Skip to main content
×
Home
The Cambridge History of Russia
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 1
  • Cited by
    This book has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Behrends, Jan C. 2011. Visions of civility: Lev Tolstoy and Jane Addams on the urban condition infin de siècleMoscow and Chicago. European Review of History: Revue europeenne d'histoire, Vol. 18, Issue. 3, p. 335.


    ×
  • Volume 2: Imperial Russia, 1689–1917
  • Edited by Dominic Lieven, London School of Economics and Political Science

  • Export citation
  • Recommend to librarian
  • Recommend this book

    Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

    The Cambridge History of Russia
    • Online ISBN: 9781139055437
    • Book DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521815291
    Please enter your name
    Please enter a valid email address
    Who would you like to send this to? *
    ×
  • Buy the print book

Book description

The second volume of The Cambridge History of Russia covers the imperial period (1689–1917). It encompasses political, economic, social, cultural, diplomatic, and military history. All the major Russian social groups have separate chapters and the volume also includes surveys on the non-Russian peoples and the government's policies towards them. It addresses themes such as women, law, the Orthodox Church, the police and the revolutionary movement. The volume's seven chapters on diplomatic and military history, and on Russia's evolution as a great power, make it the most detailed study of these issues available in English. The contributors come from the USA, UK, Russia and Germany: most are internationally recognised as leading scholars in their fields, and some emerging younger academics engaged in cutting-edge research have also been included. No other single volume in any language offers so comprehensive, expert and up-to-date an analysis of Russian history in this period.

Reviews

'This book has been published at a time when interest in the Russian state and its society is highly likely to grow owing to the recent series of events relating to Russia's more independent stand in the international arena. The volume will, no doubt, meet the demands of the next generation of scholars for up-to-date views and interpretations of imperial Russia. I recommend this book without reservation, to both academics and students of Russian history.'

A. A. Fedorov - University of Derby

Refine List
Actions for selected content:
Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Send to Kindle
  • Send to Dropbox
  • Send to Google Drive
  • Send content to

    To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to .

    To send content to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

    Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

    Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

    Please be advised that item(s) you selected are not available.
    You are about to send:
    ×

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.
×

Page 1 of 2


  • 1 - Russia as empire and periphery
    pp 7-26
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521815291.003
  • View abstract
    Summary
    Empire is one of the most common types of polity in history. In the long term the most interesting and important empires were those linked to the spread of some great high culture or universal religion. Tsarist Russia was a worthy member of this imperial club. The three most crucial acquisitions in the imperial era were the Baltic provinces, Ukraine and Poland. The first was vital because it opened up direct trade routes to Europe, which contributed greatly to the growth of the eighteenth-century economy. By the end of the nineteenth century New Russia and the southern steppe territories were the core of Russian agriculture and of its coal and metallurgical industries: without them Russia would cease to be a great power. Expansion into Ukraine and the empty steppe was Russia's equivalent to the New Worlds conquered and colonised by the British and Spanish empires.
  • 2 - Managing empire: tsarist nationalities policy
    pp 27-44
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521815291.004
  • View abstract
    Summary
    Almost from its inception, Russia has been a multinational state. Long before anyone spoke of the Russian Empire, a designation that dates from the latter part of Peter I's reign, a variety of ethnic groups lived in territories claimed by the Muscovite tsar. However, the very concepts of nations and nationality, now considered a central element of human identity, were largely absent in Imperial Russia, at least until the later nineteenth century. Tsar Nicholas I is perhaps best known for the tripartite formula Orthodoxy, Autocracy, Nationality thought up by his minister of education, Sergei Uvarov. Tsarist policy in the post-1863 decades would aim to secure the Russian position in the Kingdom of Poland, or as it was now officially called, the Vistula Land, while limiting Catholic and Polish influences in the Western Provinces. This policy, both in this region and throughout the empire, has been described as Russification. The First World War in the east was fought in non-Russian regions.
  • 3 - Geographies of imperial identity
    pp 45-64
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521815291.005
  • View abstract
    Summary
    The problem of identity in modern Russia is commonly framed in terms of the elemental tension between the country's alternative embodiments as empire or nation. This chapter explores identity in pre-revolutionary Russia by examining three configurations of the imperial vision: as a European empire, as an anti-European empire, and as a national empire. The Europeanisation of Russia's imperial image involved many things including the need for a basic perceptual rebounding and rebranding of its domestic geographical space. The most important element of the ideological inversion proved to be the civilisational juxtaposition between Europe and Asia. There was an alternative response to the dilemmas thrown up by Russian nationalism regarding the quality of the country's identity vis-a-vis the West. The fact that the vision of Russia as an anti-European empire continued to accept the civilisational distinction between Europe and Asia set out in the eighteenth century insured that it would remain encumbered with the fundamental nationalist dilemma regarding Russia's European identity.
  • 4 - Russian culture in the eighteenth century
    pp 65-91
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521815291.006
  • View abstract
    Summary
    Several edicts issued within a few weeks of each other offer a foretaste of the trajectory of Russian culture in the eighteenth century. With this in mind and with a focus on high culture, this chapter examines developments in architecture, the figurative arts, theatre, music and literature from the late seventeenth century to the end of the eighteenth. Elite Russian culture at the beginning of the eighteenth century developed in a peculiar hot-house environment, show-cased in St Petersburg. The new capital's creator, Peter I, summoned foreign architects to construct palaces, and foreign artists to fill them with pictures. Historians once neglected the period between Peter I's death and the accession to the throne of his self-styled 'spiritual daughter' Catherine II. The Academy of Arts would remain the virtually unchallenged centre and arbiter of the figurative arts in Russia until the middle of the nineteenth century. Theatre made a substantial contribution to the 'civilising' mission of the Russian Enlightenment.
  • 5 - Russian culture: 1801–1917
    pp 92-115
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521815291.007
  • View abstract
    Summary
    To gain a sense of the achievements of Russian culture during this period, it is instructive to compare the comments made on the subject by Petr Chaadaev in a 'Philosophical Letter'. The fate of Chaadaev's 'Philosophical Letter', meanwhile, exemplifies the cultural atmosphere under Nicholas I as a whole. During Alexander II's reign Russian culture flourished. Alexander III reacted to the violent circumstances of his father's death by introducing repressive measures which actually attempted to undo some of the 1860s reforms, and by increasing censorship. Tchaikovsky also made a serious contribution to the renewal of Russian church music. The main symphony concert series, which had been inaugurated by the Russian Musical Society in 1859, had become increasingly reliant on the classical repertoire by the 1880s and was beginning to lack freshness. Two new ventures which were to have a lasting impact on Russian cultural life were launched in 1898, one in Moscow and the other in St Petersburg.
  • 6 - Russian political thought, 1700–1917
    pp 116-144
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521815291.008
  • View abstract
    Summary
    Muscovites almost universally regarded the grand prince as anointed by God and thus as deserving obedience. The most consequential thinker of the Russian Enlightenment was Catherine the Great, whose Nakaz treated liberty as a crucial ingredient of just rule. Between 1789 and the early 1830s a distinctively Russian variant of conservatism began to emerge. After the turn of the century but especially between 1826 and 1855 Russian intellectuals focused on the historical, religious and philosophical problem of Russian national identity. The Slavophiles' chief adversaries were the so-called Westernisers, a loose knit network of intellectuals usually thought to include the literary critic Vissarion Grigor'evich Belinsky. The Great Reforms so altered Russian social and civil life as to radically affect subsequent political debates. Dostoevsky's conservatism was predicated on opposition to Western liberalism and socialism, on hostility to individualism and capitalism, on rejection of Catholicism and religious authoritarianism.
  • 7 - Russia and the legacy of 1812
    pp 145-162
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521815291.009
  • View abstract
    Summary
    Russia stood at a historical crossroads when it experienced the trauma of the 1812 Napoleonic invasion. The liberal nationalist reading of the war contains an element of historical truth and is itself a part of history thanks to its place in Russian society's cultural consciousness. Cultural Europeanisation had given the elite an identity separate from everyone else's; as Richard Wortman has argued, 'by displaying themselves as foreigners, or like foreigners, Russian monarchs and their servitors affirmed the permanence and inevitability of their separation from the population they ruled'. This chapter discusses the challenges Russia faced on the eve of the war; the war's contribution to a xenophobic and reactionary nationalism, a reflexive social conservatism, and what might be called 'the paranoid style in Russian politics'. Russia was at war almost continually from the 1790s to 1814. These wars entailed a vast mobilisation of people and created new role models for society.
  • 8 - Ukrainians and Poles
    pp 163-183
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521815291.010
  • View abstract
    Summary
    In the middle of the seventeenth century, Orthodox clerics trained in the rhetoric and languages of the Polish Renaissance and Reformation settled in Moscow. Ukrainian clerics, for example, all but controlled the Russian Orthodox Church. The Cossacks profited from Pereiaslav to free themselves and much of Ukraine from Poland, but then under Hetman Doroshenko aimed for an alliance with the Ottomans. The Congress of Vienna created a Kingdom of Poland, usually known as the Congress Kingdom, which included Warsaw and some of central Poland. Romantic nationalism, as exemplified by Mickiewicz, also treated Russia rather as a political perversion than a national enemy, and emphasised not so much Polish national uniqueness as the Polish national mission. The partitions of Poland brought right-bank Ukraine, lands west of the Dnieper, into the Russian Empire. Ukrainian politics in Russia was forced towards the centre, but remained preoccupied with the peasant, who in Ukraine was or wished to be a farmer.
  • 9 - The Jews
    pp 184-201
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521815291.011
  • View abstract
    Summary
    The history of Russian Jewry has appeared as a self-reinforcing triad of discrimination, emigration and revolution, a turbulent reflection of the tsarist doctrine of 'Orthodoxy, Autocracy, and Nationality' inaugurated by Nicholas II's great-grandfather and namesake, Tsar Nicholas I. This chapter first concerns the era prior to the partitions of Poland at the end of the eighteenth century, during which Jews were legally barred from Russia. Next, it considers the period extending from the partitions to the Great Reforms of the middle of the nineteenth century to survey the earliest efforts by the tsarist government to reform its newly acquired Jewish population as well as the currents of pietism and enlightenment that began to recast Jewish society from within. Finally, the chapter concerns the period from the Great Reforms to the First World War to trace the increasing presence of Jews in Russian society, and the rise of independent Jewish political movements.
  • 10 - Islam in the Russian Empire
    pp 202-224
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521815291.012
  • View abstract
    Summary
    Taking Islam and the Russian empire for natural antagonists, such a vision relied on the Orientalist approach representing Islam as a homogeneous and timeless entity opposing all non-Muslim cultures. Having recognised Islam at the end of the eighteenth century, the authorities constructed a complicated imperial network of Islamic institutions including Muslim clergy, parishes and four regional muftiates. The administration of Muslims differed in central Russia and the borderlands. In a number of frontier regions such as the North Caucasus and Central Asia, Islam had not been institutionalised even at the end of the old regime. New Muslim elites emerged in response to these new Islamic institutions, which were accepted by most Russian Muslims. Despite this long history of interaction, however, the crisis of the tsarist regime beginning in the last third of the nineteenth century generated new fears and trepidations concerning Islam among tsarist functionaries.
  • 11 - The elites
    pp 225-244
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521815291.013
  • View abstract
    Summary
    Throughout the imperial period Russia's political and social elites were drawn overwhelmingly from members of the hereditary noble estate. The civil bureaucratic elite of the nineteenth century was mostly educated in one of four higher educational institutions: the Alexander Lycee and the School of Law, both exclusively noble boarding schools, and the universities of St Petersburg and Moscow. In the imperial era the Russian elites, both aristocratic and bureaucratic, were part of a broader European elite culture and society. This was more true in the nineteenth century than in the eighteenth, and it always tended to be most true the higher up the social ladder one travelled. By the last quarter of the eighteenth century the Petersburg and Moscow intellectual elite, inevitably drawn overwhelmingly from the wealthier nobility, was developing its own variation on the theme of modern European literary culture.
  • 12 - The groups between: raznochintsy, intelligentsia, professionals
    pp 245-263
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521815291.014
  • View abstract
    Summary
    The multiplicity of economic, service and protoprofessional subgroups that made up the raznochintsy highlighted both the complicated structure of Russia's 'groups between' and the desire of the government to impose legal administrative controls across society. Whether historians focus attention on economic activities or state service, a dynamic relationship between governmental policy and spontaneous societal development underlies the phenomenon of the raznochintsy. On-going scholarly research shows that the conceptual and historical reality of the intelligentsia, no less than that of the raznochintsy, cannot be subordinated to any single collective meaning. Despite years of debate, argument and counter-argument, it is impossible to escape the conclusion that the Russian intelligentsia had its origins in the Enlightenment culture of the educated nobility or educated service classes of the late eighteenth century. The self-conscious arrival of the intelligentsia in the 1860s showed that the 'parting of ways' had developed into ideological and social identity.
  • 13 - Nizhnii Novgorod in the nineteenth century: portrait of a city
    pp 264-283
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521815291.015
  • View abstract
    Summary
    Nizhnii Novgorod was the capital of a province quite diverse in its ecology and economy. Economic and religious rhythms overlapped to a large extent, as must be the case where the church calendar is the most reliable tool for calculating the passage of time. The two major trade congresses in Nizhnii Novgorod, one for the wood products which were one of the province's staples, and the other a big horse fair, were timed to coincide with Epiphany, respectively. The administration and institutions of every provincial capital were very nearly identical. The Great Reforms wrought deep and immediate changes in provincial administration, creating a new institution, the zemstvo, conceived by the monarchy essentially as an organ for the more efficient collection and disbursement of taxes. A thriving commercial life, the civic prominence of the merchant estate, the distinct cultural flavour of the Old Belief were but some of the particular characteristics of 'Russia's pocket', as popular wisdom dubbed Nizhnii.
  • 14 - Russian Orthodoxy: Church, people and politics in Imperial Russia
    pp 284-305
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521815291.016
  • View abstract
    Summary
    The Orthodox Church, which had possessed enormous property and power in medieval Russia, underwent profound change in Imperial Russia. Although the medieval Russian Church had constructed an administration to exercise its broad spiritual and temporal authority, it exhibited the same organisational backwardness as did the secular regime. The 'clerical estate' that served the Church consisted of three categories: the ruling episcopate, celibate monastic clergy and married secular clergy. Given the dispersion of population, the heterogeneity of local cultures, and the institutional backwardness of the medieval Church, Russian Orthodoxy was actually Russian Heterodoxy, with kaleidoscopic variations in local customs, superstitions and religious practice. In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries the Church undertook to standardise and purify popular religious practice, but as yet lacked the instrumentalities to make a fundamental 'reformation' in popular religious practice. Parallel with the 're-christianisation' of the folk, the Church began to develop and articulate its social and political teachings.
  • 15 - Women, the family and public life
    pp 306-325
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521815291.017
  • View abstract
    Summary
    The changes introduced by Peter and his eighteenth-century successors affected women of Russia's tax-paying population, townspeople as well as peasants, primarily in negative ways. The most significant change derived from the practice of conscription that Peter introduced. Women's subordinate social status became a burning issue in the middle of the nineteenth century, as educated Russians began to subject every traditional institution to re-evaluation, the patriarchal family included. In the opinion of those on the left of Russia's emergent political spectrum, authoritarian family relations reproduced and reinforced the social and political hierarchy. Social critics intended women to play a vital role in creating a new social order, but they disagreed about the character of that role. During the revolution of 1905, women across the social spectrum mobilised in enormous numbers to demand an expansion of political rights and greater social justice.
  • 16 - Gender and the legal order in Imperial Russia
    pp 326-343
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521815291.018
  • View abstract
    Summary
    This chapter explores a single but significant dimension of women's experience in Imperial Russia: the transformation of their legal status from the Petrine reforms to the eve of the 1917 Revolution. It investigates the origins of competing definitions of gender in the realms of property, family and criminal law. The pre-Petrine law of property was characterised by unequal inheritance for sons and daughters and limitations on women's use and control of landed estates. For all that Muscovite law codes allowed women a surprising degree of independence in matters judicial, elite Russian women shared many legal disabilities with their European counterparts. Criminal law, as well as the law of property, made few concessions to female weakness in the eighteenth century. Indeed, in cases of adultery or spousal murder, the law displayed far less leniency for women than for men.
  • 17 - Law, the judicial system and the legal profession
    pp 344-368
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521815291.019
  • View abstract
    Summary
    The 1864 judicial reform created Russia's first constitution. The judicial reform limited the authority of the monarch, since it separated the judiciary from the legislative and executive institutions, and confirmed the principle of judicial independence and tenure as a matter of law. The reformed judicial system and the spirit from which it emerged were rooted in the realm of the European enlightenment, where the reformers dwelt, but their subjects did not. The task of the judicial reform was to make universal the legal consciousness of the enlightened officials. The study of law came into fashion primarily for those who recognised the political significance of the legal professions. These jurists of the 1860s were the ones who turned the courts into strongholds of liberalism. That was the real dilemma of the autocratic reforms: that with the reorganisation of the state, they at the same time brought an opposition into being.
  • 18 - Peasants and agriculture
    pp 369-393
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521815291.020
  • View abstract
    Summary
    Imperial Russia had an overwhelmingly peasant population and its economy was largely agricultural. The peasants' ways of life evolved in the different regions and over the three time periods in processes of interaction with the nobles and state authorities that exploited them and the environments in which they lived. In order to support their growing numbers, cope with the environmental conditions and meet the demands of the state and landowners, Russia's peasants, sometimes in collaboration with landowners or the state authorities, developed practices and customs to ensure their subsistence and livelihoods in the present and the foreseeable future. This chapter considers, in turn, the peasantry's ways of life in: central Russia in the hundred years prior to the late seventeenth century, central Russia between the late seventeenth and late nineteenth centuries, the outlying regions over this second period, and Russia as a whole in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.
  • 19 - The Russian economy and banking system
    pp 394-426
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521815291.021
  • View abstract
    Summary
    The beginning of the eighteenth century was a period of radical change in Russia's economy. These transformations are connected with the name Peter I, but they proved possible thanks to the development of trade and the accumulation of capital by the Muscovite government in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. The second half of the eighteenth century represented a new stage in the development of trade and banking in Russia. The commercial-industrial and financial policy of Catherine II furthered the 'Europeanisation' of the Russian economy. The credit system created under her reign became known as the 'Catherine credit system', and lasted until the middle of the nineteenth century. Reforms in the area of local government helped industrial development in the provinces. The accumulation of capital, as well as the improvement of banking and monetary circulation, created conditions for private credit and the expansion of industrial production.
  • 20 - Central government
    pp 427-448
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521815291.022
  • View abstract
    Summary
    A solid understanding of the workings of central government of the Russian Empire helps to determine the extent to which it and its personnel held responsibility for the collapse of the Romanov regime. Peter the Great's reform of the central government marked the beginning of the imperial bureaucracy's evolution on two different but equally important and mutually linked levels. The ministerial bureaucracy from the early nineteenth century staffed the so-called subordinate organs (podchinennye organy), which at least theoretically handled activities in a designated field. The supreme organs (verkhovnye organy) had the responsibility to manage and co-ordinate the activities of the subordinate organs. Alexander I established Russia's ministerial system which lasted until the collapse of the Romanov dynasty in February 1917. The young emperor initially toyed with the idea of constitutional change but soon showed a preference for administrative reform which he saw as more essential for effective government and Russia's modernisation and less threatening to his autocratic power.
  • 21 - Provincial and local government
    pp 449-467
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521815291.023
  • View abstract
    Summary
    A study of local government raises several important questions about the nature of the imperial Russian state, the level of development of provincial Russian society and the relationship between government and society in Russia. This chapter is concerned with Russian local administration but it should be noted that different structures, different traditions and even different law codes applied in many of the non-Russian parts of the empire until well into the nineteenth century and sometimes until 1917. Local government was an issue which spawned extensive, and lengthy, legislation over the whole imperial period. The tsars, from Peter to Nicholas II, legislated at length on the structures of urban self-government and on the composition, responsibilities and privileges of the urban population. It has been seen that government hoped through legislation to 'Westernise' or modernise Russian towns by the introduction of Western-style guilds, the creation, and then re-creation, of categories of urban citizens and the development of corporate institutions.
  • 22 - State finances
    pp 468-486
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521815291.024
  • View abstract
    Summary
    This chapter discusses the Russian state finances that examines the Russian government's chief elements of expenditure and revenue, and analyses the changes during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. The Russian state budget hardly warranted such an appellation until well into the nineteenth century. It was military expenditure that dominated Russia's state finances. The main component of government revenue during the eighteenth century was the poll tax. The crises that affected the Russian government's finances were mostly precipitated either by war or by the threat of war. The impact of Russia's budgetary policies on its population was considerable. Since the overwhelming majority of Russia's population were peasants, it was inevitable that they would bear the greatest burden of taxation. The Russian state did not have the bureaucratic capacity to maintain accurate records of its finances during this period and the budget-making process was still rudimentary.

