Skip to main content
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 3
  • Cited by
    This chapter has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Fedyukin, Igor 2018. “Westernizations” from Peter I to Meiji: war, political competition, and institutional change. Theory and Society, Vol. 47, Issue. 2, p. 207.

    Brookshaw, Dominic Parviz 2014. Qajar Confection: The Production and Dissemination of Women's Poetry in Early Nineteenth-century Iran. Middle Eastern Literatures, Vol. 17, Issue. 2, p. 113.

    Matin, Kamran 2012. Democracy without Capitalism: Retheorizing Iran's Constitutional Revolution. Middle East Critique, Vol. 21, Issue. 1, p. 37.

  • Print publication year: 1991
  • Online publication date: March 2008



The kingdom which Fath ‘Alī Shāh inherited in 1797 resembled an estate long neglected by successive owners. Indeed it had been for the best part of a century. Had Fath ‘Alī Shah wondered, as he presided over the first New Year festival of a long reign of thirty-seven years, what were the resources of his inheritance in manpower or revenues, it is doubtful whether anyone near him could have provided the requisite information, or even delineated the frontiers of his kingdom. The claim or aspiration was that his domain equalled that of his Safavid predecessors in the days of their greatness; certainly it exceeded the bounds of present-day Iran. In reality, however, the royal writ ran far from smoothly, authority emanating from Tehran but repeatedly interrupted. In much of Khurāsān, or the more remote marches of the Lur, Türkmen or Balūch country, the Shah was scarcely even nominal ruler. Yet in spite of the practical constraints upon his exercise of power and the humiliation of two defeats suffered at the hands of Russia which entailed a loss of territory, the close of Fath ‘Alī Shāh's reign did see the definitive re-establishment of a “Royaume de Perse”.

Early 19th-century European observers of Iran doubted whether the Shah's government had the will or the means to refurbish this derelict estate; it is unlikely that either the Shah or his kinsmen thought in terms of “improving” the kingdom's resources as a contemporary English Whig landowner would have done.

Recommend this book

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

The Cambridge History of Iran
  • Online ISBN: 9781139054997
  • Book DOI:
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to *
Abbott, K.E.Notes taken on a Journey eastwards from Shiraz…in 1850Journal of the Royal Geographical Society 27 (1857).
Abrahamian, Ervand. ‘Oriental Despotism: the case of Qajar Iran”, International Journal of Middle East Studies 5 (1971).
Abrahamian, Ervand. “Early trade of the northern provinces of Persia: a document”, Iranian Studies 16 (1983).
Aitchison, Charles U. A Collection of Treaties, Engagements and Sanads relating to India and Neighbouring Countries, vol. 13, Persia and Afghanistan, Calcutta, 1933.
Algar, Hamid. Religion and State in Iran, 1785–1906. The Role of the Ulama in the Qajar Period, Berkeley, Callfornia, 1969.
Algar, Hamid. “Shi‘ism and Iran in the eighteenth century”, in Studies in Eighteenth-Century Islamic History, ed. Naff, T. and Owen, R., Carbondale, Illinois, 1977.
Allen, W.E.D. A History of the Georgian People, London, 1932.
Amanat, Abbas. “‘Ali-Qolī Khan”, Encyclopaedia Iranica, vol. 1, London, 1985.
Amanat, Abbas. “Allāh-Qolī Khan”, ibid.
Amanat, Abbas. “Amīn-al-Dawla”, ibid.
Arjomand, Said Amir. The Shadow of God and the Hidden Imam: Religion, Political Order and Societal Change in Shi‘ite Iran from the beginning to 1890, Chicago, 1984.
Artemi, Bogdanov. Memoirs of the Life of Artemi of Wagarschapat, near Mount Ararat in Armenia, London, 1822.
Ashraf, Ahmad. “The roots of emerging dual class structure in nineteenth-century Iran”, Iranian Studies 14 (1981).
Atkin, Muriel. “The pragmatic diplomacy of Paul I: Russia's relations with Asia, 1796-1801”, Slavic Review 38 (1979).
Atkin, Muriel. “The strange death of Ibrahim Khalil Khan of Qarabagh”, Iranian Studies 12 (1979).
