From the early 1880s onwards, until the First World War, a plethora of socialisms developed across Europe, more or less antagonistic or friendly to the growing force of Marxism. Robert Owen tended to act in a paternalistic manner towards his followers. His eventual scheme for the political organisation of communities proposed the division of the community into eight age-groups, with each person following the same sequence of development through life. The most influential form of early socialism, as far as mainstream social and political thought is concerned, was Saint-Simonism. Most forms of nineteenth-century non-Marxian socialism saw themselves as supplanting or extending Christianity, either, like Owen, by proposing a new religion, a paradise on earth based upon harmony rather than competition; or, like Charles Fourier and Auguste Comte, a metaphysical substitute. The chapter also discusses two extra-European developments in socialist thought and activity that occurred in Australasia and the United States.