Page 1 of 2


Bibliography
Adres-kalendar’. Obshchaia rospis’ nachal’stvuiushchikh i prochikh dolzhnostnykh lits, 135 vols. (St Petersburg: 1765–96; 1802–1916).
Adrianov S. A., Ministerstvo vnutrennikh del. Istoricheskii ocherk 1802–1902 (St Petersburg, 1901).
Afanasiev A., Russian Fairy Tales Collected by Aleksandr Afanasiev (New York: Pantheon, 1945).
Ageeva O., Velichaishii i slavneishii bolee vsekh gradov v svete: grad Sviatogo Petra (St Petersburg: Blits, 1999).
Airapetov O. R., Zabytaia kar’era ‘russkogo Moltke’ Nikolai Nikolaevich Obruchev (1830–1904) (St Petersburg: Izd. ‘Aleteiia’, 1998).
Aleksandrov P. A., Severnaia sistema: opyt issledovaniia idei i khoda vneshnei politiki Rossii v pervuiu polovinu tsarstvovaniia Imperatritsy Ekateriny II (Moscow: Lomonosov, 1914).
Aleksandrov V. A., Sel’skaia obshchina v Rossii (XVII-nachalo XIX v.) (Moscow: Nauka, 1976).
Aleksandrov V. A., Obychnoe pravo krepostnoi derevni Rossii: XVIII-nachalo XIX v. (Moscow: Nauka, 1984).
Alekseeva M. A., Graviura Petrovskogo vremeni (Leningrad: Iskusstvo, 1990).
Alexander J. T., Catherine the Great: Life and Legend (New York: Oxford University Press, 1989).
Amburger E., Geshchichte der Behordenorganisation Russlands von Peter dem Grossen bis 1917 (Leiden: Brill, 1966).
Anan’ich B. V., and Lebedev S. K., ‘Kontora pridvornykh bankirov v Rossii i Evropeiskie denezhnye rynki (1798–1811)’, in Problemy sotsial’no-ekonomicheskoi istorii Rossii (St Petersburg: Nauka, 1991).
Anan’ich N. I., ‘K istorii otmeny podushnoi podati v Rossii’, Istoricheskie zapiski 94 (1974): 183–212.
Anan’ich N. I., ‘Materialy lektsionnykh kursov N. Kh. Bunge 60–80x godov XIX veka’, Arkheograficheskii Ezhegodnik za 1977 god (Moscow: Nauka, 1978), pp. 304–6.
Ananich B. V., and Ganelin R.Sh., Sergei Iulevich Vitte i ego vremia (St Petersburg: Dmitrii Bulanin, 1999).
Ananich B. V., Ganelin R.Sh., and Paneiakh V. M. (eds.), Vlast’ i reformy: ot samoderzhavnoi k Sovetskoi Rossii (St Petersburg: Dmitrii Bulanin, 1996).
Anan’ich B. V., and Ganelin P.Sh., Sergei Iulevich Vitte i ego vremiia (St Petersburg: Dmitrii Bulanin, 2000).
Anan’ich B. V., Kalmykov S. V., and Petrov Iu.A., Glavnii bank Rossii. Ot gosudarstvennogo banka Rossiiskoi imperii k tsentral’nomu banku Rossiiskoi Federatsii. 1860–2000 (Moscow: TSPP TSB RPH, 2000).
Anan’ich B.V., Rossiiskoe samoderzhavie i vyzov kapitalov, 1895–1914 (Leningrad: Nauka, 1957).
Anan’ich B.V., Rossiia i mezhdunarodnyi kapital. Ocherki istorii finansovykh otnoshenii (Leningrad: Nauka, 1970).
Anan’ich B.V., Bankirskie doma v Rossii. 1860–1914.Ocherki istorii chastnogo predprinimatel’stva (Leningrad: Nauka, 1991).
Anan’ich B.V., ‘Zolotoi standart Finliandii i Rossii: finansovii aspect imperskoi politiki’, in Rossiia na rubezhe XIX–XX vekov. Materialy nauchnykh chtenii pamiati professora V. I. Bovykina, Moscow, 20 Jan. 1999 (Moscow: Nauka, 1999).
Anan’ich B.V., ‘Stiglitzty – Poslednie pridvornie bankiry v Rossii’, in ‘Bol’shoe budushchee’. Nemtsy v ekonomicheskoi zhizni Rossii (Berlin, Bonn, Hessen and Moscow: Mercedes Druk, Berlin, 2000).
Anderson M. S., The Eastern Question, 1774–1923: A Study in International Relations (New York: St Martin’s, 1966).
Androsov S. O., ‘Painting and Sculpture in the Petrine Era’, in Cross A. G. (ed.), Russia in the Reign of Peter the Great: Old and New Perspectives (Cambridge: SGECR, 1998), pp. 161–72.
Androsov S. O., ‘Painting and Sculpture in the Petrine Era’, Zhivopisets Ivan Nikitin (St Petersburg: Dmitrii Bulanin, 1998).
Androsov S. O., ‘Painting and Sculpture in the Petrine Era’, Ital’ianskaia skul’ptura v sobranii Petra Velikogo (St Petersburg: Ermitazh, 1999).
Anfimov A. M. (ed.), Krest’ianstvo Severnogo Kavkaza i Dona v period kapitalizma (Rostov-on-Don: Izd. Rostovskogo universiteta, 1990).
Anfimov A. M., ‘Prodovol’stvennye dolgi kak pokazatel’ ekonomicheskogo polozheniia krest’ian dorevolutsionnoi Rossii (konets XIX – nachalo XX veka)’, in Materialy poistorii sel’skogo khoziaistva i krest’ianstva SSSR (Moscow: Nauka, 1960).
Anisimov A. V., Rossiia v seredine XVIII veka: bor’ba za nasledie Petra (Moscow: Mysl’, 1986).
Anisimov E. V., Empress Elizabeth: Her Reign and Her Russia, trans. Alexander J. T. (Gulf Breeze: Academic International Press, 1995).
Anisimov E. V., Vremia petrovskikh reform (Leningrad: Lenizdat, 1989).
Anisimov E., Podatnaia reforma Petra Velikogo (Leningrad: Nauka, 1982).
Anisimov E., Vremia petrovskikh reform (Leningrad: Lenizdat, 1989).
Anisimov E., ‘Rossiia v ”epokhu dvortsovykh perevorotov”’, in Anan’ich B. V. et al. (eds.), Vlast’ i reformy. Ot samoderzhavnoi k sovetskoi Rossii (St Petersburg: Dmitrii Bulanin, 1996), pp. 162–3.
Anisimov E., Gosudarstvennye preobrazovaniia i samoderzhavie Petra Velikogo v pervoi chetverti XVIII veka (St Petersburg: Dmitrii Bulanin, 1997).
Annenskii N. F., ‘Zemskii kadastr i zemskaia statistika’, Trudy pod sektsii statistiki IX s’ezda russkikh estestvoispytatelei i vrachei (Chernigov, 1894).
Arkhiv gosudarstvennogo soveta, 5 vols. (St Petersburg: Tip. II otd., 1869–1904).
Arkhiv vneshnei politiki Rossisskoi imperii (Minneapolis: East View Publications, 1995).
Aronson I. M., Troubled Waters: The Origins of the 1 881 Anti-Jewish Pogroms in Russia (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1990).
Artem’eva IuV., and Prokhvatikova S. A. (eds.), Zodchie Sankt-Peterburga: XVIII vek (St Petersburg: Lenizdat, 1997).
Ascher A., Pavel Axelrod and the Development of Menshevism (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1972).
Ascher A., The Revolution of 1905, 2 vols (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1988–92).
Atkinson D., ‘Egalitarianism and the Commune’, in Bartlett R. (ed.), Land Commune and Peasant Community in Russia (Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1990).
Avrich P., Russian Rebels, 1600–1800 (New York: Norton, 1972)
Baberowski J., ‘Rechtsanwälte in Russland, 1866–1914’, in McClelland C. and Merl S. (eds.), Professionen im modernen Europa (Berlin: Dunckler and Humblot, 1995), pp. 29–59.
Baberowski J., ‘Juden und Antisemiten in der russischen Rechtsanwaltschaft 1864–1917’, JfGO 43 (1995): 493–518.
Baberowski J., Autokratie und Justiz. zum Verhältnis von Rückständigkeit und Rechtsstaatlichkeit im ausgehenden Zarenreich, 1864–1914 (Frankfurt am Main: Vittorio Klostermann, 1996).
Baberowski J., ‘Europa in Russland: Justizreformen im ausgehenden Zarenreich am Beispiel der Geschworenengerichte 1864–1914’, in Beyrau D., and Stolleis M. (eds.), Reformen im Russland des 19. und 20. Jahrhunderts. Westliche Modelle und russische Erfahrungen (Frankfurt am Main: Vittorio Klostermann, 1996), pp. 151–74.
Baberowski J., ‘Auf der Suche nach Eindeutigkeit: Kolonialismus und zivilisatorische Mission im Zarenreich und in der Sowjetunion’, JfGO 47 (1999): 482–504.
Baberowski J., Der Feind ist überall. Stalinismus im Kaukasus (Munich: Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt, 2003).
Baklanova E. N., Krest’ianskii dvor i obshchina na russkom severe: konets XVII-nachalo XVIII v. (Moscow: Nauka, 1976).
Bakunin M., The Confession of Mikhail Bakunin, trans. Howes R. C. (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1977).
Balzer H. D. (ed.), Russia’s Missing Middle Class: The Professions in Russian History (Armonk, M. E. Sharpe, 1996).
Baranchevich E. M., Konokradstvo i mery protiv ego v Rossii. Sudebno-statisticheskii ocherk (Moscow, 1898).
Baron S. H., Plekhanov: The Father of Russian Marxism (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1963).
Barran T., Russia Reads Rousseau, 1762–1825 (Evanston: Northwestern University Press, 2002).
Bartenev P. (ed.), Arkhiv kniaz’ia Vorontsova, 40 vols. (Moscow, 1870–95).
Bartlett R. (ed.), Anton Chekhov: A Life in Letters, trans. Bartlett Rosamund and Phillips Anthony (London: Penguin, 2004).
Bassin Mark, Imperial Visions: Nationalist Imagination and Geographical Expansion in the Russian Far East, 1840–1865 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999).
Bauer H., Kappeler A., and Roth B. (eds.), Die Nationalitäten des Russischen Reiches in der Volkszahlung von 1897, 2 vols. (Stuttgart: Franz Steiner, 1991).
Beauvois D., Le Noble, le serf, et le revizor: La noblesse polonaise entre le tsarisme et les masses ukrainiennes (1831–1863) (Paris: Editions des archives contemporaines, 1985).
Beauvois D., La Bataille de la terre en Ukraine, 1863–1914: Les Polonais et les conflits socio-ethniques (Lille: Presses universitaires de Lille, 1993).
Beauvois D., Pouvoir russe et noblesse polonaise en Ukraine, 1793–1830 (Paris: CNRS editions, 2003).
Becker S., Russia’s Protectorates in Central Asia: Bukhara and Khiva, 1865–1924 (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1968).
Becker S., Nobility and Privilege in Late Imperial Russia (DeKalb: Northern Illinois University Press, 1985).
Beliaev S. G., P.L. Bark i finansovaia politika Rossii 1914–1917, (St Petersburg: Izd. SPbu, 2002).
Belliustin I. S., Description of the Rural Clergy, ed. Freeze G. L. (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1985).
Berdyaev N., Leontiev (Orono: Academic International Press, 1968).
Berezin V., Mirovoi sud v provintsii. Neskol’ko slov o zemskikh i mirovykh uchrezhdeniiakh (St Petersburg, 1883).
Bernstein L., Sonia’s Daughters: Prostitutes and Their Regulation in Imperial Russia (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995).
Beskrovnyi L. G., Voprosy voennoi istorii Rossii XVIII i pervaia polovina XIX vekov (Moscow: Nauka, 1969).
Beskrovnyi L. G., Russkaia armiia i flot v XIX veke. Voenno-ekonomicheskii potentsial Rossii (Moscow: Nauka, 1973).
Beskrovnyi L. G., Armiia i flot Rossii v nachale XX v. Ocherki voenno-ekonmicheskoi potentsiala (Moscow: Nauka, 1986).
Bestuzhev I. V., Bor’ba po voprosam vneshnei politiki v Rossii, 1906–1910 (Moscow: Nauka, 1961).
Beyrau Dietrich, Militär und Gesellschaft im Vorrevolutionären Russland (Cologne and Vienna: Böhlau Verlag, 1984).
Bezotosnyi V. M. (ed.), Otechestvennaia voina 1812 goda. Entsiklopediia (Moscow: Rosspen, 2004).
Bil’basov V. A. (ed.), Arkhiv grafov Mordvinovykh, 10 vols. (St Petersburg, 1901–3).
Bil’basov V. A., Istoriia Ekateriny Vtoroi, 3 vols. (Berlin: Gottgeiner, 1896–1900).
Billington J. H., Mikhailovsky and Russian Populism (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1958).
Billington J., Mikhailovsky and Russian Populism (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1958).
Black J. L., ‘Educating Women in Eighteenth-Century Russia: Myths and Realities’, Canadian Slavonic Papers 20, 1 (1978): 23–43.
Blanc S., Un disciple de Pierre Le Grand dans la Russie du XVIIIe siécle. V. N. Tatishchev (1686–1750), 2 vols. (Paris: Université de Lille III, 1972).
Bogdanovich M. I., Istoriia tsarstvovaniia Imperatora Aleksandra I i Rossiia v ego vremiia, 6 vols. (St Petersburg: Tip. F. Sushchinskogo, 1869).
Bogoslavskii M. M., Petr I: Materialy dlia biografii, 5 vols. (Moscow: 1940–8).
Bohac R., ‘The Mir and the Military Draft’, Slavic Review 47 (1988): 652–66.
Bohac R., ‘Everyday Forms of Resistance: Serf Opposition to Gentry Exactions, 1800–1861’, in Kingston-Mann E. and Mixter T. (eds.), Peasant Economy, Culture, and Politics of European Russia, 1800–1921 (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1991).
Bokhanov A., Imperator Aleksandr III (Moscow: Russkoe slovo, 1998).
Bokhanov A. N., Kollektionery i metsenaty v Rossii (Moscow: Nauka, 1989).
Bonnell V., Roots of Rebellion: Workers’ Politics and Organisations in St Petersburg and Moscow, 1900–1914 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1983).
Borovoi S.Ia., Kredit i banki v Rossii (seredina XVII veka – 1861 (Moscow: 1958).