Atkin, Muriel. Russia and Iran, 1780–1828, Minneapolis, 1980.
Avery, P.W.An enquiry into the outbreak of the second Russo-Persian war, 1826–28”, in Iran and Islam, in Memory of V. Minorsky, ed. Bosworth, C.E., Edinburgh, 1971.
Baddeley, John F. The Russian Conquest of the Caucasus, London, 1908.
Bakhash, Shaul. “The evolution of Qajar bureaucracy: 1779–1789”, Middle Eastern Studies 7 (1971).
Bakhash, Shaul. Iran: Monarchy, Bureaucracy and Reform under the Qajars: 1858–1896, London, 1978.
Bakhash, Shaul. “Center-periphery relations in nineteenth-century Iran”, Iranian Studies 14 (1981).
Bakhash, Shaul. “Administration in Iran, (i) The Safavid, Zand and Qajar periods”, Encyclopaedia Iranica, vol. 1, London, 1985.
Bartold, V. V. A History of the Turkman People (Four Studies in the History of Central Asia), vol. 3, tr. , V. and Minorsky, T., Leiden, 1962.
Bayat, Mangol. Mysticism and Dissent: Socioreligious Thought in Qajar Iran, Syracuse, New York, 1982.
Bayat, Mangol. “‘Abd-al-Rezā Khan”, Encyclopaedia Iranica, vol. 1, London, 1985.
Bode, Clement Augustus. Travels in Luristan and Arabistan, 2 vols. London, 1845.
Bosworth, C.E. and Hillenbrand, C. (eds). Qajar Iran. Political, Social and Cultural Change, 1800–1925, Edinburgh, 1983.
Bournoutian, George A.Husayn Qulī Khān Qazvīnī, Sardār of Erevan: a portrait of a Qajar administrator”, Iranian Studies 9 (1976).
Bournoutian, George A. Eastern Armenia in the Last Decades of Persian Rule, 1807–1828, Malibu, California, 1982.
Browne, Edward Granville. A Traveller's Narrative Written to Illustrate the Episode of the Bāb, 2 vols. Cambridge, 1891.
Browne, Edward Granville. A Year Amongst the Persians, Cambridge, 1893.
Browne, Edward Granville. A Literary History of Persia, vol. 4, Modern Times (1500–1924), Cambridge, 1930.
Brydges, Harford Jones Sir. An Account of His Majesty's Mission to the Court of Persia in the Years 1807-11, London, 1834.
Buckingham, James Silk. Travels in Assyria, Media, and Persia, 2 vols. London, 1830.
Bukhārī, Mīr ‘Abd al-Karām “Nadīm” b. Ismā‘īl. Afghān va Kābul va Bukhārā va Khivaq va Khoqani Khānlarinin, ed. Schefer, C., Bulaq, , 1873 (tr. by Schefer, C. as Histoire de L'Asie Centrale (Afghanistan, Boukhara, Khiva, Khoqand), Paris, 1876).
Burnes, Alexander. Travels into Bokhara, 2 vols. London, 1839.
Busse, H.‘Abbās Mīrzā”, Encyclopaedia Iranica, vol. 1, London, 1985.
Busse, H.Abbās-Qolī Mīrzā”, ibid.
Busse, H.Abu'l-Fath Khan Zand”, ibid.
Butkov, P.G. Materialy dlya novoy istorii Kavkaza s 1722 po 1803g., 3 vols. Saint Petersburg, 1869.
Campbell, James. “The Russo-Persian Frontier, 1810Journal of the Royal Central Asian Society 18 (1931).
Cole, Juan R.I. and Momen, Moojan. “Mafia, mob and Shiism in Iraq: the rebellion of Ottoman Karbala, 1824–1843”, Past and Present 112 (1986).
Conolly, Arthur, journey to the North of India overland from England, through Russia, Persia, and Affghaunistan, 2 vols. London, 1834.
Curzon, Robert. Armenia. A Year at Erzerum and on the Frontier of Russia, Turkey, and Persia, London, 1854.
Curzon, George N. Persia and the Persian Question, 2 vols. London, 1892.
Drouville, Gaspar. Voyages en Perse pendant les annees 1812–1814, 2 vols. Saint Petersburg, 1819.
