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    Foster, Paul 2007. Books of the Month. The Expository Times, Vol. 118, Issue. 6, p. 280.

  • Volume 9: World Christianities c.1914–c.2000
  • Edited by Hugh McLeod, University of Birmingham

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    • Volume 9: World Christianities c.1914–c.2000
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Book description

The twentieth century saw changes as dramatic as any in Christian history. The Churches suffered serious losses, both through persecution and through secularisation, in what had been for several centuries their European heartlands, but grew fast in Africa and parts of Asia. This volume provides a comprehensive history of Catholicism, Protestantism and the Independent Churches in all parts of the world in the century when Christianity truly became a global religion. Written by a powerful team of specialists from many different countries, the volume is broad in scope. The first part focuses on institutions and movements which have had a worldwide impact, including the papacy, the ecumenical movement and Pentecostalism. The second provides a narrative of Christian history in each region of the world. The third focuses on selected themes from an international perspective, including changes in worship, relations with Jews and Muslims, science and the arts, gender and sexuality.


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Page 1 of 2

  • 1 - Introduction
    pp 1-14
  • View abstract
    This introduction presents an overview of the key concepts discussed in this book. At the beginning of the twentieth century, about a third of the people in the world were Christians which meant that Christianity was by far the largest of the world's religions. This book describes Western Christianity, and newer movements that grew out of Western Christianity in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Since the sixteenth century, Western Christianity has been divided between Catholics, who recognise the primacy of the bishop of Rome, and Protestants who do not. Five themes run right through parts I and II of the book: the development of Christianity from a mainly European and American religion to a worldwide religion; major challenges faced by Christianity in its European and North American heartlands; diminishing importance of denominational boundaries within Christianity; role of war in twentieth century history; relationship between Christianity and movements for the emancipation of oppressed groups; and revolution in communications.
  • 2 - Being a Christian in the early twentieth century
    pp 15-26
  • View abstract
    In the first half of the twentieth century most of the populations were employed in agriculture and the overwhelming majorities were churchgoing Catholics. Limerzel was one of the rural Christendoms, still numerous in Catholic Europe, and indeed in Quebec and parts of Latin America in the first half of the twentieth century. In the course of the nineteenth century, nationalism had come to be closely identified with Catholicism, and most Protestants had rallied to the defence of the Union with Great Britain. Even in the English-speaking countries, where urban religion had flourished most vigorously in the nineteenth century, the churches were encountering serious secular competition by the early twentieth century. The year 1933 saw a big return to church membership by those who had earlier resigned, as well as a significant number of conversions of Catholics to Protestantism. More common probably was what an Anglican bishop called diffusive Christianity.
  • 3 - The papacy
    pp 27-49
  • View abstract
    By the end of the reign of Pius X in August 1914, the construction of the modern papacy was virtually complete. Despite the lack of success, Benedict had established a tradition in which the papacy was henceforth committed to being an active international peace-maker. Two years later, during a full-blooded crisis over fascist attacks on both Catholic youth and trade union organisations, Pius XI came close to rejecting fascist ideology tout court in his encyclical Non abbiamo. The reign of Paul's successor, John Paul I, lasted only thirty-three days, during which he had no time to make great decisions or issue momentous encyclicals, yet for several reasons it deserves analysis. John Paul II's election testifies to the efficacy of John XXIII's and Paul VI's efforts to internationalise both the Roman curia and the college of cardinals. This chapter finally describes an analysis of the state of the papacy at the beginning of the third Christian millennium.
  • 4 - Ecumenism
    pp 50-70
  • View abstract
    In what Horton Davies described as the ecumenical century the most decisive steps were taken in the twenty-five years after 1945. The World Missionary Conference held at Edinburgh in June 1910 is regarded as the starting point of the modern ecumenical movement. As bishop of Manchester and archbishop of York William Temple was active in the Faith and Order and Life and Work movements that led to the formation of the World Council of Churches. The formation of the continuation committee was therefore the first result of the Edinburgh conference. From the late nineteenth century there were several reunions among Presbyterians and Methodists. The main emphasis was placed on theological dialogue, particularly at the international level. The international character of ecumenism challenges one view of its relationship to secularization. The nineteenth century forced the Roman Catholic Church to rethink its relation to the state, and the twentieth century forced the same reflection upon Protestants.