Botkina A. P., Tretiakov v zhizni i v iskusstve (Moscow: Iskusstvo, 1993).
Bourquin Maurice, Histoire de la Sainte Alliance (Geneva: Georg et Cie., 1954).
Bovykin V. I., Frantsuzskie banki v Rossii. Konets XIX–nachalo XX vekov (Moscow: Rosspen, 1999).
Bowlt J. E. (ed.), Russian Art of the Avant-Garde: Theory and Criticism (London: Thames and Hudson, 1988).
Bowman L., ‘Russia’s First Income Taxes: The Effects of Modernized Taxes on Commerce and Industry, 1885–1914’, Slavic Review 52 (1993): 256–82.
Bradley Joseph, Guns for the Tsar: American Technology and the Small Arms Industry in Nineteenth-Century Russia (DeKalb: Northern Illinois University Press, 1990).
Breitman G. N., Prestupnyi mir: ocherki iz byta professional’nykh prestupnikov (Kiev, 1901)
Brooks J., When Russia Learned to Read: Literacy and Popular Literature, 1981–1917 (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1985).
Brower D. R., Turkestan and the Fate of the Russian Empire (London: Routledge/Curzon, 2003).
Brower D. R., and Lazzerini E. (eds.), Russia’s Orient: Imperial Borderlands and Peoples 1700–1917 (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1997).
Brower , Daniel R., ‘The Problem of the Russian Intelligentsia’, Slavic Review 26 (1967): 638–47.
Brower , Daniel R., Training the Nihilists: Education and Radicalism in Tsarist Russia (Ithaca, Cornell University Press, 1975).
Brown W. E., A History of Eighteenth-Century Russian Literature (Ann Arbor: Ardis, 1980).
Brumfield W. C., A History of Russian Architecture (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994).
Brun M. I., ‘Mirovoi sud po sudebnym ustavam Aleksandra II’, in Vybornyi mirovoi sud. Sbornik statei (St Petersburg, 1898), pp. 1–18.
Burbank J., ‘Discipline and Punish in the Moscow Bar Association’, Russian Review 54 (1995): 44–64.
Burbank J., ‘A Question of Dignity: Peasant Legal Culture in Late Imperial Russia’, Continuity and Change 10 (1995): 391–404.
Burbank , Jane , ‘Were the Russian Intelligenty Organic Intellectuals?’ in L.Fink, Leonard S.T., and Reid D. M. (eds.), Intellectuals and Public Life: Between Radicalism and Reform (Ithaca, Cornell University Press, 1996).
Bushkovitch P., Peter the Great: The Struggle for Power 1671–1725 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001).
Bushkovitch P., ‘The Ukraine in Russian Culture’, JfGO 39, 3 (1991): 339–63.
Bushnell John, Mutiny Amid Repression: Russian Soldiers in the Revolution of 1905 –08 (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1985).
Byrnes R., Pobedonostsev: His Life and Thought (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1968).
Cahm C., Kropotkin and the Rise of Revolutionary Anarchism 1872–1886 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989).
Carr E. H., Michael Bakunin (London: Macmillan, 1937).
Carrère d’Encausse H., Islam and the Russian Empire: Reform and Revolution in Central Asia (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988).
Chechulin N. D., Ocherki po istorii russkikh finansov v tsarstvovanii Ekateriny II (St Petersburg: Tip. glavnogo upravleniia udelov, 1906).
Chechulin N. D., Vneshniaia politika Rossii v nachale tsarstvovaniia Ekateriny II, 1762–1774 (St Petersburg: Glavnoe upravlenie udelov, 1896).
Cherkasov P. P., ‘Frantsiia i russko-turetskaia voina, 1768–1774 gg.’, Novaia i noveishaia istoriia (1966), no. 1: 50–76.
Cherniavskii S., Narodnyi sud (Kamenets-Podol’sk, 1901).
Cherniavsky M., Tsar and People: Studies in Russian Myths (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1961).
Chmielewski E., The Polish Question in the Russian State Duma (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1970).
Chulos C. J., Converging Worlds: Religion and Community in Peasant Russia, 1861–1917 (DeKalb: Northern Illinois University Press, 2003).
Clowes E.W., Kassow S. D., and West J. L. (eds.), Between Tsar and People: Educated Society and the Quest for Public Identity in Late Imperial Russia (Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1991).
Confino M., Domaines et seigneurs en Russie vers la fin du XVIIIe siècle. Étude de structures agraires et de mentalites economiques (Paris: Institut d’etudes slaves, 1963.)
Confino M., ‘On Intellectuals and Intellectual Traditions in Eighteenth- and Nineteenth-Century Russia’, Daedalus 101 (1972): 117–49.
Confino M., Systèmes agraires et progrès agricole: l’assolement triennal en Russie aux XVIIIe-XIXe siècles (Paris and The Hague: Mouton, 1969).
Corbett JulianS., Maritime Operations in the Russo-Japanese War 1904–1905, 2 vols. (Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 1994).
Corssin S., Warsaw before the First World War: Poles and Jews in the Third City of the Russian Empire, 1880–1914 (Boulder: Westview, 1989).
Cracraft J., The Petrine Revolution in Russian Architecture (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1990).
Cracraft J., The Petrine Revolution in Russian Imagery (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1997).
Crisp O., and Edmondson L. (eds.), Civil Rights in Imperial Russia (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989).
Crisp O., Studies in the Russian Economy Before 1914 (London: Macmillan, 1976).
Cross A. G., N. M. Karamzin: A Study of his Literary Career, 1783–1803 (Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1971).
Cross A. G., ‘Catherine the Great and the English Garden’, in Norman J. (ed.), New Perspectives on Russian and Soviet Artistic Culture (Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1994).
Crummey R. O., The Old Believers and the World of AntiChrist: The Vyg Community and the Russian State 1694–185 5 (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1970).
Curtiss J. S., ‘Russian Sisters of Mercy in the Crimea, 1854–55’, Slavic Review 25, 1 (March 1966): 84–100.
Curtiss J. S., The Russian Army under Nicholas I (Durham: Duke University Press, 1965).
Curtiss J. S., Russia’s Crimean War (Durham: Duke University Press, 1979).
Czap P., ‘Marriage and the Peasant Joint Family in the Era of Serfdom’, in Ransel D. L. (ed.), The Family in Imperial Russia (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1978), pp. 103–23.
Czap P., ‘“A Large Family: The Peasant’s Greatest Wealth”: Serf Households in Mishino, Russia, 1814–1858’, in Wall R. (ed.), Family Forms in Historic Europe (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983).
Czap. P., ‘Peasant Class Courts and Peasant Customary Justice in Russia, 1861–1912’, Journal of Social History 1, 2 (1967/68): 149–78.
Daly JonathanW., ‘On the Significance of Emergency Legislation in Late Imperial Russia’, Slavic Review 54 (1995): 602–29.
Daly JonathanW., Autocracy under Siege: Security Police and Opposition in Russia, 1866–1905 (DeKalb: Northern Illinois University Press, 1998).
Daly JonathanW., The Watchful State: Security Police and Opposition in Russia, 1906–1917 (DeKalb: Northern Illinois University Press, 2004).
Dan F. I., The Origins of Bolshevism, trans Carmichael J. (New York: Secker and Warburg, 1964).
Daniels R. L., V. N. Tatishchev: Guardian of the Petrine Revolution (Philadelphia: Franklin Publishing, 1973).
Danilevskii N., Rossiia i Evropa (St Petersburg: Tip. Brat’ev Panteleevykh, 1869).
Danilova L. V., Sel’skaia obshchina v srednevekovoi Rusi (Moscow: Nauka, 1994).
Davison RodericH., ‘“Russian Skill and Turkish Imbecility”: The Treaty of Kuchuk Kainardji Reconsidered’, Slavic Review 35 (1976): 463–83.
Davydov N. V., and Polianskii N. N. (eds.), Sudebnaia reforma, 2 vols. (Moscow: Ob’edinenie, 1915).
Deitrikh V. F., ‘O sude prisiazhnykh’ in Zhurnal Ministerstva Iustitsii 1, 6 (1895): 1–22.
Derzhavina O. A. (ed.), Russkaia dramaturgiia poslednei chetverti XVII–nachala XVIIIv. (Moscow: Nauka, 1972).
Di Salvo Maria, ‘What Did Algarotti See in Moscow?’, in Bartlett R. and Hughes L. (eds.), Russian Society and Culture in the Long Eighteenth Century (Berlin: LitVerlag, 2004), pp. 72–81.
Diakin V. S., Burzhuaziia, dvorianstvo i tsarizm v 1911–1914gg: razlozhenie tret’ eiun’ skoi sistemy (Leningrad: Nauka, 1988).
Diakin V. S., Dengi dlia sel’skogo khoziaistva (St Petersburg: Izd. SPbu, 1997).
Dingel’shtedt N. A., ‘Musul’manskii sud i sud’i’, Zhurnal Ministerstva Iustitsii 4, 6 (1898): 58–81.
Dixon S., Catherine the Great (London: Longman, 2001).
Dokkyu C., Rossiia v Koree, 1893–1905 (St Petersburg: Zero, 1996).
Dokuchaev V. V., Russkii chernozem (St Petersburg: Deklaron i Evdokimov, 1883).
Dolgorukov P. P., Rossiiskaia rodoslovnaia kniga, 4 vols. (St Petersburg, 1854–7).
Dolskaya-Ackerly Olga, ‘Choral Music in the Petrine Era’, in Cross A. G. (ed.), Russia in the Reign of Peter the Great: Old and New Perspectives (Cambridge: SGECR, 1998), pp. 173–86.
Donnelly A., The Russian Conquest of Bashkiria 1552–1740: A Case Study in Imperialism (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1968).
Drage Charles, Russian Literature in the Eighteenth Century (London: published by author, 1978).
Druzhinina E. I., Kuchuk-Kainardzhiiskii mir 1774 goda (Moscow: Izd. AN SSSR, 1955).
Duffy Christopher, Russia’s Military Way to the West: Origins and Nature of Russian Military Power 1700–1800 (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1981).
Dulov A. V., Geograficheskaia sreda i istoriia Rossii: konets XV-seredina XIX v. (Moscow: Nauka, 1983).
Durman K., The Time of the Thunderer: Mikhail Katkov, Russian Nationalist Extremism and the Failure of the Bismarckian System, 1871–1887 (Boulder: Columbia University Press, 1988).
Dzhanshiev G., Epokha velikikh reform (Moscow: Tip. Rassvet, 1896).
Dzhanshiev G., Epokha velikikh reform (St Petersburg: Vol’f, 1907).
Dzhedzhula K. E., Rossiia i Velikaia frantsuzskaia burzhuaznaia revoliutsiia kontsa XVIII veka (Kiev: Izd. Kievskogo universiteta, 1972).
Edie J., Scanlan J. P., and Zeldin M.-B. (eds.) Russian Philosophy, 2 vols. (Chicago: Quadrangle Books, 1965).
Edmondson L., Feminism in Russia, 1900–1917 (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1984).
Eidel’man N.Ya. ‘Revoliutsiia sverkhu’ v Rossii (Moscow: 1989).
Eidel’man N. I., Poslednii letopisets (Moscow: Kniga, 1983).
Eisenbach A., The Emancipation of the Jews in Poland, 1780–1870 (Oxford: Blackwell, 1991).
Eklof B., Bushnell J., and Zakharova L. (eds.), Russia’s Great Reforms 1855–1881 (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1994).
Eklof B., and Frank S. (eds.), The World of the Russian Peasant (Boston: Unwin Hyman, 1990).
Eklof Ben, Russian Peasant Schools: Officialdom, Village Culture, and Popular Pedagogy, 1861–1914 (Berkeley, University of California Press, 1986).
Eleonskaia A. S. (ed.), P’esy stolichnykh i provintsial’nykh teatrov pervoi poloviny XVIII v. (Moscow: Nauka, 1975).
Elwood RalphCarter, Roman Malinovskii: A Life without a Cause (Newtonville: Oriental Research Partners, 1977).
Ely Christopher, This Meager Nature: Landscape and National Identity in Imperial Russia (DeKalb: Northern Illinois University Press, 2002).
Emets V. A., Ocherki vneshnei politiki Rossii 1914–1917 (Moscow: Nauka, 1977).
Emmons T., The Formation of Political Parties and the First National Elections in Russia (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1983).
Emmons T., and Vucinich W. (eds.), The Zemstvo in Russia: An Experiment in Local Self-Government (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1982).
Emmons T., The Russian Landed Gentry and the Peasant Emancipation of 1861 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1968).
Engel B., ‘Women as Revolutionaries: The Case of the Russian Populists’, in Bridenthal R. and Koonz C. (eds.), Becoming Visible: Women in European History, Ist edn. (Boston: Houghton-Mifflin, 1977), pp. 346–70.
