Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 1
  • Cited by
    This chapter has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Tolan, John 2015. Lex alterius: Using Law to Construct Confessional Boundaries. History and Anthropology, Vol. 26, Issue. 1, p. 55.

    ×
  • Print publication year: 2006
  • Online publication date: March 2008

5 - The legal status of the Jews in the Roman Empire

Summary
The legal status of the Jews in the Roman Empire was determined, as a result, by a three-tiered system of laws. First and highest was the Common law, based on the principles of personality and territoriality. Second, a special law instituted by the appropriate organs of the non- Jewish society, Jewry law. The third tier in this system was the Jewish law, the halachah. The diversity of the Common law practiced by the Jews in the Land of Israel during the pagan period is reflected in the heterogeneity of the judicial system that applied it. By the close of the pagan period the Common law in the Land of Israel was highly heterogeneous, including a substantial component of Jewish law with its particular legislative and judicial institutions. The Christianization of the institutional framework of the Roman Empire inevitably implied the conversion of the existing legal system in accordance with Christian values and objectives.
Recommend this book

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

The Cambridge History of Judaism
  • Online ISBN: 9781139055130
  • Book DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521772488
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to *
×
Alon, G., The Jews in Their Land in the Talmudic Age, trans. Levi, G., 2 vols. (Jerusalem, 1980, 1984) (Hebrew).
Alon, G., Toldot ha-Yehudim be-Eretz Yisrael be-Tekufat ha-Mishna ve-haTalmud, alef – beit (The History of the Jews in the Land of Israel in the Mishnaic and Talmudic Ages), 2 vols. (Tel-Aviv, 1958, 1961) (Hebrew).
Augustine, , Ennarrationes in Psalmos, ed. Dekkers, E. and Fraipont, J., Corpus Scriptorum Series Latina XXXVIII–XL (Turnholt, 1956); English translation: Parker, J. H. (Oxford 19531957).
Baltrusch, E., “Bewunderung, Duldung, Ablehnung: das Urteil über die Juden in der griechisch-römischen Literatur,” Klio 80 (1998).
Baltrusch, E., “Die Christianisierung des Römischen Reiches: Eine Zäsur in der Geschichte des Judentums?Historische Zeitschrift 266 (1998).
Barclay, M. G., Jews in the Mediterranean Diaspora: From Alexander to Trajan (323 BCE–117 CE) (Edinburgh, 1996).
Bonfils, G., Gli schiavi degli Ebrei nella legislazione del IV secolo: storia di un divieto (Bari, 1993).
Botterman, H., Das Judenedikt des Kaisers Claudius; römischer Staat und Christentum im I. Jahrhundert (Stuttgart, 1996).
Bradbury, S., “Constantine and the Problem of Anti-pagan Legislation in the Fourth Century,” Classical Philology 89 (1994).
Brown, T., “The Jews in the Late Roman Empire,” Scripta Classica Israelica 17 (1998).
Bucci, O., “Intoleranza ellenica e libertà romana nel libro XVI del Codice teodosiano,” Atti dell’Accademia romanistica Costantiniana, VI Convegno internazionale (Perugia, 1986).
Cotton, H. M., “The Archive of Salome Komaise Daughter of Levi: Another Archive from the ‘Cave of Letters,’Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik 105 (1995).
Cotton, H. M., “The Guardianship of Jesus son of Babatha: Roman and Local Law in the Province of Arabia,” Journal of Roman Studies 83 (1993).
Cotton, H. M., “The Law of Succession in the Documents from the Judaean Desert Again,” Scripta Classica Israelica 17 (1998).
Cotton, H. M., “The Rabbis and the Documents,” in Goodman, M. (ed.), Jews in a Graeco-Roman World (Oxford, 1998).
Crawford, J. S., “Jews, Christians and Polytheists in Late-Antique Sardis,” in Fine, S. (ed.), Jews, Christians, and Polytheists in the Ancient Synagogue: Cultural Interaction in the Graeco-Roman Period (London, 1999).
De Giovanni, L., “La politica religiosa di Teodosio I,” Labeo 40 (1994).
