In Chinese government in Ming times: Seven studies, ed. Hucker, Charles O.. New York and London: Columbia University Press, 1969.