  • 5 - Christianity, colonialism and missions
    pp 71-88
  • View abstract
    Abraham Kuyper stressed the responsibility of the state to promote Christianity in the colonies, even in the face of an overwhelming Islam. In the twentieth century, the Catholic Church regained, to a large extent, the missionary momentum it had lost to the Protestants in the previous century. The inter-war period was one of high colonialism in Africa. J. H. Oldham arranged for the Phelps-Stokes commissions to enquire into mission education in Africa, and facilitated the Le Zoute Conference on educational and social issues and on co-operation with colonial governments. Colonial economic policies and missionary schooling disrupted traditional life and values. The Protestant emphasis on training pastors drawn from a peasant background to serve the rural base of mission Christianity had many positive aspects. In the inter-war years American John Mott's particular concern was for a Protestant Christianity sensitive to the awakening of nationalism in Asia.
  • 6 - The Pentecostal and Charismatic movements
    pp 89-106
  • View abstract
    Wesley's doctrine of a second blessing, a crisis experience subsequent to conversion, had a significant influence on the emergence of Pentecostalism. By 1916, North American Pentecostalism was divided theologically into three mutually antagonistic groups. The evangelistic healing campaigns had their peak in the 1950s with support from most Pentecostal denominations. The revival in Barratt's Filadelfia church in Oslo was a place of pilgrimage for people from all over Europe. Nicholas Bhengu was one of the most influential South African Pentecostals and leader of the Back to God section of the AG. Myanmar, Thailand, Malaysia and Singapore have vibrant Pentecostal and Charismatic churches, but the greatest Pentecostal expansion in south-east Asia was in Indonesia. In most of the Pacific Islands Pentecostal and Charismatic Christianity has grown rapidly, especially since the 1970s. In the 1980s the Third Wave, following the two waves of the classical Pentecostal movement and the Charismatic movement, was identified particularly with John Wimber.
  • 7 - Independency in Africa and Asia
    pp 107-128
  • View abstract
    This chapter concentrates on those independent church movements that have proliferated as a deliberate reaction to the perceived hegemony of Western forms of Christianity in Africa and Asia. Towards the end of the nineteenth century, African churches in Nigeria and Ghana and Ethiopian type churches in South Africa emerged. The newer Charismatic churches and ministries are of more recent origin, and may be regarded as Pentecostal movements because they too emphasise the power and the gifts of the Holy Spirit. The chapter discusses the phenomenon of Christian Independency in four Asian countries, where it has a long history. The origins of Independency in Sri Lanka are closely related to developments in India. The Philippines is another Asian nation with a long history of Independency, though regarded as a Catholic country since the sixteenth century when colonised by the Spanish. All Christian churches in China practise some form of healing, including Three-Self churches.
  • 8 - The Great War
    pp 129-150
  • View abstract
    In terms of the historiography of the churches and the war in Germany and the English-speaking world, even such modest progress has yet to be made. Ethnic and confessional ties with the old world ensured that the position of the churches in Europe was a significant factor in determining attitudes towards the war among Christians in the United States and in the self-governing dominions of the British Empire. Similarly, in Canada and Australia, denominational and ethnic factors also influenced the churches' position on the war. Nevertheless, independent studies of German Protestantism and of Canadian Methodism have each concluded that the preaching and activities of the churches provided meaning and support for many during the war. In the French army, the background of a prewar Catholic revival and the fear and uncertainties of war contributed to a heightened religious consciousness that was evident throughout the war years.
