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  • Print publication year: 1991
  • Online publication date: March 2008

4 - IRAN DURING THE REIGNS OF FATH ‘Alī SHāH AND MUHAMMAD SHāH

from PART 1 - THE POLITICAL FRAMEWORK, 1722–1979
Summary

The kingdom which Fath ‘Alī Shāh inherited in 1797 resembled an estate long neglected by successive owners. Indeed it had been for the best part of a century. Had Fath ‘Alī Shah wondered, as he presided over the first New Year festival of a long reign of thirty-seven years, what were the resources of his inheritance in manpower or revenues, it is doubtful whether anyone near him could have provided the requisite information, or even delineated the frontiers of his kingdom. The claim or aspiration was that his domain equalled that of his Safavid predecessors in the days of their greatness; certainly it exceeded the bounds of present-day Iran. In reality, however, the royal writ ran far from smoothly, authority emanating from Tehran but repeatedly interrupted. In much of Khurāsān, or the more remote marches of the Lur, Türkmen or Balūch country, the Shah was scarcely even nominal ruler. Yet in spite of the practical constraints upon his exercise of power and the humiliation of two defeats suffered at the hands of Russia which entailed a loss of territory, the close of Fath ‘Alī Shāh's reign did see the definitive re-establishment of a “Royaume de Perse”.

Early 19th-century European observers of Iran doubted whether the Shah's government had the will or the means to refurbish this derelict estate; it is unlikely that either the Shah or his kinsmen thought in terms of “improving” the kingdom's resources as a contemporary English Whig landowner would have done.

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