This chapter explains Hegel's political philosophy according to its holistic and metaphysical intentions. Like so many thinkers in the 1790s, Hegel forged his social and political philosophy in the crucible of the epochal event, the French Revolution. All too often Hegel is portrayed as a critic of liberalism and champion of communitarianism. Essential to Hegel's critique of liberalism, and his attempt to wed communitarianism with liberalism, is his analysis of modern civil society, that is, a society based upon private enterprise, free markets, and modern forms of production and exchange. In the Philosophie des Rechts, Hegel provides a detailed theory of the structure of his ideal state. The central thesis of Hegel's theory is that the rational form of the state is a constitutional monarchy. The very possibility of a common ethical life (Sittlichkeit) or community, Hegel often argued, depends upon popular participation.