Dovere, E., “Occasioni e tendenze della normazione religiosa tardoantica,” Labeo 38 (1992).
Elon, M., Ha-Mishpat ha-Ivri: Toldotav, Mekorotav, Ekronotav, alef – gimal, mahadura shelishit (The Jewish Law: Its History, Its Sources, Its Principles, 3 vols., 3rd ed.) (Jerusalem, 1988).
Elon, M., Jewish Law: History, Sources, Principles, trans. Auerbach, B. and Sykes, M. J., 4 vols. (Philadelphia and Jerusalem, 1994).
Feldman, L. H., “Diaspora Synagogues: New Light from Inscriptions and Papyri,” in idem, Studies in Hellenistic Judaism (Leiden, 1996).
Feldman, L. H., “Proselytes and ‘Sympathisers’ in the Light of the New Inscription from Aphrodisias,” Revue des études juives 148 (1989).
Feldman, L. H., “Proselytism by Jews in the Third, Fourth and Fifth Centuries,” Journal for the Study of Judaism in the Persian, Hellenistic and Roman Period 24 (1993).
Feldman, L. H., Jew and Gentile in the Ancient World: Attitudes and Interactions from Alexander to Justinian (Princeton, 1993).
Fikhman, I. F., “Les Juifs d’Egypte à l’époque byzantine d’après les papyrus publiés depuis la parution du Corpus Papyrorum Judaicarum III,” Scripta Classica Israelica 15 (1996).
Frezza, P., “L’esperienza della toleranza religiosa fra pagani e cristiani dal IV al V sec. d. C. nell’Oriente elenistico,” Studia et documenta historiae et iuris 66 (1989).
Goodman, M., “Babatha’s Story,” Journal of Roman Studies 81 (1991).
Goodman, M., “Jewish Proselytizing in the First Century,” in Lieu, J., North, J., and Rajak, T. (eds.), The Jews Among Pagans and Christians in the Roman Empire (London, 1992).
Goodman, M., Mission and Conversion: Proselytizing in the Religious History of the Roman Empire (Oxford, 1994).
Gruen, E., Diaspora: Jews amidst Greeks and Romans (Cambridge, MA, 2002).
Hengel, M., The Hellenization of Judaea in the First Century after Christ (London, 1989).
Horstkotte, H., “Systematische Aspekte der munera publica in der römischen Kaiserzeit,” Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik 111 (1996).
Isaac, B., “Jews, Christians and Others in Palestine: The Evidence from Eusebius,” in Goodman, M. (ed.), Jews in a Graeco-Roman World (Oxford, 1998).
Isaac, B., “The Babatha Archive: A Review Article,” Israel Exploration Journal 42 (1992).
Isaac, B., The Near East Under Roman Rule: Selected Papers (Leiden, 1998).
Isaac, B., and Oppenheimer, A., Studies on the Jewish Diaspora in the Hellenistic and Roman Periods (Tel-Aviv, 1996).
Jacobs, M., Die Institution des jüdischen Patriarchen (Tübingen, 1995).
Juster, J., Les Juifs dans l’empire romain, 2 vols. (Paris, 1914).
Kasher, A., “Synagogues as ‘Houses of Prayer’ and ‘Holy Places’ in the Jewish Communities of Hellenistic and Roman Egypt,” in Urman, D. and Flesher, P. V. M. (eds.), The Ancient Synagogue: Historical Analysis and Archaeological Discovery I (Leiden, 1995).
Kerkeslager, A., “Maintaining Jewish Identity in the Greek Gymnasium: A ‘Jewish Load,’ in CPJ 3.519,” Journal for the Study of Judaism in the Persian, Hellenistic and Roman Period 28 (1997).
Kerkeslager, A., “Maintaining Jewish Identity in the Greek Gymnasium,” Journal for the Study of Judaism in the Persian, Hellenistic and Roman Period (Supplements) 28 (1997).
Kettenhofen, E., “Hadrian und die Juden: Ein Beitrag zur Glaubwürdigkeit von Mvses Horenaci II, 60,” Eranos 96 (1998).