Dunbulī, ‘Abd al-Razzāq Beg Maftūn. Ma'āsir-i Sultānīya, Tabriz, 1242/1826 (tr. by Brydges, Harford JonesSir as The Dynasty of the Kajars, London, 1833).
Elphinstone, Mountstuart. An Account of the Kingdom of Caubul, 2 vols. London, 1839.
Elwell-Sutton, L.P.Parleying with the Russians in 1827”, journal of the Royal Central Asian Society 49 (1962).
Entner, Marvin. Russo-Persian Commercial Relations, 1828–1914, Gainesville, Florida, 1965.
Fasā'ī, Hājjī Mīrzā Hasan Husainī, Fārsnāma-yi Nā⊡irī, Tehran, 1313/1895 (tr. by Busse, Heribert as History of Persia under Qajar Rule, New York, 1972).
Ferrières-Sauveboeuf, Comte L.F.. Mémoires historiques, politiques et géographiques des voyages … faits en Turquie, en Perse et an Arable depuis 1782 jusqu'en 1789, 2 vols. Paris, 1790.
Field, H. Contributions to the Anthropology of Iran, Chicago, 1939.
Flandin, , Eugene, , and Coste, , Pascal, . Voyage en Perse, 2 vols. Paris, 1851.
Forster, George. A journey from Bengal to England, through the Northern Part of India, Kashmire, Afghanistan, and Persia, 2 vols. London, 1798.
Fowler, George. Three Years in Persia; with Travelling Adventures in Koordistan, 2 vols. London, 1841.
Francklin, William. Observations made on a Tour from Bengal to Persia, in the Years 1786–87, London, 1790.
Fraser, James Baillie. Narrative of a journey into Khorasan, in the Years 1821 and 1822, 2 vols. London, 1825.
Fraser, James Baillie. Travels and Adventures in the Persian Provinces on the Southern Banks of the Caspian Sea, London, 1826.
Fraser, James Baillie. Historical and Descriptive Account of Persia, from the Earliest Age to the Present Time, Edinburgh, 1834.
Fraser, James Baillie. A Winter's Journey from Constantinople to Tehran, 2 vols. London, 1838.
Fraser, James Baillie. Travels in Koordistan, Mesopotamia, etc., 2 vols. London, 1840.
Garthwaite, Gene R. Khans and Shahs. A Documentary Analysis of the Bakhtiyari in Iran, Cambridge, 1983.
Gmelin, Samuel Gottlieb. Reise durch Russland, 3 vols. Saint Petersburg, 1774.
Good, M.J.D.Social hierarchy in provincial Iran: the case of Qajar Maragheh”, Iranian Studies 10 (1977).
Grey, C. European Adventures in North India, 1785 to 1849, Lahore, 1929.
Gulistāna, Abu'l–Hasan b. Muhammad Amīn, Mujmal al-Tavārīkh, ed. Razavī, Mudarris, Tehran, 1344/1965.
Hambly, G.R.G.Agha Mohammad Khan and the establishment of the Qajar dynasty”, journal of the Royal Central Asian Society 50 (1963), 161–74.
Hanway, Jonas. An Historical Account of the British Trade over the Caspian Sea, etc., 2 vols. London, 1762.
Heude, William. A Voyage up the Persian Gulf and a Journey Overland from India to England in 1817, London, 1819.
Hytier, A.D. Les dépêches diplomatiques du comte de Gobineau en Perse, Paris, 1959.
Ingram, Edward. Beginning the Great Game in Asia, 1828–34, Oxford, 1979.
Ingram, Edward. Commitment to Empire. Prophecies of the Great Game in Asia, 1797-1800, Oxford, 1981.
Ingram, Edward. In Defence of British India. Great Britain in the Middle East, 1774–1842, London, 1984.
Issawi, Charles, “The Tabriz-Trabzon trade, 1830-1900 rise and decline of a route”, International Journal of Middle East Studies 1 (1970).
Jaubert, Pierre-Amédée. Voyage en Arménie et en Perse, Paris, 1821.
Javadi, H.‘Abd-al-Vahhāb Mo‘tamed-al-Dawla”, Encyclopaedia Iranica, vol. 1, London, 1985.
Javadi, H.Abu'l-Hassan Khan Īlĉī”, ibid.
