Skip to main content Accessibility help
  • Print publication year: 1968
  • Online publication date: March 2008


from PART 1 - THE LAND
Physically, Iran consists of a complex of mountain chains enclosing a series of interior basins that lie at altitudes of 1,000 to 4,000 feet above sea-level. In terms of physical geography, Iran comprises the western and larger portion of a more extensive mountain zone that extends from eastern Asia Minor and the Caucasus as far as the plains of the Punjab. There are four major divisions of the country: the Zagros system, including small outer plains (chiefly the Khūzistān region), which are part of the Mesopotamian and Persian Gulf lowlands; the Alburz and Tālish systems and associated Caspian plain; the eastern and south-eastern upland rim; and the interior central desert basins. Within this broad framework more local and subregional contrasts can be drawn. Whilst in a few instances precise demarcation between the major units is far from straightforward, for the most part the scheme allows easy breakdown into units of distinct geographical significance.
Recommend this book

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

The Cambridge History of Iran
  • Online ISBN: 9781139054928
  • Book DOI:
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to *
Admiralty, , Naval Intelligence Division. Persia. London, 1945.
Argand, E. La Tectonique de I' Asie. Brussels, 1924.
Bakher, A. J.River Discharges in Iran.UNESCO Symposium on Salinity Problems in Arid Zones. Tehrān, 1958.
Blanchard, R.Asie Occidentale.” Géogr. Universelle, vol. VIII. Paris, 1929.
Bobek, H.Forschungen in Persien, 1958/9.Mitt. Öst. Geog. Ges., 1959.
Bout, P., Derruau, M., Dresch, J. and Peguy, P.Observations de Géographie Physique en Iran septentrional.” Edns. du Centre Nat. de la Recherche Sci. VIII, 1946.
Brüning, K. Asien. Frankfurt, 1954.
Butzer, K. Quaternary Stratigraphy and Climate in the Near East. Bonn, 1958.
Clapp, F. G.The Geology of Eastern Iran.Bull. geol. Soc. Am. vol LI, 1940.
Curzon of Kedleston, G. N. (Lord). Persia and the Persian Question. London, 1892.
Furon, R.La Géologie du Plateau Iranien.” Mém. Mus. d'Hist. Nat. Paris, 1941.
Gabriel, A.The Southern Lut and Iranian Baluchistan.” Geogr. J. vol. XCII, 1938.
Gabriel, A. Im Weltfernen Orient. Munich, 1929.
Gansser, A.New Aspects of the Geology of Central Iran.” Proc. 4th Wld Petr. Congr. sect. 1A, no. 5. Rome, 1955.
Goblot, H. Les Problèmes de I'Eau en Iran. Tehrān, 1960.
Harrison, J. V.The Bakhtiari Country, South West Persia.” Geogr. J. vol. LXXX, 1932.
Harrison, J. V.Coastal Makran.” Geogr. J. vol. XCVII, 1941.
Harrison, J. V.The Jaz Murian Depression, Persian Baluchistan.” Geogr. J. vol. CI, 1943.
Harrison, J. V.South-west Persia, a survey of Pish-i-Kuh in Luristan.” Geogr. J. vol. CVIII, 1946.
Lees, G. M.Persia.” In Science of Petroleum, vol VI, part 1. Oxford, 1953.
Lees, G. M. and Falcon, N. L.The geographical history of the Mesopotamian Plains.” Geogr. J. vol. CVIII, 1952.
Lees, G. M. and Richardson, F. D. S.The Geology of the Oilfield Belt of South-west Iran.” Geol. Mag. vol. LXXVII, 1940.
Minorsky, V. : Hudud al-'Alam (London, 1937).
Morgan, J. . Mission Scientifique en Perse. Paris, 1905.
Rieben, H. Notes sur la Géologie de I'Iran. Lausanne, 1942.
Rieben, H. Notes Préliminaires sur les terrains alluviaux de Theéran. Lausanne, 1953.
Scharlau, K.Iran.Westermanns Lexicon der Geographie. Braunschweig, 1963.
Skrine, C. P.The Highlands of Persian Baluchistan.” Geogr. J. vol. LXXVIII, 1931.
Sykes, P. M. Ten Thousand Miles in Persia. London, 1902.
Wilson, A. T. A Bibliography of Persia. Oxford, 1930.