Levine, L. I., “Diaspora Judaism of Late Antiquity and Its Relationship to Palestine: Evidence from the Ancient Synagogue,” in Isaac, B. H. and Oppenheimer, A. (eds.), Studies on the Jewish Diaspora in the Hellenistic and Roman Periods (Tel-Aviv, 1996).
Levine, L. I., “Synagogue Leadership: The Case of the Archisynagogue,” in Goodman, M. (ed.), Jews in a Graeco-Roman World (Oxford, 1998).
Levine, L. I., “Synagogue Officials: The Evidence from Caesarea and Its Implications for Palestine and the Diaspora,” in Raban, A. and Holum, K. G. (eds.), Caesarea Maritima: A Retrospective After Two Millennia (Leiden, 1996).
Levine, L. I., “The Patriarchate and the Ancient Synagogue,” in Fine, S. (ed.), Jews, Christians, and Polytheists in the Ancient Synagogue: Cultural Interaction in the Graeco-Roman Period (London, 1999).
Levine, L. I., “The Status of the Patriarch in the Third and Fourth Centuries: Sources and Methodology,” Journal for the Study of Judaism in the Persian, Hellenistic and Roman Period 47 (1996).
Levine, L. I., The Rabbinic Class of Roman Palestine in Late Antiquity (Jerusalem, 1989).
Lewis, N., “The Humane Legislation of Septimius Severus,” Historia 45 (1996).
Lieu, J., “Accusations of Jewish Persecution in early Christian Sources, with Particular Reference to Justin Martyr and the Martyrdom of Polycarp,” in Stanton, G. N. and Stroumsa, G. G. (eds.), Tolerance and Intolerance in Early Judaism and Christianity (Cambridge, 1998).
Lieu, J., “History and Theology in Christian Views of Judaism,” in Lieu, J., North, J., and Rajak, T. (eds.), The Jews Among Pagans and Christians in the Roman Empire (London, 1992).
Linder, A., The Jews in Roman Imperial Legislation (Detroit, 1987).
Linder, A., The Jews in the Legal Sources of the Early Middle Agess (Detroit, 1997).
Millar, F., “The Jews of the Graeco-Roman Diaspora Between Paganism and Christianity AD 312–438,” in Lieu, J., North, J., and Rajak, T. (eds.), The Jews Among Pagans and Christians in the Roman Empire (London, 1992).
Misgav, H., “Jewish Courts of Law as reflected in Documents from the Dead Sea,” Cathedra 82 (1996) (Hebrew).
Modrzejewski, J. Mélèze, “Jewish Law and Hellenistic Legal Practice in the Light of Greek Papyri from Egypt,” in Hecht, N. S. et al., (eds.), Introduction to the History and Sources of Jewish Law (Oxford 1996).
Neusner, J., Rabbinic Judaism: Structure and System (Atlanta, 1999).
Nigdelis, P. M.Synagoge[n] und Gemeinde der Juden in Thessaloniki: Fragen aufgrund neuen jüdischen Grabinschrift der Kaiserzeit,” Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik 102 (1994).
Noethlichs, K. L., Das Judentum und der römische Staat: Minderheitenpolitik im antiken Rom (Darmstadt, 1996).
Oppenheimer, A., “Jewish Penal Authority in Roman Judaea,” in Goodman, M. (ed.), Jews in a Graeco-Roman World (Oxford, 1998).
Oppenheimer, A., “L’Elaboration de la halakha après la destruction du Second Temple,” Annales (Annales. Economies, Sociétés, Civilisations) 51 (1996).
PucciZeev, M., Jewish Rights in the Roman World: The Greek and Roman Documents Quoted by Josephus Flavius (Tübingen, 1998).
Pucci Ben Zeev, M., “Did the Jews Enjoy a Privileged Position in the Roman World?,” Revue des études juives 154 (1995).
Pucci Ben Zeev, M., “Jewish Rights in the Roman World: New Perspectives,” in Isaac, B. H. and Oppenheimer, A. (eds.), Studies on the Jewish Diaspora in the Hellenistic and Roman Periods (Tel-Aviv, 1996).
Pucci Ben Zeev, M., Jewish Rights in the Roman World: The Greek and Roman Documents Quoted by Josephus Flavius (Tübingen, 1998).