Keddie, Nikki R.Class structure and political power in Iran since 1796”, Iranian Studies 11 (1978).
Keppel, George. Personal Narrative of a journey from India to England, 2 vols. London, 1827.
Khān Hidāyat, Rizā Qulī. Safāratnāma-yi Khwārazm, ed. Schefer, C., Bulaq, , n.d. (tr. Schefer, C. as Relation de I'ambassade au Kharezm, Paris, 1876).
Kinneir, John Macdonald. A Geographical Memoir of the Persian Empire, London, 1813.
Klaproth, Heinrich Julius. Voyage au Mount Caucase et en Géorgie, 2 vols. Paris, 1823.
Kotzebue, Moritz. Narrative of a journey into Persia in the Suite of the Imperial Russian Embassy in the Year 1817, London, 1819.
Krusinski, P. Tadeusz Juda, S.J. Histoire de la Dernière Revolution de Perse, 2 vols. The Hague, 1728; Eng. trans. The History of the Revolution of Persia, London, 1728.
Lambton, A.K.S. Landlord and peasant in Persia, Oxford, 1953.
Lambton, A.K.S. Islamic Society in Persia, London, 1954.
Lambton, A.K.S. “Persian society under the Qajars”, Journal of the Royal Central Asian Society 48 (1961).
Lambton, A.K.S. “Persian trade under the early Qājārs”, in Islam and the trade of Asia, ed. Richards, D.S., Oxford, 1970.
Lambton, A.K.S. “The case of Hajjī ‘Abd al-Karīm. A study of the role of the merchant in midnineteenth century Persia”, in Iran and Islam, in memory of V. Minorsky, ed. , C.E. Bosworth, Edinburgh, 1971.
Lambton, A.K.S.The tribal resurgence and the decline of the bureaucracy in the eighteenth century”, in Studies in Eighteenth-Century Islamic History, ed. Naff, T. and Owen, R., Carbondale, Illinois, 1977.
Lambton, A.K.S.Fath Alī Shāh”, Encyclopaedia of Islam, 2nd edn., vol. 3.
Lambton, A.K.S.Kādjār”, ibid, vol. 4.
Lang, D.M. Studies in the Numismatic History of Georgia in Transcaucasia, New York, 1955.
Lang, D.M. The East Years of the Georgian Monarchy, 1658–1832. New York, 1957.
Layard, Austin Henry. “A Description of the Province of Khúzistánjournal of the Royal Geographical Society 16 (1846).
Layard, Austin Henry. Early Adventures in Persia, Susiana, and Babylonia, 2 vols. New York, 1887.
Lockhart, L. Nadir Shah, London, 1938.
Lockhart, L. The Fall of the Safavī Dynasty and the Afghan Occupation of Persia, Cambridge, 1958.
Malcolm, John Sir. “Memorandum Respecting the Present State of Persia, Political and Commercial, to Henry Dundas, 10th April 1801”, in Wilson, Arnold T., The Melville Papers, Royal Central Asian Society, London, 1930.
Malcolm, John Sir. A History of Persia, 2 vols. London, 1815.
Malcolm, John Sir. Sketches of Persia, London, 1861.
Marvazī, Muhammad Sādiq. Tārīkh-i Jahān–Ārā, Royal Asiatic Society, London, CLV, fol. 1–43, but listed as CLIV.
McNeill, J. Memoir of the Right Hon. Sir John McNeill, K.C.B., by his grand-daughter [Florence MacAlister], London, 1910.
Meen, V.B. and Tushingham, A.D. Crown Jewels of Iran, Toronto, 1968.
Meredith, Colin. “Early Qajar administration: analysis of its development and functions”, Iranian Studies 4 (1971).
Minorsky, V. Tadhkirat al-Mulūk. A Manual of Safavid Administration, London, 1943.
Monteith, William. Kars and Erzeroum, London, 1856.
Morier, James Justinian. A journey through Persia, Armenia and Asia Minor to Constantinople, London, 1812.
Morier, James Justinian. A Second journey through Persia, Armenia and Asia Minor to Constantinople, London, 1818.
Morier, James Justinian. “Some Account of the I'liyats, or Wandering Tribes of Persia, Obtained in the Years 1814 and 1815”, journal of the Royal Geographical Society 7 (1837).