Engel B., ‘Women as Revolutionaries: The Case of the Russian Populists’, Mothers and Daughters: Women of the Intelligentsia in Nineteenth-Century Russia (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1983).
Engel B., ‘Women as Revolutionaries: The Case of the Russian Populists’, Between the Fields and the City: Women, Work and Family in Russia, 1861–1914 (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1994).
Engel B., ‘Women, Men, and the Languages of Peasant Resistance, 1870–1907’, in Frank S. P. and Steinberg M. D. (eds.), Cultures in Flux: Lower-Class Values, Practices, and Resistance (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1994), pp. 34–53.
Engel B., ‘Women, Men, and the Languages of Peasant Resistance, 1870–1907’, Women in Russia, 1700–2000 (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2004).
Engelstein L., ‘Gender and the Juridical Subject: Prostitution and Rape in Nineteenth-century Criminal Codes’, Journal of Modern History 60 (September 1988): 458–95.
Engelstein L., ‘Gender and the Juridical Subject: Prostitution and Rape in Nineteenth-century Criminal Codes’, The Keys to Happiness: Sex and the Search for Modernity in Fin-de-siècle Russia (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1992).
Engelstein L., Moscow 1905 : Working-class Organisation and Political Conflict (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1982).
Entsiklopedicheskii slovar’. Brokgauz i Efron, 43 vols. (St Petersburg: Brokgauz and Efron, 1890–1906).
Evtuhov C., ‘Voices from the Provinces: Living and Writing in Nizhnii Novgorod, 1870–1905’, Journal of Popular Culture 31, 4 (Spring 1998): 33–48.
Farrell DianneE., ‘Popular Prints in the Cultural History of Eighteenth-Century Russia’, unpublished PhD dissertation, University of Wisconsin-Madison (1980).
Fedorov V. A., Pomeshchich’i krest’iane tsentral’no-promyshlennogo raiona Rossii: kontsa XVIII-pervoi poloviny XIX v. (Moscow: Izd. MGU, 1974).
Feldbæk Ole, ‘The Foreign Policy of Tsar Paul I, 1800–1801: An Interpretation’, JfGO 30 (1982): 16–36.
Field D., Rebels in the Name of the Tsar (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1976).
Field D., The End of Serfdom: Nobility and Bureaucracy in Russia, 1855–1861 (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1976).
Figes O., Peasant Russia, Civil War: The Volga Countryside in Revolution (1917–1921) (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1989).
Figes Orlando, Natasha’s Dance (London: Penguin, 2002).
Fisher A. W., The Crimean Tatars (Stanford: Hoover, 1978).
Fisher AlanW., The Russian Annexation of the Crimea, 1772–1783 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1970).
Florovsky George, ‘The Problem of Old Russian Culture’, Slavic Review 21 (1962): 3.
Foinitskii I. Ya., Kurs ugolovnogo sudoproizvodstva, new edn, vol. I (St Petersburg: Al’fa, 1996).
Fon-Rezon A. K., ‘O nashem sude prisiazhnykh’, Russkii Vestnik 182, 3 (1886): 9–70.
Fondy Rossiiskogo gosudarstvennogo voenno-istoricheskogo arkhiva. Kratkii spravochnik (Moscow: Rosspen, 2001).
Forbes I. (ed.), Catherine the Great: Treasures of Imperial Russia (Dallas and St Petersburg: State Hermitage, 1990).
Frank A. J., Muslim Religious Institutions in Imperial Russia: The Islamic World of Novouzensk District and the Kazakh Inner Horde, 1780–1910 (Leiden: Brill, 2001).
Frank S. P., Crime, Cultural Conflict, and Justice in Rural Russia, 1856–1914 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999).
Frankel J., Prophecy and Politics: Socialism, Nationalism and the Russian Jews, 1860–1917 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981).
Franklin S., and Widdis E. (eds.), National Identity in Russian Culture: An Introduction (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004).
Freeze G., ‘The Soslovie (Estate) Paradigm in Russian Social History’, American Historical Review 91 (1986).
Freeze G. L., The Russian Levites (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1977).
Freeze G. L., The Parish Clergy in Nineteenth-Century Russia (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1983).
Freeze G. L., ‘Die Laisierung des Archimandriten Feodor (Buchaev) und ihre kirchenpolitischen Hintergründe’, Kirche im Osten 38 (1985): 26–52.
Freeze G. L., ‘Handmaiden of the State? The Church in Imperial Russia Reconsidered’, Journal of Ecclesiastical History 36 (1985): 82–102.
Freeze G. L., ‘Church, State and Society in Catherinian Russia: The Synodal Instruction to the Legislative Commission’, in Müller Eberhard (ed.) ‘… aus der anmuthigen Gelehrsamkeit’ Tübinger Studien zum 18. Jahrhundert (Tübingen: Attempto Verlag, 1988), pp. 155–68.
Freeze G. L., ‘A Social Mission for Russian Orthodoxy’, in Shatz M. and Mendelsohn E. (eds.), Imperial Russia, 1700–1917 (DeKalb: Northern Illinois University Press, 1988), pp. 115–35.
Freeze G. L., ‘The Orthodox Church and Serfdom in Pre-Reform Russia’, Slavic Review 48 (1989): 361–87.
Freeze G. L., ‘Subversive Piety: Religion and the Political Crisis in Late Imperial Russia’, Journal of Modern History 68 (1996): 308–50.
Freeze G. L., ‘Policing Piety: The Church and Popular Religion in Russia, 1750–1850’, in Ransel DavidL. and Burbank Jane (eds.), Rethinking Imperial Russia (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1998), pp. 210–49.
Freeze G. L., ‘Church and Politics in Late Imperial Russia’, in Geifman A. (ed.), Russia under the Last Tsar (Oxford: Blackwell, 1999), pp. 269–97.
Freeze G. L., ‘“All Power to the Parish”? The Problem and Politics of Church Reform in Late Imperial Russia’, in Palat Madhavan (ed.), Social Identities in Revolutionary Russia (London: Macmillan, 2001), pp. 174–208.
Freeze G. L., ‘Lutheranism and Orthodoxy in Russia: A Critical Reassessment’, in Medick Hans and Schmidt P. (eds.), Luther zwischen Kulturen (Göttingen: Vandenhoeck and Ruprecht, 2004), pp. 297–317.
Freeze G. L., ‘A Pious Folk? Religious Observance in Vladimir Diocese 1900–14’, JfGO 52 (2004): 323–40.
Freeze G. L., ‘Matrimonial Sacrament and Profane Stories: Class, Gender, Confession and the Politics of Divorce in Late Imperial Russia’, in Steinberg M. and Coleman H. (eds.), Sacred Stories (forthcoming).
Freeze G. L., ‘Bringing Order to the Russian Family: Marriage and Divorce in Imperial Russia, 1760–1860’, Journal of Modern History 62 (1990): 709–46.
Frenkin M. S., Russkaia armiia i revoliutsiia 1917–1918 (Munich: Logos, 1978).
Frieden N. M., Russian Physicians in an Era of Reform and Revolution, 1856–1905 (Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1981).
Friedman M., Kazennaia vinnaia monopoliia (St Petersburg, 1914).
Frierson C., ‘Crime and Punishment in the Russian Village: Rural Concepts of Criminality at the End of the Nineteenth Century’, Slavic Review 46 (1987): 55–69.
Frierson C. A., Peasant Icons: Representations of Rural People in Late Nineteenth-Century Russia (New York: Oxford University Press, 1993).
Frierson C. A., ‘Razdel: The Peasant Family Divided’, Russian Review, 46 (1987): 35–51.
Fuks V., Sud i politsiia, 2 vols. (Moscow, 1889).
Fuller WilliamC. Jr., Civil–Military Conflict in Imperial Russia, 1881–1914 (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1985).
Fuller WilliamC. Jr., Strategy and Power in Russia 1600–1914 (New York: Free Press, 1992).
Fuller WilliamC. Jr., ‘The Eastern Front’, in Winter J., Parker G. and Habeck M. R. (eds.), The Great War and the Twentieth Century (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2000), pp. 30–68.
Galai S., The Liberation Movement in Russia, 1900–1905 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1973).
Gammer M., Muslim Resistance to the Tsar: Shamil and the Conquest of Chechnia and Daghestan. (London: Frank Cass, 1994).
Garafola L., Diaghilev’s Ballets Russes (New York: Oxford University Press, 1989).
Gasman A. G., ‘Sudebnaia reforma v pribaltiiskikh guberniiakh’, Zhurnal Ministerstva Iustitsii 20, 9 (1914): 146–69.
Gasperetti David, The Rise of the Russian Novel: Carnival, Stylization and the Mockery of the West (DeKalb: North Illinois University Press, 1998).
Gatrell P., A Whole Empire Walking: Refugees in Russia during World War I (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1999).
Gatrell P., The Tsarist Economy 1850–1917 (London: Batsford, 1986).
Gatrell P., Government, Industry and Rearmament in Russia, 1900–1914: The Last Argument of Tsarism (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994).
Gegidze M. E., ‘K voprosu o reforme ugolovnogo sudoproizvodstva v Zakazvkazskom krae’, Zhurnal Ministerstva Iustitsii 2, 8 (1896): 37–61.
Geifman Anna., Thou Shalt Kill: Revolutionary Terrorism in Russia, 1894–1917 (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1993).
Geifman Anna., Entangled in Terror: The Azef Affair and the Russian Revolution (Wilmington: Scholarly Resources, 2000).
Geisman PlatonA., and Dubovskii AleksandrN., Graf Petr Ivanovich Panin, 1721–1789: istoricheskii ocherk voennoi i gosudarstvennoi deiateli’nosti (St Petersburg: Vasil’iev, 1897).
Geiss P. G., Pre-Tsarist and Tsarist Central Asia: Communal Commitment and Political Order in Change (London: Routledge, 2003).
Geraci R., Window on the East: National and Imperial Identities in Late Tsarist Russia (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2001).
Geraci R., and Khodarkovsky M. (eds.), Of Religion and Empire: Missions, Conversion and Tolerance in Tsarist Russia (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2001).
Gerhard Dietrich, England und der Aufstieg Russlands (Munich: Oldenbourg, 1933).
Gernet M. N., Sud ili samosud (Moscow: 1917).
Gerschenkron A., Economic Backwardness in Historical Perspective (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1962).
Gerschenkron A., Europe in the Russian Mirror: Four Lectures in Economic History (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1970).
Gershenzon M. O. (ed.), Epokha Nikolaia (Moscow: Obozrenie, 1910).
Gessen I. V., Advokatura, obshchestvo i gosudarstvo 1864–1914. Istoriia russkoi advokatury, vol. I (Moscow: Izd. Sovetov prisiazhnykh poverennykh, 1914).
Gessen V. M., Sudebnaia reforma (Izd. P. P. Gershunina, 1905).
Getzler I., Martov: A Political Biography of a Russian Social Democrat (London: Cambridge University Press, 1967).
Geyer D., Russian Imperialism: The Interaction of Domestic and Foreign Policy, 1860–1914 (Leamington Spa: Berg, 1987).
Geyer D., Lenin in der russischen Sozialdemokratie: Die Arbeiterbewegung im Zarenreich als Organisationsproblem der revolutionären Intelligentz, 1890–1903 (Cologne: Böhlau Verlag, 1962).
Gillard D., The Struggle for Asia 1828–1914: AStudy in British and Russian Imperialism (London: Methuen, 1977).
Gindin I. F., Gosudarstvennyi bank i aktsionernaia politika tsarskogo pravitel’stva (1861–1892) (Moscow: Gosfinizdat, 1960).
Gindin I. F., Banki i ekonomicheskaia politika v Rossii (XIX–nachalo XX vekov). Ocherki istorii i tipologii russkikh bankov (Moscow: Nauka, 1997).
Girault R., Emprunts russes et investissements français en Russie 1887–1914 (Paris: Librairie Armand Colin, 1973).
Glagoleva O., ‘Dream and Reality of Russian Provincial Young Ladies, 1700–1850’, The Carl Beck Papers, no. 1405.
Gleason W. J., Moral Idealists, Bureaucracy, and Catherine the Great (New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1981).
Glickman R., Russian Factory Women: Workplace and Society, 1880–1914 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1984).
Glinskii B. (ed.), Prolog Russko-Iaponskoi voiny: materialy iz arkhiva Grafa S. Iu. Witte (Petrograd: Brokgauz and Efron, 1916).
Goldfrank D., The Origins of the Crimean War (London and New York: Longman, 1994).
Golovin N. N., The Russian Army in the World War (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1931).
