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    Oberländer, Christian 2013. Thinking, Recording, and Writing History in the Ancient World. p. 79.

    Little, Lester K. 2004. Cypress Beams, Kufic Script, and Cut Stone: Rebuilding the Master Narrative of European History. Speculum, Vol. 79, Issue. 4, p. 909.

    Nelson, John 2003. Social Memory as Ritual Practice: Commemorating Spirits of the Military Dead at Yasukuni Shinto Shrine. The Journal of Asian Studies, Vol. 62, Issue. 02, p. 443.

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  • Volume 1: Ancient Japan
  • Edited by Delmer M. Brown, University of California, Berkeley

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    The Cambridge History of Japan
    • Online ISBN: 9781139055062
    • Book DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521223522
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Book description

Japan's ancient age was a period of radical and political change during which a Chinese-style empire emerged. This volume of The Cambridge History of Japan spans the beginnings of human existence to the end of the eighth century, focusing on the thousand years between 300 BC and 784, the end of the fabulous Nara period. The volume explores this period in four stages: (1) The Yayoi period (to about AD 250) when small kingdoms and kingdom federations accumulated enough power to dispatch diplomatic missions to Korea and China; (2) the Yamato period (to 587) when priestly rulers, having gained economic and military power, conquered most of Japan; (3) the Century of Reform (to 710) when Japanese leaders, pressed by China's expanding T'ang empire, set out to build a strong Chinese-style empire of their own; (4) the Nara period (to 784) when spectacular literary, artistic, architectural, and religious advances were made.

