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  • Print publication year: 2000
  • Online publication date: March 2008

20 - Introduction: the Hellenistic and Roman periods

In the Hellenistic period moral philosophy threatened to break free. Both Epicureans and Stoics placed their emphasis on the individual, his conduct and his goals. Those goals, pleasure for the Epicurean and goodness for the Stoic, were no longer to be sought within the framework of the poleis, but in the setting of the universe. The works of Xenophon and Isocrates included prototype kingship treatises. The Classical philosophers had ranked monarchy high, Plato in the Politicus designating it the best form of government, provided only a king could be found who was wise, while Aristotle concedes that the 'one best man' should be sovereign in some circumstances. For information as to the style and content of the Hellenistic kingship treatises we are largely dependent on the symposium of pseudo-Aristeas' Letter to Philocrates and complete works from the Roman period beginning with Seneca's de dementia which is usually taken as true to type.
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The Cambridge History of Greek and Roman Political Thought
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