Golubstov S. A. (ed.), Pugachevshchina, 3 vols. (Moscow: Tsentrarkhiv, 1926–31).
Gorodyski I. K., ‘Ocherki sudebnoi praktiki v sviazi s eia bytovymi usloviiami’, Zhurnal Ministerstva Iustitsii 2, 9 (1896): 45–77; 2, 10 (1896): 27–55.
Gosudarstvennaia duma. Stenograficheskie otchoty, 1906–1916, 4 sessions (St Petersburg, 1906–17).
Gosudarstvennyi sovet. Stenograficheskie otchoty, 1906–16, 4 sessions (St Petersburg, 1906–16).
Gray C., The Russian Experiment in Art, 1863–1922 (London: Thames and Hudson, 1986).
Gray RosalindP., Russian Genre Painting in the Nineteenth Century (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 2000).
Greene Diana, ‘Mid-Nineteenth Century Domestic Ideology in Russia’, in Marsh R. (ed.), Women and Russian Culture: Projections and Self-Perceptions (New York: Berghahn Books), pp. 78–97.
Grimsted P., The Foreign Ministers of Alexander I (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1969).
Grimsted P., (ed.), ‘Czartoryski’s System for Russian Foreign Policy: A Memorandum’, California Slavic Studies 5 (1970): 19–91.
Gromyko M. M., Mir russkoi derevni (Moscow: Molodaia gvardiia, 1991).
Grünig I., Die russische öffentliche Meinung und ihre Stellung zu den Groβmächten 1878–1894 (Berlin: Ost-Europa Verlag, 1929).
Grunwald C., Trois siècles de diplomatie russe (Paris: Carlmann-Lévy, 1945).
Guesnet F., Polnische Juden im 19. Jahrhundert: Lebensbedingungen, Rechtsnormen und Organisation im Wandel (Cologne: Böhlau, 1998).
Haberer E., Jews and Revolution in Nineteenth-Century Russia (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995).
Haimson L., ‘The Problem of Social Stability in Urban Russia, 1905–1917’, Slavic Review 23, 4 (1964): 619–42 and 24, 1 (1965): 1–22.
Haimson L., (ed.), The Politics of Rural Russia (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1979).
Haimson L., The Russian Marxists and the Origins of Bolshevism (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1955).
Hall C., ‘The Sweet Delights of Home’, in Michelle Perrot (ed.), A History of Private Life: From the Fires of Revolution to the Great War, 5 vols. (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1990), vol. IV, pp. 47–94.
Haltzel M., Der Abbau der deutschen standischen Selbstverwaltung in den Ostseeprovinzen Russlands 1855–1905 (Marburg: Herder-Institut, 1977).
Hamburg G. M., Boris Chicherin and Early Russian Liberalism 1828–1866 (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1992).
Hamburg G. M., Politics of the Russian Nobility 1881–1905 (New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1984).
Hamm M. (ed.), The City in Late Imperial Russia (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1986).
Hamm M., Kiev: A Portrait, 1800–1917 (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1993).
Hardy D., Petr Tkachev: The Critic as Jacobin (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1977).
Hartley J., A Social History of the Russian Empire (London: Longman, 1999).
Hartley J., Alexander I (Harlow: Longman, 1994).
Hasegawa Tsuyoshi, The February Revolution: Petrograd, 1917 (Seattle and London: University of Washington Press, 1981).
Hauptmann Peter, Die Katechismen der Russisch-Orthodoxen Kirche. Entstehungsgeschichte und Lehrgehalt (Göttingen: Vandenhoeck and Ruprecht, 1971).
Hauser O., Deutschland und der English-Russische Gegensatz, 1900–1914 (Berlin: Musterschmidt Verlag, 1958).
Hellie R., ‘The Stratification of Muscovite Society: The Townsmen’, Russian History 5 (1978): 119–75.
Hildermeier M., ‘Das Privileg der Rückständigkeit. Anmerkungen zum Wandel einer Interpretationsfigur in der neueren russischen Geschichte’, Historische Zeitschrift 224 (1987): 557–603.
Hildermeier Manfred, The Russian Socialist-Revolutionary Party Before the First World War, English edn (New York: St Martin Press, 2000).
Hoch S. L., Serfdom and Social Control in Russia, Petrovskoe, a Village in Tambov (Chicago: Chicago University Press, 1986)
Hoch S. L., ‘On Good Numbers and Bad: Malthus, Population Trends and Peasant Standard of Living in Late Imperial Russia’, Slavic Review 53 (1994): 41–75.
Hoch S. L., ‘The Serf Economy and the Social Order in Russia’, in Bush M. L. (ed.), Serfdom and Slavery (London: Longman, 1996).
Hoch S. L., ‘The Banking Crisis, Peasant Reform and Economic Development in Russia, 1857–1861’, American Historical Review 96 (1991): 795–820.
Hoetzsch O., Ruβland in Asien. Geschichte einer Expansion (Stuttgart: Deutsche Verlags-Anstallt, 1966).
Hosking G., The Russian Constitutional Experiment: Government and Duma, 1907–1914 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1973).
Hosking G., Russia: People and Empire, 1552–1917 (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1997).
Hrushevsky M., A History of Ukraine (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1941).
Hsü I., The Ili Crisis (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1965).
Hughes L., Russia in the Age of Peter the Great (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1998).
Hughes L., (ed.), Peter the Great and the West: New Perspectives (Basingstoke: Palgrave, 2000).
Hughes L., ‘Peter the Great’s Two Weddings: Changing Images of Women in a Transitional Age’, in Marsh R. (ed.), Women in Russia and Ukraine (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996), pp. 31–44.
Hughes L., ‘Restoring Religion to Russian Art’, in Hosking G. and Service R. (eds.), Reinterpreting Russia (London: Arnold, 1999), pp. 40–53.
Hughes L., ‘German Specialists in Petrine Russia: Architects, Painters and Thespians’, in Bartlett R. and Schönwälder K. (eds.), The German Lands and Eastern Europe (Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1999). pp. 72–90.
Hughes L., ‘Women and the Arts at the Russian Court from the Sixteenth to the Eighteenth Century’, in Pomeroy J. and Gray R. (eds.), An Imperial Collection: Women Artists from the State Hermitage (Washington DC: National Museum of Women in the Arts, 2003), pp. 19–49.
Hughes L., ‘From Caftans into Corsets: The Sartorial Transformation of Women during the Reign of Peter the Great’, in Barta P. (ed.), Gender and Sexuality in Russian Civilization (London: Routledge, 2001), pp. 17–32.
Hughes L., and di Salvo M. (eds.), A Window on Russia: Papers from the Fifth International Conference of SGECR (Rome: La Fenice edizioni, 1996).
Hughes M., Diplomacy Before the Russian Revolution: Britain, Russia and the Old Diplomacy, 1894–1917 (Basingstoke: Macmillan, 2000).
Hunczak Taras (ed.), Russian Imperialism (New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1974).
Hundert G., Jews in Poland-Lithuania in the Eighteenth Century: A Genealogy of Modernity (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2004).
Hutchinson J. F., ‘Society, Corporation, or Union? Russian Physicians and the Struggle for Professional Unity (1890–1913)’, JfGO 30 (1982): 37–53.
Iakushkin E. I., ‘Zametki o vliianii religioznykh verovanii i predrassudkov na narodnye iuridicheskie obychai i poniatiia’, Etnograficheskoe obozrenie (1891), no. 2: 1–19.
Ignat’ev A. V., Rybachenok I. S. and Savin G. A. (eds.), Rossiiskaia diplomatiia v portretakh (Moscow: Mezhdunarodnye otnosheniia, 1992).
Ignat’ev A.V., Vneshniaia politika Rossii 1905 –1907 (Moscow: Nauka, 1986).
Ignat’ev A.V., S. Iu. Vitte – diplomat (Moscow: Mezhdunarodnye otnosheniia, 1989).
Ignat’ev A.V., Vneshniaia politika Rossii 1907–1914 (Moscow: Nauka, 2000).
Ikonnikov N. I., La Noblesse de Russie, 2nd edn, vols. A1–Z2 (Paris: priv. pub. 1958–66).
Ingle H., Nesselrode and the Russian Rapprochement with Britain, 1836–1844 (Berkeley: California University Press, 1976).
Isaev M., Podpol’naia advokatura (Moscow, 1924).
Isakov S. G., Ostzeiskii vopros v russkoi pechati 1860-kh godov (Tartu: Riikliku Ulikool, 1961).
Istoriia Pravitel’ stvuiushchego Senata za dvesti let. 1711–1911, 5 vols. (St Petersburg: Senatskaia tip. 1911).
Ivanov L. M. (ed.), Istoriia rabochego klassa Rossii (Moscow: Nauka, 1972).
Ivanov I. S. (ed.), Ocherki istorii Ministerstva Inostrannykh del Rossii, 3 vols. (Moscow: OLMA Press, 2002).
Jelavich B., A Century of Russian Foreign Policy (Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1964).
Jelavich B., The Ottoman Empire, the Great Powers and the Straits Question, 1870–1 887 (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1973).
Jelavich B., Russia’s Balkan Entanglements, 1806–1914 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991).
Jelavich C. and Jelavich B. (eds.), Russia in the East 1876–1880 (Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1959).
Jersild A., Orientalism and Empire: North Caucasian Mountain Peoples and the Georgian Frontier 1845–1917 (Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2002).
Johanson C., Women’s Struggle for Higher Education in Russia, 1855–1900 (Kingston: McGill-Queens University Press, 1987).
Johnson R. E., Peasant and Proletarian: The Working Class of Moscow in the Late Nineteenth Century (New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1979).
Jones DavidR., ‘Imperial Russia’s Forces at War’, in Millet A. R. and Murray W. (eds.), Military Effectiveness, vol. I: The First World War (Boston: Allen and Unwin, 1988), pp. 249–328.
Jones Gareth, ‘Literature in the Eighteenth Century’, in Cornwell Neil (ed.), The Routledge Companion to Russian Literature (London: Routledge, 2000), pp. 25–35.
Jones R. E., The Emancipation of the Russian Nobility 1762–1785 (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1973).
Jones RobertE., ‘Opposition to War and Expansion in Late Eighteenth Century Russia’, JfGO 32 (1984): 34–51.
Jones RobertE., ‘The Nobility and Russian Foreign Policy, 1560–1811’, Cahiers du Monde Russe et Sovietique 34 (1993): 159–70.
Jones W.G., Nikolay Novikov: Enlightener of Russia (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1984).
Kabuzan V. M., Izmenenie v razmeshchenii naselenia Rossii v XVIII – pervoi polovine XIXv. (Moscow: Izd. AN SSSR, 1971).
Kabuzan V. M., Narody Rossii v XVIIIv. Chislennost’ i etnicheskii sostav (Moscow: Nauka, 1990).
Kagan F. W., and Higham R. (eds.), The Military History of Tsarist Russia (New York: Palgrave, 2002).
Kagan F.W., The Military Reforms of Nicholas I: The Origins of the Modern Russian Army (New York: St Martin’s Press, 1999).
Kahan A., The Plow, the Hammer and the Knout (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1985).
Kahn Andrew (ed.), Nikolai Karamzin: Letters of a Russian Traveller: A Translation, with an Essay on Karamzin’s Discourses of Enlightenment (Oxford: Voltaire Foundation, 2003).
Kaiser F. B., Die Russische Justizreform von 1864. Zur Geschichte der russischen Justiz von Katharina II bis 1917 (Leiden: Brill, 1972).
Kaliazina N. V. (ed.), Iz istorii petrovskikh kollektsii. Sbornik nauchnykh trudov (St Petersburg: Izd. Gos. Ermitazha, 2000).
Kaliazina N. V., and Komelova G. N., Russkoe iskusstvo Petrovskoi epokhi (Leningrad: Khudozhnik, 1990).
Kaplan H., Russian Overseas Commerce with Great Britain during the reign of Catherine II (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1995).
Kaplan H., The First Partition of Poland (New York: Columbia University Press, 1962).
Kappeler A., Russlands erste Nationalitäten. Das Zarenreich und die Volker der Mittleren Wolga vom 16 bis 19. Jahrhundert (Cologne: Böhlau, 1982).
Kappeler A., Die Russen: Ihr Nationalbewusstein in Geschichte und Gegenwart (Cologne: Markus, 1990).
Kappeler A., The Russian Empire: A Multiethnic History (New York: Pearson Education, 2001).
Kappeler A., (ed.), The Formation of National Elites (Aldershot: Dartmouth Publishing, 1992).
Kapustin N. S., Statistika suda prisiazhnykh. Sbornik pravovedeniia i obshchestvennykh znanii, 3 vols. (St Petersburg, 1894).