  • 9 - The Christian churches and politics in Europe, 1914–1939
    pp 151-178
  • View abstract
    The period between 1914 and 1939, which forms the subject of this contribution, therefore lacks an obvious unity in the history of Christian politics in twentieth-century Europe. The constitutional and public status of the Christian churches in European states had evolved over the preceding half-century in highly dissimilar ways. Yet, though pillarisation was a reaction against modernity, it also became the vehicle where by Europe's Christian communities entered into the modern world. The clergy, influenced by the new spiritual priorities of the papacy, generally preferred to step back from direct involvement in political life. The multiple crises, international and national, socio-economic and ideological, that swept across Europe after 1914 destroyed much of the Christian abstentionism from politics. A second, and subtler, change in the patterns of European politics was the decline in anti-clerical and more especially anti-Catholic politics. There was therefore no single path to political modernisation in Europe.
  • 10 - Latin America, c.1914–c.1950
    pp 179-196
  • View abstract
    The direction of change in Christianity across Latin America over the first half of the twentieth century was broadly the same, but its pace was never uniform. By 1914 the broad trend in Latin American religious history was away from crisis to the pursuit of accommodations between the liberal state and the Catholic church. The work of Catholic missions was largely directed at Amerindian tribes inhabiting the Amazon valley and its tributaries. Brazilian Catholic Action was built on an inappropriate Italian model, corporate, centralised and authoritarian, which left little scope for diocesan and parochial initiative. Protestantism posed a less significant challenge to Catholicism in Latin America than secularising trends, and had fewer adherents than indigenous and black religions. The overall achievement of Protestantism was limited: in Mexico and Cuba less than 1 per cent of the population was Protestant in 1940 and 1942 respectively.
  • 11 - African Christianity: from the world wars to decolonisation
    pp 197-218
  • View abstract
    The First World War drastically reshaped the interior of African Christianity. Beyond the pursuit of white power or literacy, African Christian initiative could be traced through the choruses of Spiritual churches, whether they were called Zionists, Aladura or Roho. A spiritual wind in the 1970s gave it more prominence but unknown tongues featured prominently in African Christian spirituality before the decolonisation blues. This chapter explores seven themes that shaped the emergence of an African Christianity during the turbulent years of 1914 to 1975, with an eye on periodisation and regional coverage. It argues that from the drums of war in 1914, the swan songs of the Ethiopians gave place to the early morning calls of prophets, the gusty choruses of Spiritual churches and the unknown tongues of early Pentecostals. But Africans initiated new spiritualities that took on a charismatic character and challenged missionary Christianity. Agitation for university education after the Second World War induced government concern for secondary education.
  • 12 - The African diaspora in the Caribbean and Europe from pre-emancipation to the present day
    pp 219-235
  • View abstract
    Today, the Western world is faced with the arrival of indigenous religions in cross-fertilisation with contextualised Christian interpretations on its own shores. From a Eurocentric perspective, the Caribbean pre-emancipation movement is interpreted as part of those fundamental changes in human politics, economics and philosophy that emerged at the end of the eighteenth century. From the perspective of the African diaspora, slaves and emancipated slaves, the story must be told differently. This chapter draws a comparison between Native Baptist theology and the black roots of Pentecostalism as well as traits in the African Indigenous churches in the early years of the twentieth century. Genuinely Christian creations such as the Spiritual Baptists in Trinidad, Grenada and St Vincent, and the Revivalists in Jamaica, would have an impact on Caribbean migration to Europe. The chapter focusses on the black church movement in Britain from 1973 marked out Pentecostalism, together with Adventism, as the most powerful force in Caribbean Christian migration.