Morier, James Justinian. Zohrab the Hostage, London, 1837.
Munshī, Iskandar. Tārīkh-i ‘Ālam ‘Ārā–yi ‘Abbāsī, ed. Afshar, I., 2 vols. Tehran, 1334–5/1955–6 (tr. Savory, R.M. as The History of Shah ‘Abbas, 2 vols. Boulder, Colorado, 1979).
Mustaufi, ‘Abd-Allāh. Tārīkh-i Idārī va Ijtimāā‘ī-yi Qājārīya ya Sharh-i Zindagānī-yi Man, Tehran, 1321/1943.
Nāmī I⊡fahānī, Mīrzā Muhammad Sādiq Mūsavī. Tārikh-ī Gītī-Gushāa, ed. , Sa‘īd Nafīsī, Tehran, 1317/1938.
Nashat, Guity. “From bazaar to market: foreign trade and economic development in nineteenth-century Iran”, Iranian Studies 14 (1981).
Oberling, Pierre. The Qashqā‘i Nomads of Fārs, The Hague, 1974.
Oberling, Pierre. “‘Abd-al-Malekī”, Encyclopaedia Iranica, vol. 1, London, 1985.
Olivier, Guillaume-Antoine. Voyage dans I'empire ottomane, I'Egypte et la Perse, 6 vols. Paris, 1807.
Ouseley, William. Travels in Various Countries of the East, 3 vols. London, 1819.
Pahlavi, Mohammad Reza Shah. Mission for My Country, London, 1961.
Pakdaman, Homa, and Royce, W.‘Abbās Mīrza's will”, Iranian Studies 6 (1973)
Pakravan, E. Agha Mohammad Ghadjar, Tehran, 1953.
Pakravan, E. Abbas Mirza, prince reformateur, 2 vols. Tehran, 1958.
Pallas, Peter Simon. Travels through the Southern Provinces of the Russian Empire in the Years 1793 and 1794, 2 vols. London, 1812.
Perry, J.R.The last Safavids, 1722-1773”, Iran. Journal of the British Institute of Persian Studies 9 (1971).
Perry, J.R. Karim Khan Zand. A History of Iran, 1747-1779, University of Chicago Press, 1979.
Perry, J.R.Abd-al-Razzāq Beg”, Encyclopaedia Iranica, vol. 1, London, 1985.
Perry, J.R.Ādel Shah Afŝār”, ibid.
Perry, J.R.Aga Mohammad Khan Qājār”, ibid.
Perry, J.R.Ali-Morād Khan Zand”, ibid.
Picault, Charles. Histoire des révolutions de Perse, pendant la durée du dix-huitième siècle de Fère chrétienne, 2 vols. Paris, 1810.
Polk, W.R. and Chambers, R.L. (eds.). Beginnings of Modernization in the Middle Hast, Chicago, 1968.
Poole, R.S. The coins of the Shahs of Persia, Safavis-Kájárs, London, 1887.
Porter, Robert Ker. Travels in Georgia, Persia, Armenia, Ancient Babylonia, etc., during the Years 1817, 1818, 1819, and 1820, 2 vols. London, 1822.
Pottinger, Henry. Travels in Beloochistan and Sinde, London, 1816.
Rabino, H.L.Les provinces caspiennes de la Perse: le Guîlân”, Revue du monde musulman 32 (1915–16).
Rabino, H.L.Rulers of Lahijan and Fuman, in Gilan, Persia”, journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (1918).
Rabino, H.L.Rulers of Gaskar, Tul and Naw, Persian Talish, Tulam, Shaft, Rasht, Kuhdum, Kuchisfahan, Daylaman, Ranikhu, and Ashkawar, in Gilan, Persia”, JRAS (1920).
Rabino, H.L. Mazandaran and Astarahad, London, 1928.
Rabino, H.L. Coins, Medals, and Seals of the Shahs of Iran (1500–1941), Hertford, 1945.
Rawlinson, Henry Creswicke. “Notes on a March from Zohab … through the province of Kurdistan to Kírmansháh, in the year 1836”, Journal of the Royal Geographical Society 9 (1839).