Rabello, A. M., “The Legal Condition of the Jews in the Roman Empire,” Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt 2/13 (Berlin, 1980).
Rajak, T., “Was There a Roman Charter for the Jews?,” Journal of Roman Studies 74 (1984).
Rajak, T., and Noy, D., “Archisynagogoi: Office Titles and Social Status in the Graeco-Roman Synagogue,” Journal of Roman Studies 83 (1993).
Reinhold, M., Diaspora: The Jews among the Greeks and Romans (Saesata, 1983).
Richardson, P., “Early Synagogues as Collegia in the Diaspora and Palestine,” in Kloppenborg, J. S. and Wilson, S. G. (eds.), Voluntary Associations in the Greco-Roman World (London, 1996).
Rizakis, A. D., “Incolae-paroikoi: populations et communautés dépendantes dans les cités et les colonies romaines de l’Orient,” Revue des études anciennes 100 (1998).
Rousselle, A., “Vivre sous deux droits; la pratique familiale poly-juridique des citoyens romains juifs,” Annales (Economies, Sociétés, Civilisations) 45 (1990).
Rutgers, L.V., “Attitudes to Judaism in the Greco-Roman World: Reflections on Feldman’s Jew and Gentile in the Ancient World,” Jewish Quarterly Review 85 (19941995).
Rutgers, L.V., “Interaction and Its Limits: Some Notes on the Jews of Sicily in Late Antiquity,” Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik 115 (1997).
Rutgers, L.V., The Jews in Late Ancient Rome: Evidence of Cultural Interaction in the Roman Diaspora (Leiden, 1995).
Salzman, M. R., “The Evidence for the Conversion of the Roman Empire to Christianity in Book 16 of the Theodosian Code,” Historia 42 (1993).
Schäfer, P., Judeophobia: Attitudes Towards the Jews in the Ancient World (Cambridge, MA, 1997).
Schäfer, P., The History of the Jews in Antiquity: The Jews of Palestine from Alexander the Great to the Arab Conquest, trans. Chowcat, D. (Luxembourg, 1995).
Sharf, R., “‘Regii Emeseni Iudaei’: Bemerkungen zur einer spätantiken Truppe,” Latomus 56 (1997).
Simonsohn, S., The Apostolic See and the Jews (Toronto, 1991).
Sirks, B., “From the Theodosian to the Justinian Code,” Atti dell’Accademia romanistica Costantiniana, VI Convegno internazionale (Perugia, 1986).
Sivan, H., “Rabbinic and Roman Law: Jewish–Gentile/Christian Marriage in Late Antiquity,” Revue des études juives 156 (1997).
Slingerland, H. D., Claudian Policymaking and the Early Imperial Repression of Judaism at Rome (Atlanta, 1997).
Smallwood, E. M., The Jews Under Roman Rule: From Pompey to Diocletian: A Study in Political Relations (Leiden, 1981).
Stern, M. (ed.), Stern, M. (ed.), Greek and Latin Authors on the Jews and Judaism, 3 vols. (19741984)
Strobel, K., “Aspekte des politischen und sozialen Scheinbildes der rabbinischen Tradition: das spätere 2. und 3. Jh. n. Chr.,” Klio 72 (1990).
Trebilco, P. R., Jewish Communities in Asia Minor (Cambridge, 1991).
Weiss, Z., “The Jews and the Games in Roman Caesarea,” in Raban, A. and Holum, K.G. (eds.), Caesarea Maritima: A Retrospective After Two Millennia (Leiden, 1996).
White, L. M., “Synagogue and Society in Imperial Ostia: Archaeological and Epigraphic Evidence,” Harvard Theological Review 90 (1997).
Williams, M. H., “The Jews and Godfearers Inscription from Aphrodisias: A Case of Patriarchal Interference in Early Third Century Caria?Historia 41 (1992).
Williams, M. H., “The Structure of Roman Jewry Reconsidered: Were the Synagogues of Ancient Rome Entirely Homogeneous?,” Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik 104 (1994).
Williams, M. H., “The Structure of the Jewish Community in Rome,” in Goodman, M. (ed.), Jews in a Greco-Roman World (Oxford, 1998).