  • 13 - Christianity in the United States during the inter-war years
    pp 236-251
  • View abstract
    The period between the end of World War I and the beginning of World War II was a critical time for the development of a religiously pluralistic United States. Following war, the United States experienced an unprecedented period of abundance. Federal Prohibition ended in 1933, and Protestant moral authority was never re-established in America's urban centres. The spiritual depression of the inter-war years was not apparent in the membership statistics of many religious communities. For many ministers in the south, the Great Migration was a threat to the cohesiveness of black religious culture. Roman Catholicism also appealed to African Americans who moved northward and urban Catholic dioceses saw an increase in black participation. For both Catholics and Protestants, new forms of technology stimulated personal piety and promulgated various visions of a Christian future. Although at first a Roosevelt supporter, Coughlin would eventually use the airwaves to promote his own schemes of ending the Depression.
  • 14 - Christian churches in Australia, New Zealand and the Pacific, 1914–1970
    pp 252-261
  • View abstract
    By the end of the twentieth century, even though the Southern Cross was a popular civic and church emblem, any claims of Christendom translated south were clearly out of place. For the settler societies of Australia and New Zealand, church and state had always had separate and frequently competing cultures. And even in those Pacific Island groups where the missionary message had merged strongly with local authority, denominational variety pointed away from established churches towards ecumenical goals. But in general they built on three distinct experiences: a missionary and conversion heritage in the Pacific islands; the denominational traditions imported and translated by European settlers in Australia and New Zealand; and the mission past of Aboriginal Australia and of the Maori in New Zealand. The mainstream press affirmed Christian faith as part of a moral society, linked to democracy, security and happy homes.
  • 15 - Catholicism and Protestantism in the Second World War in Europe
    pp 262-284
  • View abstract
    When Second World War broke out between Germany, Poland, France and Britain at the beginning of September 1939 church people widely owned a responsibility to judge the justice of the course on which their respective governments were set. The Vatican was a state, however small, and in time of war a state must have a policy. Visser't Hooft saw Geneva as a safe house for various secret diplomatic sorties, and one for various networks to meet as they threaded their perilous way across the borders of the continent. It was widely agreed that the Vichy state was legal, and Christians owed to the properly constituted authorities a due obedience. The churches of occupied Europe often raised protests against the deportations of young men for labour in Germany itself. Protestants there had long sensed their vulnerability in a society in which Catholicism was such a dominant power, and they were often quick to recognise their responsibilities to other minorities.
  • 16 - The Cold War, the hegemony of the United States and the golden age of Christian democracy
    pp 285-303
  • View abstract
    Christianity and democracy were placed at the core of anti-communism. For America, God's country, the Cold War became a Christian enterprise, a crusade against the forces of evil. Even the USSR recognised the benefits to be gained from closer church-state relations. Members of the underground churches avoided participation in Soviet society and the patriarchal Orthodox church. Mutual interest lay at the heart of the US-Vatican alliance against the USSR. Both shared a deep fear of the potential of Soviet communism to undermine their global positions. The product of a process of history reaching back through the centuries, Christian democracy came into its own in the post-war period. With clear-cut examples of religious persecution in Spain under a remaining Axis leader, to indict Tito and not Franco would be a gift to Soviet propaganda. Religion and Americanism were brought together in a consensus that personal religious faith reflected proper patriotic commitment.
  • 17 - The religious ferment of the sixties
    pp 304-322
  • View abstract
    Pro Mundi Vita suggested a number of factors which had encouraged the birth and growth of the Charismatic movement within Catholicism. The election of a pope, who smiled at the camera rather than staring into the middle distance as if enthralled by a vision of the Virgin, was swiftly overshadowed by the summoning of what became the Second Vatican Council. The preparations for the council revealed the battle-lines in the Vatican, particularly between the new-created Secretariat for Promoting Christian Unity under Cardinal Augustine Bea, SJ and the Theological Commission presided over by Alfredo Ottaviani. When it seemed that the document on religious liberty might fail entirely or be unsatisfactory, Cardinal Spellman insisted Murray go to Rome. As John Allen has pointed out, many of the founding fathers of Communio were raised to the cardinalate by Pope John Paul II.