Karlinsky Simon, Russian Drama from its Beginnings to the Age of Pushkin (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1985).
Karnovich E. P., Zamechatel’naia bogatstva chastnikh lits v Rossii (St Petersburg: Suvorin, 1885).
Kartashev A. V., ‘Revoliutsiia i sobor 1917–1918 gg.’, Bogoslovskaia mysl’ 4 (1942): 75–101.
Kasatonov I. V. (ed.), Tri veka rossiiskogo flota, 3 vols. (St Petersburg: Logos, 1996).
Kassow S., Students, Professors and the State in Tsarist Russia (Berkeley: California University Press, 1989).
Kassow SamuelD., Students, Professors, and the State in Tsarist Russia (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1989).
Katorga i ssylka, 115 vols. (Moscow: Obshchestvo byvshikh politicheskikh katorzhan, 1921–35).
Katz M., Mikhail N. Katkov: A Political Biography, 1818–1887 (The Hague: Nijhoff, 1966).
Kavtaradze A., ‘Iz istorii russkogo general’nogo shtaba’, Voenno-istoricheskii zhurnal 13, 12 (Dec. 1971): 75–80; 14, 7 (July 1972): 87–92; 16, 12 (Dec. 1974): 80–6.
Kazantsev S. M., ‘Sudebnaia reforma 1864 goda i reorganizatsiia prokuratury’, in Gosudarstvennoe upravlenie i pravo (Leningrad: Nauka, 1984), pp. 83–100.
Kazantsev S. M., Istoriia tsarskoi prokuratury (St Petersburg: Izd. SPbu, 1993).
Kazemzadeh F., Russia and Britain in Persia, 1864–1914 (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1968).
Kean B. W., All the Empty Palaces: The Merchant Patrons of Modern Art in Pre-Revolutionary Russia (London: Barrie and Jenkins, 1983).
Keep J., Soldiers of the Tsar: Army and Society in Russia 1462–1874 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1985).
Keep J., ‘The Russian Army in the Seven Years War’, in Lohr E. and Poe M. (eds.), The Military and Society in Russia 1450–1917 (Leiden: Brill, 2002), pp. 197–220.
Keep J. L. H., The Rise of Social Democracy in Russia (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1963).
Kelly A., Mikhail Bakunin: A Study in the Psychology and Politics of Utopianism (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1982).
Kelly C. (ed. and tr.), An Anthology of Russian Women’s Writing, 1777–1992 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994).
Kelly C., and Shepherd D. (eds.), Constructing Russian Culture in the Age of Revolution: 1 881–1940 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998).
Kelly C., Refining Russia: Advice Literature, Polite Culture and Gender from Catherine to Yeltsin (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001).
Kelly L., Lermontov: Tragedy in the Caucasus (London: Robin Clark, 1983).
Kemper M., Sufis und Gelehrte in Tatarien und Baschkirien, 1789–1889 (Berlin: Klaus Schwartz verlag, 1998).
Kennan G., The Decline of Bismarck’s European Order: Franco-Russian Relations, 1875 –1890 (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1979).
Kennan G., The Fateful Alliance (New York: Pantheon Books, 1984).
Kerans D., Mind and Labor on the Farm in Black-Earth Russia, 1861–1914 (Budapest and New York: Central European University Press, 2001)
Kersnovskii A. A., Istoriia russkoi armii, repr. edn, 4 vols. (Moscow: Golos, 1992–6).
Khalid A., The Politics of Muslim Cultural Reform: Jadidism in Central Asia (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998).
Khasanova S. I., ‘K voprosu ob izuchenii intelligentsii dorevoliutsionnoi Rossii’, in Vul’fson G. N. (ed.), Revoliutsionno-osvoboditel’noe dvizhenie v XIX–XX vv. v Povolzh’e i Priural’e (Kazan, Izd. Kazanskogo Universiteta, 1974).
Khervrolina V. M., Vlast’ i obshchestvo: bor’ba v Rossii po voprosam vneshnei politiki 1878–1894 gg. (Moscow: Institut Rossiiskoi Istorii, 1999).
Khodarkovsky M., Where Two Worlds Met: The Russian State and the Kalmyk Nomads, 1600–1917 (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1992).
Khodarkovsky M., Russia’s Steppe Frontier: The Making of a Colonial Empire, 1500–1800 (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2002).
Khodarkovsky M., ‘The Stepan Razin Uprising: Was it a “Peasant War”?’, JfGO, 42 (1994): 1–19.
Khristoforov I. A., ‘Aristokraticheskaia’ oppozitsiia velikim reformam (Moscow: Russkoe slovo, 2002).
Khromov P. A., Ekonomicheskoe razvitie Rossii (Moscow: Nauka, 1967).
Khrulev S. S., ‘O sposobe i poriadke sostavleniia spiskov prisiazhnykh zasedatelei’, Iuridicheskii Vestnik 16, 5/6 (1884): 196–215.
Kienewicz S., The Emancipation of the Polish Peasantry (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1969).
Kindersley R., The First Russian Revisionists: A Study of Legal Marxism in Russia (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1962).
Kiniapina N. S., Vneshniaia politika Rossii vo vtoroi polovine XIX veka (Moscow: Vysshaia shkola, 1974).
Kiniapina N. S., et al. (eds.), Vostochnyi vopros vo vneshnei politike Rossii: konets XVIII–nachalo XX v. (Moscow: Nauka, 1978).
Kirby D. (ed.), Finland and Russia 1808–1920. From Autonomy to Independence (Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1975).
Kitanina T. M., Khlebnaia torgovliia Rossii (Moscow: Nauka, 1978).
Kivelson V., and Greene R. (eds.), Orthodox Russia: Belief and Practice under the Tsars (University Park: Penn State University Press, 2003).
Kizenko N., A Prodigal Saint: Father John of Kronstadt and the Russian People (University Park: Penn State University Press, 2000).
Klier J., Russia Gathers her Jews. The Origins of the ‘Jewish Question’ in Russia, 1772–1825 (DeKalb: Northern. Illinois University Press, 1986).
Klier J., Imperial Russia’s Jewish Question, 1855–1881 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995).
Klier J., and Lambroza S. (eds.), Anti-Jewish Violence in Modern Russian History (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992).
Klochkov M., Ocherki pravitel’stvennoi deiatel’nosti vremeni Pavla i (Petrograd: Senatskaia tip., 1916).
Klueting H., Heinrich Graf Ostermann: von Bochum nach St Petersburg: 1687 bis 1747 (Bochum: Brockmeyer, 1976).
Knei-Paz B., The Social and Political Thought of Leon Trotsky (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1978).
Kochubinskii A., Graf Andrei Ivanovich Osterman i razdel Turtsii: iz istorii Vostochnago voprosa. (Odessa: Odesskii voennyi okrug, 1899).
Kodicek A. (ed.), Diaghilev: Creator of the Ballets Russes (London: Lund Humphries, 1996).
Kohut Z., Russian Centralism and Ukrainian Autonomy: Imperial Absorption of the Hetmanate, 1760s–1830s (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1988).
Kolakowski L., Main Currents of Marxism, 3 vols. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1978).
Kolchin P., Unfree Labor: American Slavery and Russian Serfdom (Cambridge: Belknap Press, 1987).
Kollman N. S., ‘“What’s Love Got to Do with It?”: Changing Models of Masculinity in Muscovite and Petrine Russia’, in Clements B., Friedman R. and Healey D. (eds.), Russian Masculinities in History and Culture (New York: Palgrave, 2002), pp. 15–32.
Kolmakov N. M., ‘Staryi sud’, Russkaia Starina 52, 12 (1886): 511–44.
Koni A. F., Za poslednye gody (St Petersburg, 1898).
Koni A. F., Ottsy i deti sudebnoi reformy. K piatidesiatiletiiu sudebnykh ustavov (Moscow: Izdanie I. D. Sytina, 1914).
Koni A. F., ‘Novyi sud’, Zhurnal Ministerstva Iustitsii 22, 4 (1916): 1–33.
Koni A. F., Sobranie sochinenii, vols. I–II (Moscow: Iuridicheskaia literatura, 1966).
Korelin A. P., Dvorianstvo v poreformennoi Rossii (Moscow: Nauka, 1979).
Korelin A., and Stepanov S., S. Yu. Vitte – Finansist, politik, diplomat (Moscow: Terra, 1998).
Korkunov N. M., Russkoe gosudarstvennoe pravo, 2 vols. (St Petersburg: Tsinzerling, 1909).
Korostovets I. I., Pre-War Diplomacy: The Russo-Japanese Problem (London: British Periodicals Ltd., 1920).
Korostovets I. I., Rossiia na Dalnem Vostoke (Peking: Vostochnoe Prosveshchenie, 1922).
Kostiushkov I. I., Krestianskaia reforma 1864 goda v Tsarstve Pol’skom (Moscow: Izd. AN SSSR, 1962).
Kostrikova E. G., Russkaia pressa i diplomatiia nakanune pervoi mirovoi voiny (Moscow: Institut Rossiiskoi Istorii, 1997).
Kotsonis Y., Making Peasants Backward: Agricultural Cooperatives and the Agrarian Question in Russia, 1861–1914 (Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1999).
Kozlova N. V., Pobegi krest’ian v Rossii v pervoi treti XVIII veka (Moscow: Izd. MGU, 1983).
Krasnobaev B. I. (ed.), Ocherki istorii russkoi kul’tury vosemnadtsatogo veka (Moscow: Izd. MGU, 1972).
Krasnobaev B. I. (ed.), Ocherki russkoi kul’tury XVIII veka (Moscow: Izd. MGU, 1985).
Krasnyi Arkhiv, 106 vols. (Moscow: Tsentrarkhiv, 1922–41).
Krasovskii M. V., ‘O nedostatkakh nyneshnago ustroistva mirovykh sudebnykh ustanovlenii’, Zhurnal grazhdanskogo ugolovnogo prava 18, 4 (1888): 30–57.
Kriukovskii V. I., ‘Sushchestvennyia cherty preobrazovaniia mestnogo suda po zakonu 15 iiuniia 1912 goda’, Zhurnal Ministerstva Iustitsii 20, 5 (1914): 117–42.
Krüger-Löwenstein U., Russland, Frankreich und das Reich, 1801–1805: zur Vorgeschichte der 3. Koalition (Wiesbaden: Steiner, 1972).
Kucherov S., ‘Administration of Justice under Nicholas I of Russia’, American Slavonic and East European Review 7 (1948): 125–38.
Kucherov S., Courts, Lawyers and Trials under the Last Three Tsars (New York: Praeger, 1953).
Kudeikin V.Iu., and Savinkin A. E. (eds.), Voennoe zakondatel’stvo Rossiiskoi imperii. Kodeks russkogo voennogo prava (Moscow: Voennyi universitet, 1996).
Kuropatkin A. N., The Russian Army and the Japanese War, trans. Lindsay A. B. , 2 vols. (New York: E. P. Dutton, 1909).
Kusber J., Krieg und Revolution in Russland 1904–06. Das Militär im Verhältnis zu Wirtschaft, Autokratie und Gesellschaft (Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag, 1997).
Lampert E., Sons against Fathers: Studies in Russian Radicalism and Revolution (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1965).
Landa R. G., Islam v istorii Rossii (Moscow: Vostochnaia literatura, 1995).
Lang D. M., The First Russian Radical: Alexander Radishchev 1749–1802 (London: George Allen and Unwin, 1959).
Langer W., The Franco-Russian Alliance 1890–1914 (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1929).
Langer W., European Alliances and Alignments 1871–1890 (New York: Knopf, 1931).
Langer W., The Diplomacy of Imperialism, 2 vols. (New York: Knopf, 1956).
Langer W., ‘The Origins of the Russo-Japanese War’, in Schorske C. E. and Schorske E. (eds.), Explorations in Crisis: Papers on International History (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1969), pp. 3–45.
Laue von T., Sergei Witte and the Industrialisation of Russia (New York and London: Columbia University Press, 1963).
Laverychev V.Ia., Tsarizm i rabochii vopros v Rossii (1861–1917 gg.) (Moscow:, Nauka, 1970).
Lavrov A. S., Koldovstvo i religiia v Rossii (Moscow: Drevlekharnilishche, 2000).
Lavrov Peter, Historical Letters, trans. Scanlan J. P. (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1967).
Layton S., Russian Literature and Empire: Conquest of the Caucasus from Pushkin to Tolstoy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994).
Leach R., and Borovsky V. (eds.), A History of Russian Theatre (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999).
Leatherbarrow W., and Offord D. (eds.), A Documentary History of Russian Thought from the Enlightenment to Marxism (Ann Arbor: Ardis, 1987).
Lebedev P. S., Grafy Nikita i Petr Paniny (St Petersburg: Obshchestvennaia pol’za, 1863).
Lebedev S. K., S-Peterburgskii mezhdunarodnii kommercheskii bank vo vtoroi polovine XIX veka (Moscow: Rosspen, 2003).
Lederer I. J. (ed.), Russian Foreign Policy (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1962).
Lederhendler E., The Road to Modern Jewish Politics: Political Tradition and Political Reconstruction in the Jewish Community of Tsarist Russia (New York: Oxford University Press, 1989).