Rawlinson, George. A Memoir of Major-General Sir Henry Creswicke Kawlinson, London, 1898.
Reid, James J.The Qajar Uymaq in the Safavid period, 1500–1722”, Iranian Studies 11 (1978).
Reid, James J.Rebellion and social change in Astarābād, 1537–1744”, International Journal of Middle Hast Studies 13 (1981).
Reid, James J. Tribalism and society in Islamic Iran, 1500–1629, Malibu, California, 1983.
Rich, Claudius James. Narrative of a Residence in Koordistan, 2 vols. London, 1836.
Anonymous. Risāla-yi Tadābīr-i–Shāh va Vazīr, Royal Asiatic Society, London, CLVI.
Rizā Qulī Khān Hidāyat, . Rauzat al-Safā-yi Nā⊡irī, Vol. IX, Tehran, 1339/1960.
Röhrborn, K.M. Provinizen and Zentralgewalt Persiens im 16. und 17. Jahrhundert, Berlin, 1966.
Roschanzamir, Mehdi. Die Zand-Dynastie, Hamburg, 1970.
Rūmlū, Hasan-i. Ahsan al-Tavārīkh, ed. Seddon, C.N., Baroda, 1931 (tr. by Seddon, C.N. as A Chronicle of the Early Safawīs. The Absanut-Tawārīkh of Hasan-i Rūmlū, Baroda, 1934).
Rustam al-Hukamā, Muhammad Hāshim Ā⋅af. Rustam al-Tavārīkh, ed. Moshīrī, M., Tehran, 1348/1969.
Savory, R.M. Iran under the Safavids, Cambridge, 1980.
Scott Waring, Edward. A Tour to Sheeraz, London, 1807.
Sheil, Mary. Glimpses of Life and Manners in Persia London, 1856.
Singh, G. Ahmad Shah Durrani, Bombay, 1959.
Sipihr Lisān al-Mulk, Muhammad Taqī. Nāsikh al-Tavārīkh, ed. Maqāmī, J. Qā'im, Tehran, 1337/1958.
Steensgaard, Niels. The Asian Trade Revolution of the Seventeenth Century. The Hast India Companies and the Decline of the Caravan Trade, Chicago, 1974.
Stewart, Charles. The Travels of Mirza Abu Taleb Khan, in Asia, Africa, and Europe, 2 vols. London, 1810.
Stuart, W. Journal of a Residence in Northern Persia, London, 1835.
Sümer, F. Oguzlar, Ankara, 1967.
Sykes, Percy. A History of Persia, 2 vols. London, 1915.
Tālib, Mīrzā Abū, Travels: see Stewart, C.
Tapper, R.Black Sheep, White Sheep and Red Heads”, Iran. Journal of the British Institute of Persian Studies 4 (1966).
Tapper, R.Shahsevan in Safavid Persia”, Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 37 (1974).
Vazīrī Kirmānī, Ahmad ‘Alī Khān. Tārīkh-i Kirmān, ed. Bāstānī-Pārīzī, M.I., Tehran, 1340/1961.
Volodarsky, Mikhail. “Persia and the Great Powers, 1856–1869”, Middle Eastern Studies 19 (1983).
Volodarsky, Mikhail. “Persia's foreign policy between the two Herat crises, 1831–56”, Middle Eastern Studies 21 (1985).
Watson, R.G. A History of Persia from the Beginnings of the Nineteenth Century to the Year 1958, London, 1866.
Wilberforce, Samuel. Journals and Letters of the Rev. Henry Martyn, B.D., 2 vols. London, 1837.
Wilson, Arnold T. The Persian Gulf, Oxford, 1928.
Wilson, Elizabeth. Memoir of Sir John MacNeill, London, 1910.
Wolff, Joseph. Narrative of a Mission to Bokhara, 2 vols. London, 1845.
Wright, Denis. The English Amongst the Persians During the Qajar Period, London, 1977.
Wright, Denis. The Persians Amongst the English: Hpisodes in Anglo-Persian History, London, 1985.
Yapp, Michael E. Strategies of British India: Britain, Iran and Afghanistan, 1798-1850, Oxford, 1980.
Zambaur, E.. Manuel de généalogie et de chronologie pour I'histoire de l'Islam, Hanover, 1927.