  • 18 - The crisis of Christianity in the West: etering a post-Christian era?
    pp 323-347
  • View abstract
    Callum Brown sees the irrelevance of what the churches have been saying as both a cause and a consequence of their decline. The time was therefore ripe in the 1990s for a new approach. It came from a group of historians, including Callum Brown, Olaf Blaschke, Peter van Rooden and Patrick Pasture. The real crisis, they argued, came only in the 1960s, and it was then that the secularisation of Western societies began in earnest. In 1961, no fewer than 94 per cent of students claimed to have had some kind of religious upbringing; in 1972 this figure had dropped slightly to 88 per cent; but by 1985 it had already dropped to 51 per cent. This suggests that the period of most rapid change was the later sixties and seventies. It is premature to speak of a post-Christian era in view of the major social role which the Christian churches still play throughout the Western world.
  • 19 - The revolutions in eastern Europe and the beginnings of the post-communist era
    pp 348-365
  • View abstract
    Communist policy towards religion, and the response of the churches, varied widely in Eastern Europe both geographically and over time. A milestone in the history of East Germany was when the Protestant church in the German Democratic Republic split from the united German church in 1969. A pattern of church-state relations evolved in Poland which was different from that in any of the other eastern European countries. Religion was just one of the factors involved in the end of communism in Eastern Europe. At the socio-political level, the first understanding of communism led to the aspiration to reinstrumentalise religion for socio-political goals. In many churches an instinctive authoritarianism continued in the post-communist period, with lower clergy denied initiative and laypeople denied any role in reconstructing the churches and their societies. However, at that time the hierarchy began distancing itself from a nationalism detached from Christian moral values.
  • 20 - The transformation of Latin American Christianity, c.1950–2000
    pp 366-384
  • View abstract
    Christianity in Latin America was about to undergo momentous changes in 1950. Great disparities existed in the practice of Catholicism in Latin America. In many countries the Catholic church appeared as weak, even moribund. The foundation was laid for the Latin American church to absorb the great transforming event of the Second Vatican Council. Charismatic Catholicism, in contrast to North Atlantic countries, grew steadily from the 1970s in Latin America. Liberation Theology continued through affirmations of its major points in church documents and through the lives of millions of Christians working within social movements. Another innovation that followed in the wake of Vatican II had a peculiarly Latin American character, the base ecclesial communities. Political scientists and anthropologists noted the critical role that Liberation Theology played in establishing indigenous movements. African-based religions did not have the number of followers to match the forty million indigenous of Latin America. Eugene A. Nida pointed out the indigenous character of Latin American Pentecostalism.
  • 21 - Religion and racism: struggles around segregation, ‘Jim Crow’ and apartheid
    pp 385-400
  • View abstract
    This chapter reviews the Christian struggle against racism, segregation and Jim Crow laws in the USA in three distinct phases. By drawing attention to the dominant focus of Christian energy against racism the authors can characterise these phases as cultural resistance, public struggle and ideological critique. African Americans were indeed victims of the unrivalled power of white supremacy. The chapter shows that the Christian response to racism in South Africa need to pause and consider three key elements that distinguish this setting from the one people have just been exploring, and provide a wider framework for what follows. It explores the story in three phases, namely, diverse opposition, ideological critique and liberating praxis. The chapter reflects two themes that unite the racial situation in the USA and in South Africa, namely the economic forces of colonialism and capitalism, and the promotion and contestation of theories of white supremacy.
  • 22 - Post-colonial Christianity in Africa
    pp 401-421
  • View abstract
    The Portuguese colonies and Rhodesia stemmed the process for a decade or longer but by 1994 and the fall of apartheid in South Africa the entire African continent was under black majority rule. A second democratic revolution ensued as more than half of sub-Saharan African states made political reforms and moved toward multi-party democracy. This revolution is against presidential third termism, the tendency of leaders to cling to office. African Pentecostals like Ezekiel Guti, leader of the Zimbabwe Assemblies of God Africa, broke away from missionary movements to found their own churches, retaining part of the original name in their new organisations. The historic mission churches made a more straight forward contribution to development, the raison d'être of independent African states. The centrality of development to post-colonial states helps explain the declining political influence of African Independent churches. Recent research shows that such movements arose out of an ambience of revivalist and counter-establishment Christianity within the Western missionary enterprise.