LeDonne J., Ruling Russia: Politics and Administration in the Age of Absolutism, 1762–1796 (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1984).
LeDonne J., Absolutism and the Ruling Class: The Formation of the Russian Political Order, 1700–1825 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1991).
LeDonne J., ‘The Judicial Reform of 1775 in Central Russia’, JfGO 21 (1973): 29–45.
LeDonne J., ‘Ruling Families in the Russian Political Order 1689–1825’, Cahiers du Monde Russe et Sovietique 3 and 4 (1987): 233–322.
LeDonne J., ‘Indirect Taxes in Catherine’s Russia. I. The Salt Code of 1781’, JfGO 23 (1975): 161–90.
LeDonne J., ‘Indirect Taxes in Catherine’s Russia. II. The Liquor monopoly’, JfGO 24 (1976): 173–207.
LeDonne J. P., The Russian Empire and the World 1700–1917: The Geopolitics of Expansion and Containment (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997).
Leikina-Svirskaia V. R., ‘Formirovanie raznochinskoi intelligentsii v Rossii v 40-kh godakh XIX v.’, Istoriia SSSR, 1 (1958): 83–104.
Leikina-Svirskaia V. R., Intelligentsiia v Rossii vo vtoroi polovine XIX veka (Moscow, Mysl’, 1971)
Lensen G., The Russian Push towards Japan: Russo-Japanese Relations 1 697–1875 (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1959).
Lensen G., Korea and Manchuria between Russia and Japan 1895–1904: The Observations of Sir Ernest Satow (Tallahassee: Diplomatic Press, 1966).
Lensen G., Balance of Intrigue: International Rivalry in Korea and Manchuria, 1884–1899, 2 vols. (Tallahassee: University Press of Florida, 1982).
Leonard C., Reform and Regicide: The Reign of Peter III of Russia (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1992).
Leslie R. F., Polish Politics and the Revolution of November 1830 (Westport: Greenwood, 1969).
Levenstim A. A., ‘Konokradstvo s iuridicheskoi i bytovoi storony’, Vestnik prava 29, 2 (1899): 28–82.
Levenstim A. A., ‘Sueverie i ugolovnoe pravo. Issledovanie po istorii russkogo prava i kul’tury’, Vestnik prava (1996), no. 1: 291–343; no. 2: 181–251.
Levitt M., Russian Literary Politics and the Pushkin Celebration of 1880 (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1989).
Ley F., Le maréchal de Münnich et la Russie au XVIII siècle (Paris: Plon, 1959).
Ley F., Alexander I et la Sainte-Alliance (Paris: Fischbacher, 1975).
Liechtenhan F.-D., La Russie entre en Europe: Elisabeth Ire et la succession d’Autriche (1740–1750) (Paris: CNRS éditions, 1997).
Lieven D., Nicholas II: Emperor of all the Russias (London: John Murray, 1993).
Lieven D., ‘The Russian Civil Service under Nicholas II: Some Variations on the Bureaucratic Theme’, JfGO 29 (1981): 366–403.
Lieven D., ‘The Russian Civil Service under Nicholas II: Some Variations on the Bureaucratic Theme’, Russia’s Rulers under the Old Regime (London: Yale University Press, 1989).
Lieven D., ‘The Russian Civil Service under Nicholas II: Some Variations on the Bureaucratic Theme’, The Aristocracy in Europe 1815–1914 (London: Macmillan, 1992).
Lieven D., Russia and the Origins of the First World War (London: Macmillan, 1983).
Lieven D., Empire: The Russian Empire and its Rivals (London: John Murray, 2000).
Lincoln B., In the Vanguard of Reform: Russia’s Enlightened Bureaucrats 1825–1861 (DeKalb: Northern Illinois University Press, 1982)
Lincoln W. B., Nicholas I: Emperor and Autocrat of all the Russias (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1978).
Lindenmeyr A., Poverty is not a Vice: Charity, Society and the State in Imperial Russia (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1996).
Lindenmeyr A., ‘Maternalism and Child Welfare in Late Imperial Russia’, Journal of Women’s History 5 (Fall 1993): 114–25.
Lindenmeyr A., ‘Public Life, Private Virtues: Women in Russian Charity, 1762–1914’, Signs 18, 3 (Spring 1993): 562–91.
Linke H. G., Das zarische Russland und der Erste Weltkrieg (Munich: Wilhelm Fink Verlag, 1982).
Litvak B., Perevorot 1861 goda v Rossii: pochemu ne realizovalas’ reformatorskaia al’ternativa (Moscow: Izd. politicheskoi literatury, 1991).
Lobanov-Rostovsky A., Russia and Asia (Ann Arbor: George Wahr, 1951).
Lohr E., Nationalizing the Russian Empire: The Campaign Against Enemy Aliens during World War I (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2003).
Lojek J., ‘Catherine II’s Armed Intervention in Poland: Origins of the Political Decisions at the Russian Court in 1791 and 1792’, canadian American Slavic Studies 4 (1970): 570–93.
Lopukhin A. A., Nastoiashchee i budushchee russkoi politsii (Moscow, 1907).
Lord R. H., The Second Partition of Poland (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1915).
Lotman I. M., Karamzin (St Petersburg: Iskusstvo-SPb, 1997).
Lotman Iu.M., and Uspenskii B. A., ‘Binary Models in the Dynamic of Russian Culture to the End of the Eighteenth Century’, in Nakhimovsky A. D. and Nakhimovsky A. S. (eds.), The Semiotics of Russian Cultural History (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1985), pp. 30–66.
Lotman Iu.M., Besedy o russkoi kul’ture: byt i traditsii russkogo dvorianstva (XVIII-nachalo XIX veka) (St Petersburg: Iskusstvo-SPb, 1994).
Lowe H., The Tsars and the Jews: Reform, Reaction and Anti-Semitism in Imperial Russia (New York: Oxford University Press, 1992).
Luburkin D. I., Russkaia novolatinskaia poeziia: materialy k istorii XVII–pervaia pol. XVIII veka (Moscow: Rossiiskii gos. gumanitarnyi universitet, 2000).
Luhmann N., Das Recht der Gesellschaft (Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp, 1995).
Luntinen P., The Imperial Russian Army and Navy in Finland 1808–1918 (Helsinki: SHS, 1997).
Luppov S. P., Kniga v Rossii v pervoi chetverti XVIII v. (Leningrad: Nauka, 1973).
Macey D., Government and Peasant in Russia, 1861–1917 (DeKalb: Northern Illinois University Press, 1987).
Mackenzie D., Imperial Dreams, Harsh Realities: Tsarist Russian Foreign Policy, 1815–1917 (Fort Worth: Harcourt Brace, 1994).
Mackenzie D., Count N. P. Ignat’ev: The Father of all Lies? (Boulder: East European Monographs, 2002).
Madariaga I., Russia in the Age of Catherine the Great (London: Weidenfeld and Nicholson, 1981).
Madariaga I., Politics and Culture in Eighteenth-Century Russia: Collected Essays. (London: Longman, 1998).
Madariaga I., ‘The Russian Nobility in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries’, in Scott H. M. (ed.), The European Nobilities in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries (London: Longman, 1995).
Madariaga I., Russia, Britain, and the Armed Neutrality of 1780 (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1962).
Maes F., A History of Russian Music from Kamarinskaya to Babi Yar (Berkeley: California University Press, 2002).
Makarov S., Sovet ministrov Rossiiskoi imperii, 1857–1917 (St Petersburg: Izd. SPbU, 2000).
Maklakov V. A., ‘Local Justice in Russia’, Russian Review 2 (1913): 127–46.
Makushin A. V., and Tribunskii P. A., Pavel Nikolaevich Miliukov: Trudy i dni (1859–1904) (Riazan, 2001).
Malozemoff Andrew, Russia’s Far Eastern Policy (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1958).
Mal’tsev S. F., ‘Kassatsiia opravdatel’nykh prigovorov’, Zhurnal Ministerstva Iustitsii 5, 10 (1899): 122–41.
Manning R. T., The Crisis of the Old Order in Russia: Gentry and Government (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1982).
Marker Gary, Publishing, Printing, and the Origins of Intellectual Life in Russia, 1700–1800 (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1985).
Marker Gary, ‘The Creation of Journals and the Profession of Letters in the Eighteenth Century’, in D. A. Martinsen (ed.), Literary Journals in Imperial Russia (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1997).
Marrese M., A Woman’s Kingdom: Noblewomen and the Control of Property in Russia, 1700–1861 (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2002).
Marriott J., Anglo-Russian Relations 1689–1943 (London: Methuen, 1944).
Marsh R. (ed.), Women in Russia and Ukraine (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996).
Martens F., Sobranie traktatov i konventsii, zakliuchennikh Rossiei i inostrannymi derzhavami, 15 vols. (St Petersburg: Tip. ministerstva put’ei soobshchenniia, 1874–1909).
Martens F. F., Le Conflit entre la Russie et la Chine (Brussels: C. Murquardt, 1880).
Martens F. F., Rossiia i Angliia v srednei Azii (St Petersburg: Izd. Garte, 1880).
Martin A. M., Romantics, Reformers, Reactionaries: Russian Conservative Thought and Politics in the Reign of Alexander I (DeKalb: Northern Illinois University Press, 1997).
Mazour A. G., The First Russian Revolution. 1825. The Decembrist Movement: Its Origins, Development, and Significance (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1937).
McConnell A., A Russian Philosophe: Alexander Radishchev 1749–1802 (The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1964).
McConnell A., ‘Catherine the Great and the Fine Arts’, in Mendelsohn E. (ed.), Imperial Russia 1700–1917: Essays in Honour of Marc Raeff (DeKalb: Northern Illinois University Press, 1990), pp. 37–57.
McDonald D. M., United Government and Foreign Policy in Russia 1900–1914 (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1992).
McGrew R. E., Paul I of Russia (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992).
McKean RobertB., St Petersburg Between the Revolutions: Workers and Revolutionaries, June 1907-February 1917 (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1990).
McLaughlin S., Russian and Soviet Battleships (Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 2003).
McLeod H., Secularisation in Western Europe, 1848–1914 (New York: St Martin’s Press, 2000).
McNeill R. H., Tsar and Cossack: 1855–1914 (Houndmills: Macmillan, 1987).
McReynolds L., ‘The “Incomparable” Vial’steva and the Culture of Personality’, in Goscilo H. and Holmgren B. (eds.), Russia. Women. Culture (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1996), pp. 273–91.
Mediger W., Moskaus Weg nach Europa: der Aufstieg Russlands zum europäischen Machtstaat im Zeitalter Friedrichs des Grossen (Braunschweig: Goerg Westermann Verlag, 1952).
Mediger W., Mecklenburg, Russland und England-Hannover 1706–1721: Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte des nordishen Krieges, Quellen und Darstellungen zur Geschichte Niedersachsens 70, 2 vols. (Hildesheim: Lax, 1967).
Meehan-Waters B., Autocracy and Aristocracy: The Russian Service Elite of 1730 (New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1982).
Meehan-Waters B., ‘From Contemplative Practice to Charitable Activity: Russian Women’s Religious Communities and the Development of Charitable Work, 1861–1917’, in McCarthy K. (ed.), Lady Bountiful Revisited: Women, Philanthropy and Power (New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1990), pp. 142–56.
Melton E., ‘Proto-industrialization, Serf Agriculture and Agrarian Social Structure: Two Estates in Nineteenth-Century Russia’, Past and Present 115 (1987): 69–106.
Melton E., ‘Household Economies and Communal Conflicts on a Russian Serf Estate, 1800–1817’, Journal of Social History 26 (1993): 559–85.
Melton JamesVanHorn, The Rise of the Public in Enlightenment Europe (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2001).
Mendel A. P., Dilemmas of Progress in Tsarist Russia: Legal Marxism and Legal Populism (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1958).
Mendeleev D. I., ‘Fabrichno-zavodskaia promyshlennost’ i torgovlia Rossii’, in D. I., Mendeleev , Sochineniia (Moscow: Izd. AN SSSR, 1952), vol. XXI, p. 190.