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  • 1 - The earliest societies in Japan
    pp 48-107
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521223522.004
  • View abstract
    Summary
    This chapter discusses the earliest societies in Japan that includes the pre-Jomon period, the Jomon period, and the Yayoi period. It describes progressive shaping of the Japanese islands began with the opening of a sea passage between Yaku Island of the Osumi group and the smaller islands of the Ryukyu chain. The chapter talks about small early Jomon villages, developed on bluffs, had pit houses grouped in the form of a horseshoe. It mentions the entrance of Japan in the civilized orbit of East Asia with the appearance of rice-growing villages and the use of iron near the beginning of what is known archaeologically as the Yayoi period. Initial study made it clear that Yayoi materials were not Jomon, but more than half a century passed before these Yayoi finds were dated and their significance was recognized. Chinese accounts and archaeological finds indicate that these kingdoms fought among themselves over land and access to water and metallic ore.
  • 2 - The Yamato kingdom
    pp 108-162
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521223522.005
  • View abstract
    Summary
    The Yamato kingdom appeared on the Nara plain of central Japan between 250 and 300 AD and, during the next three centuries, passed through successive stages of vigor, expansion, and disruption. Although the Yamato kingdom seems to have had no official relations with Chinese or Korean courts during its first century and a half of vigorous growth, evidence from archaeological sites reveals deep and wide-ranging continental influence. The second part of the Yamato period, roughly the fifth century, was a time of spectacular development. This was when the largest burial mounds were constructed and fairly complex irrigation systems were built. Yamato utilized a growing network of clans and occupational groups to increase its wealth and power. This chapter describes these remarkable changes, giving special attention to the reigns of Nintoku and Yuryaku. The expansion of the Yamato within the Japanese islands during the middle years of this period was intertwined with its political and military involvement in Korean affairs.
  • 3 - The century of reform
    pp 163-220
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521223522.006
  • View abstract
    Summary
    Japan's history has been deeply marked by reforms adopted during AD 587 and after the Meiji Restoration of 1868. This chapter explains three political upheavals within Japan. First, the Soga seizure of control over state affairs in 587 ushered in what has been called the Asuka enlightenment. Second is the coup of 645 followed by the adoption of the Great Reforms. Third is the civil war of 672 after which new leaders were remarkably successful in making Japan a strong and despotic state. The chapter examines how the rise of this new Chinese empire affected Japan's channels of contact with the continent, and considers the political and cultural history of these early years of Japan's century of reform. Scheduling the enthronement ceremony in 668, after a new imperial palace had been built and occupied, was probably considered useful for affirming and sanctifying imperial authority in the face of critical danger, both at home and abroad.
  • 4 - The Nara state
    pp 221-267
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521223522.007
  • View abstract
    Summary
    This chapter reviews the remarkable century that began with the civil war of 672 and ended with the removal of the capital from Nara in 784. It considers what Emperor Temmu and his successors did to increase the strength and unity of Japan's imperial state, and looks at contemporary political conditions. Temmu's plans for defense were broader and deeper than those of his predecessor Tenji, as he envisaged a unified military force. The spiritual authority of the Japanese ruler was strengthened not only by kami worship at the most important shrines and by Buddha worship at the leading temples but also by the construction of Chinese-style capitals. The death of Emperor Mommu in 707 at the age of twenty-five came at the beginning of the Nara period's second phase, when a grand Chinese-style capital and a statewide system of Buddhist temples were built.
  • 5 - Japan and the continent
    pp 268-316
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521223522.008
  • View abstract
    Summary
    This chapter reviews archaeological findings and Chinese records to examine relations between Japan and the continent, beginning with Japan's transition to an agrarian society and ending with the dawn of the historical age. Archaeologists have established the following relative chronology for the prehistoric cultures of Japan: first a Paleolithic culture, followed by the hunting-and-gathering Jomon culture, the agrarian Yayoi culture, and finally the Burial Mound culture. The widespread adoption of rice cultivation distinguished the Yayoi culture from the earlier Jomon and laid the foundation for a settled society. According to Chinese records compiled in the late third century, Japan was composed of a number of small states, thirty of which maintained relations with the Chinese court. One of these states, Yamatai, maintained hegemony over its neighbors. Japan's relations with the Chinese court were thus of great importance in the slow process of political consolidation and cultural development in the late Yayoi and early Burial Mound periods.
  • 6 - Early kami worship
    pp 317-358
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521223522.009
  • View abstract
    Summary
    From prehistoric times the Japanese have revered animistic spirits and deities called kami. This chapter shows how kami beliefs and practices, while retaining their animistic core, moved from simple to complex forms. Shinto mythology is described most systematically in the age of the kami chapters of the Kojiki and Nihon shoki. The chapter explains the purpose to trace the evolution of Shinto from its origins in the magical rites of preagricultural times to the establishment of a systematic religion supporting the centralized state. The early Burial Mound period was one in which Shinto took on the basic forms that characterize it today. The connection between sacred and secular authority was further strengthened, and the stage was set for sanctioning the positions and actions of the Yamato nobility through religious means. One of the best-known myths in the chronicles is the tale of the marriage of the kami Izanagi and Izanami and how they gave birth to the islands of Japan.
  • 7 - Early Buddha worship
    pp 359-414
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521223522.010
  • View abstract
    Summary
    Much of the momentum generated for the spread of Buddhism from India to distant regions of Asia by the patronage of expanding empires. This chapter reviews the spread of Buddhism into Korea's three largest kingdoms. Of the three great Korean kingdoms to emerge during the fourth century AD, the first was Koguryo. Paekche, the second independent kingdom to surface, was somewhat slower to adopt Chinese methods and religious practices, for its position southwest of Koguryo made it impossible for its envoys to reach the Chinese court without crossing either Koguryo or the North China Sea. The third Korean kingdom to be born in that fourth century was Silla. Buddhism continued to be affected by the worship of kami. Kami belief seems also to have increased resistance to the basic Buddhist teaching that an individual could achieve enlightenment only by eliminating attachments to life of this world.
  • 8 - Nara economic and social institutions
    pp 415-452
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521223522.011
  • View abstract
    Summary
    Historians generally agree that Japan's ritsuryo state structure reached its apogee during the Nara period and that only in the last half of the period, particularly after 740, were its foundations undermined by changing social and economic conditions. The people of Nara Japan were classified by law as commoners or slaves. The state's financial arrangements were devised in accordance with the principle that the state should collect enough taxes in kind to meet its operating costs. Taxes paid by farmers who had received land allotments were of two types: a portion of the rice produced and a portion of the articles made. Most exchange in Nara times was associated with the government's collection of goods and services from outlying areas. After 730, legal enactments reflect a fundamental change of policy. Particularly significant were the state's recognition of private possession of rice land in perpetuity, the granting of legal status to vagrants, and changes in the state-loan system.
  • 9 - Asuka and Nara Culture: literacy, literature, and music
    pp 453-503
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521223522.012
  • View abstract
    Summary
    This chapter deals with the literature and music of Japan during two centuries between the acceptance of Buddhism in 587 and the abandonment of the Nara capital in 784. Writing and learning in the form of the Chinese classics had been introduced to Japan by the beginning of the fifth century. Sword inscriptions in Chinese showing alleged Korean usages have been unearthed from the same century. To the ancient songs and dances, both sacred and secular, performed to the accompaniment of strings, flutes, and percussion instruments, was added an influx of music from the continent during the Asuka-Nara period. The year 612 provides a point of reference for the early history of music and dance in Japan, as it was then that gigaku was introduced by Mimashi from Paekche. The continental music played at the Nara court was part of an international idiom, maintained by frequent contacts with China.
  • 10 - The early evolution of historical consciousness
    pp 504-548
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521223522.013
  • View abstract
    Summary
    This chapter discusses the three characteristics of historical expression found in early accounts of Japan's past that were grounded in beliefs of prehistorical times. These three characteristics are linealism, vitalism, and optimism. The origins and early development of linealism seem to have been rooted in the Yayoi period rise of beliefs about relationships between kami and hereditary rulers, which paralleled the appearance of small states ruled by priestly kings and queens. The centrality of belief in the vitalistic power of the kami is clearly reflected in Japan's earliest recorded myths as well as in its early prayers and festivals. Although linealism is revealed when examining ancient historical writings against the backdrop of Chinese belief in dynastic cycles, and vitalism, against the backdrop of Confucian concepts of moral power, optimism is reflected in resistance to Buddhist doctrines of historical decline. Thus the three characteristics had a deeper influence on the historical consciousness because they reinforced one another.
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