  • 23 - South Asia, 1911–2003
    pp 422-435
  • View abstract
    Christians of south Asia have always consisted of many communities, distinguished according to region, language, caste and church tradition. Indian Christianity consists of three principal branches: Syrian Christian, Roman Catholic and Protestant. Protestant movements within India flourished primarily during the colonial period. During the twentieth century, however, socio-political processes of integration that contributed to the crafting of an Indian nation also contributed to the knitting together of various strands of Indian Christianity. Within Indian Protestant circles, a growing spirit of ecumenism coupled with a desire for a genuinely Indian church led to the formation of the Church of South India. For various classes of Christians, the cost of belonging to India was conceived in terms of supporting the nationalist movement, refashioning the church's cultural complexion, or entering the arena of competitive group politics. Furthermore, as the church hierarchies became more and more Indianised, the church displayed a greater sense of solidarity with other sections of Indian society.
  • 24 - Christianity in South-East Asia, 1914–2000
    pp 436-449
  • View abstract
    In the course of the twentieth century, Christianity in south-east Asia moved out of the passing shadow of Western colonialism to assert itself as a non-Western Asian religion. The countries with the highest proportion of Christians were East Timor and the Philippines, followed by Indonesia and Singapore. Christianity in Asia has often held an uncertain place in historiography understandably preoccupied with nationalism, independence, nation-building and globalization. By 1914 Christianity was a significant presence in south-east Asia, albeit still associated with colonial and other foreign influences. The British in Myanmar and Malaysia facilitated the presence of denominations and missions from several nationalities. Where independence involved armed conflict, it was mostly in Indonesia that Christians played an active part, despite some being on the wrong side of the struggle. There is also ample south-east Asian evidence that secularisation theses need to talk about the modification of religion in the face of science, modernisation and technology, not its demise.
  • 25 - East Asia
    pp 450-468
  • View abstract
    On the eve of World War I, Christianity's infrastructure was enviably vigorous and already venerable. Institutionally, however, all such structures were dangerously vulnerable; as so often is the case, larger historical events shaped the outcome of Christianity's subsequent development. Those events having been precipitated by Japan's militaristic ambitions, a history of Christianity in east Asia properly starts with Japan before 1945 and ends with Japan after 1945. Likewise for Korea and Taiwan, the dominant fact of Christian life up to1945 was the same unrelenting pressure that turned Japan's churches into unofficial state auxiliaries. After Sun's death, Euro-American Christianity continued to pin its hopes on the Guomindang (GMD). Tensions between the Taiwan Presbyterian church and the GMD became acute in 1966 when the World Council of Churches called for the People's Republic of China's admission to the United Nations. Korea's Catholicism is a Vatican II Catholicism, vernacular and politically interventionist.
  • 26 - Liturgy
    pp 469-482
  • View abstract
    The liturgical movement is the name given to a movement within the Roman Catholic church for renewal of liturgical life in the church. Virgil Michel began the journal Orate fratres, later to be renamed Worship, and in his own writings he stressed the link between the corporate liturgy and social justice. The Constitution on the sacred liturgy had allowed for local adaptation, subject to approval from Rome. Dean William Palmer Ladd's Prayer book interleaves remains the classic American Anglican expression of the aims of the liturgical movement. An important stimulus in Anglican thinking was Dom Gregory Dix's large work, The shape of the liturgy. One of the first fruits of this new liturgical awareness was, ironically, the liturgy of the Church of South India. A similar tale can be told of the worldwide Reformed church. For example, in the French-speaking Swiss Reformed and Reformed Church of France, Richard Paquier was a leading ecumenist and liturgist.

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