Mendelsohn E., Class Struggle in the Pale: The Formative Years of the Jewish Workers’ Movement in Tsarist Russia (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1970).
Mendelsohn E., and Shatz M. (eds.), Imperial Russia, 1700–1917: State, Society, Opposition. Essays in Honor of Marc Raeff (DeKalb, Northern Illinois University Press, 1988).
Menning B., Bayonets Before Bullets: The Imperial Russian Army, 1861–1914 (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1992).
Meyer K. E., and Brysac S. B., Tournament of Shadows: The Race for Empire and the Great Game in Central Asia (New York: Counterpoint, 1999).
Mezhdunarodnye otnosheniia v epokhu imperializma. Dokumenty iz arkhivov tsarskogo i vremennogo pravitel’stv, 1878–1917, 2nd series, 6 vols. (Moscow and Leningrad: Gospolitizdat, 1938–40).
Mezhdunarodnye otnosheniia v epokhu imperializma. Dokumenty iz arkhivov tsarskogo i vremennogo pravitel’stv, 1878–1917, 3rd series, 10 vols. (Moscow and Leningrad: Gos. Sotsial’no-ekonomicheskoe izd., 1931–8).
Migulin P. P., Nasha noveishaia zheleznodorozhnaia politika i zheleznodorozhnie zaimy (1893–1902) (Kharkov: Tipolitographiia ‘Pechatnoe Delo’ K. Gagarina, 1903).
Mikhailovich Nikolai, Duke Grand , Imperator Aleksandr I (Moscow: Bogorodskii Pechatnik, 1999).
Mikhailovich Nikolai, Grand Duke (ed.), Graf Pavel Aleksandrovich Stroganov (1774–1817), 3 vols. (St Petersburg: Ekspeditsiia zagotovleniia gos. bumag, 1903).
Mikhailovich Nikolai Grand Duke Relations diplomatiques de la Russie et de la France d’après les rapports des ambassadeurs d’Alexandre et de Napoléon, 1801–1812, 6 vols. (St Petersburg: Manufacture des papiers de l’état, 1905–8).
Miliukov P. N. Gosudarstvennoe khoziaistvo Rossii v pervoi chetverti XVIII veka i reforma Petra Velikogo, 2nd edition (St Petersburg: Tip. M. M. Stasiulevicha, 1905).
Miliutin D. A., Istoriia voiny 1799 goda mezhdu Rossiei i Frantsiei v tsarstvovanii Imperatora Pavla, 2nd edn, 3 vols. (St Petersburg: Imperatorskaia AN, 1857).
Miller F., Dmitrii Miliutin and the Reform Era in Russia (Charlotte: Vanderbilt University Press, 1968).
Miller M., Kropotkin (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1976).
Milov L. V., Velikorusskii pakhar’ i osobennosti rossiiskogo istoricheskogo protsessa (Moscow: Rosspen, 1998).
Minarik L. P., Ekonomicheskaia kharakteristika krupneishikh sobstvennikov Rossii kontsa XIX-nachala XX vek (Moscow: Nauka, 1971).
Minenko N. A., Russkaia krest’ianskaia sem’ia v Zapadnoi Sibiri (XVIII-pervoi poloviny XIX veka) (Novosibirsk: Nauka, 1979).
Ministerstvo finansov. 1802–1902, 2 vols. (St Petersburg: Expeditsiia zagotovleniia gos. bumag, 1902).
Ministerstvo iustitsii za sto let. 1802–1902. Istoricheskii ocherk (St Petersburg: Senatskaia tip., 1902)
Mironenko S. V., and Freeze G. (eds.), Gosudarstvennyi arkhiv Rossiiskoi Federatsii. Putevoditel’. Fondy Gosudarstvennogo arkhiva Rossiiskoi Federatsii po istorii Rossii XIX–nachala XX vv., vol. I (Moscow: Blagovest, 1994).
Mironenko S., Samoderzhavie i reformy: politicheskaia bor’ba v Rossii v nachale XIX v. (Moscow: Nauka, 1989).
Mironov B., A Social History of Imperial Russia, 1700–1917, 2 vols. (Boulder: Westview, 2000).
Mironov B. N., ‘Traditsionnoe demograficheskoe povedenie krest’ian v XIX-nachale XX v.’, in Vishnevskii A. G. (ed.), Brachnost’, rozhdaemost’, smertnost’ v Rossii i v SSSR (Moscow: Statistika, 1977)
Mironov B. N., ‘New Approaches to Old Problems: The Well-Being of the Population of Russia from 1821 to 1910 as Measured by Physical Stature’, Slavic Review, 58 (1999): 1–26.
Mirsky D. S., A History of Russian Literature from its Beginnings to 1900 (New York: Vintage, 1958).
Mishina E. A., Russkaia graviura na dereve XVII–XVIII (St Petersburg: Dmitrii Bulanin, 2000).
Moiseeva G. (ed.), Russkie povesti pervoi treti XVIII veka (Leningrad: Nauka, 1965).
Monas Sidney, The Third Section: Police and Society under Nicholas I (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1961).
Montefiore S., Prince of Princes: The Life of Potemkin (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 2000).
Moon D., Russian Peasants and Tsarist Legislation on the Eve of Reform, 1825–1855 (Basingstoke and London: Macmillan, 1992).
Moon D., ‘Peasant Migration and the Settlement of Russia’s Frontiers 1550–1897’, Historical Journal 30 (1997): 859–93.
Moon D., The Russian Peasantry, 1600–1930 (London and New York: Addison Wesley Longman, 1999).
Morgan Gerald, Anglo-Russian Rivalry in Central Asia: 1810–95 (London: Collins, 1981).
Morris MarciaA., The Literature of Roguery in Seventeenth- and Eighteenth-Century Russia (Evanston: Northwestern University Press, 2000).
Morrissey S., Heralds of Revolution: Russian Students and the Mythologies of Radicalism (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999).
Moser C. (ed.), The Cambridge History of Russian Literature (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982).
Moshinskii I., ‘Politicheskaia zashchita v dorevoliutsionnykh sudakh’, in Vilenskii V. V. (ed.), Deviatyi val. K desiatiletiiu osvobozhdeniia iz tsarskoi katorgi i ssylki (Moscow, 1927), pp. 44–71.
Muller , Otto , Intelligencija. Untersuchungen zur Geschichte eines politischen Schlagwortes (Frankfurt, Athenaum, 1971).
Nabokow W., ‘Das aussergerichtliche Strafverfahren’, in Melnik J. (ed.), Russen über Russland. Ein Sammelwerk (Frankfurt am Main, 1906), pp. 297–315.
Nahirny VladimirC., ‘The Russian Intelligentsia: From Men of Ideas to Men of Convictions’, Comparative Studies in Society and History 4 (1962): 403–35.
Nahirny VladimirC., The Russian Intelligentsia: From Torment to Silence (New Brunswick: Transaction Books, 1983).
Nathans B., Beyond the Pale: The Jewish Encounter with Late Imperial Russia (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2002).
Neilson Keith, Britain and the Last Tsar: British Policy and Russia 1894–1917 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995).
Netting A., ‘Russian Liberalism: The Years of Promise’, unpublished PhD dissertation, Columbia University (1967).
Nichols R. L., ‘The Orthodox Elder (Startsy) of Imperial Russia’, Modern Greek Studies Yearbook 1 (1985): 1–30.
Nifontov A. S., 1848 v Rossii. Ocherki po istorii 40-kh godov (Moscow and Leningrad: Sotsial’noeconomicheskoe Izd. 1931).
Nikol’skii B. A., Frantsiia i Rossiia (k 25 -letiu franko-russkogo soiuza) (Petrograd, 1917).
Nish I., The Origins of the Russo-Japanese War (London: Longman, 1985).
Nizhinskii L. N., and Ignat’ev A. V. (eds.), Rossiia i chernomorskie prolivy (XVIII–XX stoletiia) (Moscow: Mezhdunarodnye otnosheniia, 1999).
Nolde B. E., La Formation de l’Empire russe, 2 vols. (Paris: Institut d’etudes slaves, 1952–53).
Nolde Boris, L’alliance franco-russe. Les origines du système diplomatique d’avant-guerre (Paris: Librairie Droz, 1936).
Norman Geraldine, The Hermitage: The Biography of a Great Museum (London: Jonathan Cape, 1997).
Nos’ A. E., Mirovoi sud v Moskve. Ocherki razbiratel’stva u mirovykh sudei, vol. I (Moscow: Izd. Cherkesova, 1869).
Nos’ A. E., ‘O sudebnoi reforme v Turkestanskom krae i Stepnykh oblastiakh’, Zhurnal Ministerstva Iustitsii 5, 2 (1899): 63–110.
Okenfuss Max, ‘The Jesuit Origins of Petrine Education’, in Garrard J. (ed.), The Eighteenth Century in Russia (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1973), pp. 106–30.
Okenfuss Max, ‘The Jesuit Origins of Petrine Education’, The Discovery of Childhood in Russia: The Evidence of the Slavic Primer (Newtonville: Academic International Press, 1980).
Okenfuss Max, ‘The Jesuit Origins of Petrine Education’, The Rise and Fall of Latin Humanism in Early Modern Russia (Leiden: Brill, 1995).
Okolovich B. I., ‘Ob usloviiakh sledstvennoi sluzhby v okruge Bakinskago suda’, Zhurnal Ministerstva Iustitsii 19, 8 (1913): 147–76.
Olcott M. B., The Kazakhs (Stanford: Hoover, 1987).
Oldenburg S. S., Last Tsar, 4 vols. (Gulf Breeze: Academic International Press, 1975).
O’Malley Lurana, ‘How Great Was Catherine? Checkpoints at the Border of Russian Theater’, Slavonic and East European Journal, 43 (1999): 33–48.
Orlik O. V., Rossiia v mezhdunarodnykh otnosheniiakh 1815–1829 (Moscow: Nauka, 1998).
Orlik O. V., (ed.), Istoriia vneshnei politiki Rossii: pervaia polovina XIX veka (Moscow: Mezhdunarodnye otnosheniia, 1995).
Orlovsky D., The Limits of Reform: The Ministry of Internal Affairs in Imperial Russia, 1802–1881 (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1981).
O’Rourke S., Warriors and Peasants: The Don Cossacks in Late Imperial Russia (Houndmills: Macmillan, 2000).
Orzhekhovskii I. V., Samoderzhavie protiv revoliutsionnoi Rossii (1826–1880) (Moscow: Mysl’, 1982).
Owen T., Capitalism and Politics in Russia: A Social History of the Moscow Merchants 1855–1905 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981).
Padenie tsarskogo rezhima. Stenograficheskie otchoty doprosov i pokazanii, 7 vols. (Leningrad: Gos. izd., 1925).
Paine S. C. M., Imperial Rivals: China, Russia and their Disputed Frontier (Armonk: M. E. Sharpe, 1996).
Pak ChonHo, Russko-iaponskaia voina1904–1905 gg. iKoreia (Moscow: Vostochnaia literatura, 1997).
Pallot J., Land Reform in Russia 1906–1917 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1999).
Pallot J., and Shaw D. J. B., Landscape and Settlement in Romanov Russia, 1613–1917 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1990).
Pankratova AnnaM., Formirovanie proletariata v Rossii (XVII–XVIII vv.) (Moscow, Nauka, 1963).
Panov A. I., Ofitsery v russkoi revoliutsii 1905–07 gg. (Moscow: Regional’naia obshchestvennaia organizatsiia ofitserov ‘Demos’, 1996).
Parfenii (Sopkovskii) and Georgii , O dolzhnostiakh presviterov prikhodskikh (St Petersburg: Sinodal’naia tip., 1776).
Pavlenko N. I., Petr pervyi (Moscow: Molodaia gvardiia, 1975).
Pearson T., Russian Officialdom in Crisis: Autocracy and Local Self-Government 1861–1900 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989).
Pearson Th., ‘Russian Law and Rural Justice: Activity and Problems of the Russian Justices of the Peace’, JfGO 32 (1984): 52–71.
Pearson Th., Petrogradskii mirovoi sud za piat’desiat let 1866–1916, 2 vols. (Petrograd, 1916).
Pereira N.G.O., The Thought and Teachings of N. G. Chernyshevskij (The Hague and Paris: Mouton, 1975).
Perrie M., ‘Popular Monarchism: The Myth of the Ruler from Ivan the Terrible to Stalin’, in Hosking G. and Service R. (eds.), Reinterpreting Russia (London: Arnold, 1999), pp. 156–69.
Perrie M., The Agrarian Policy of the Russian Socialist-Revolutionary Party from its Origins through the Revolution of 1905–1907 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1976).
Pervaia vseobshchaia perepis’ naseleniia Rossiiskoi imperii 1897g. (St Petersburg, 1897–1905).
Peterson C., Peter the Great’s Administrative and Judicial Reforms: Swedish Antecedents and the Process of Reception (Stockholm: Rattshistorisk forskning 29, 1979).
Petrov Iu.A., Kommercheskie banky Moskvy. Konets XIX veka – 1914 (Moscow: Rosspen, 1998).
Petrov Iu.A., Moskovskaia burzhuaziia v nachale XX veka: Predprinimatel’stvo i polítika (Moscow: Mosgorarchiv, 2002).
Petrovich M. B., The Emergence of Russian Panslavism 1856–1870 (New York: Columbia University Press, 1956).
Pierce R., Russia in Central Asia 1867–1917: A Study in Colonial Rule (Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1960).
Pintner W., and Rowney D. K. (eds.), Russian Officialdom: The Bureaucratization of Russian Society from the Seventeenth to the Twentieth Century (London: Macmillan, 1980).
Pintner WalterM., ‘The Burden of Defense in Imperial Russia, 1725–1915’, Russian Review 43 (1984): 231–59.
Piotrovskii M. V. (ed.), Osnovateliu Peterburga. Katalog vystavki (St Petersburg: Ermitazh, 2003).
Pipes R., Karamzin’s Memoir on Ancient and Modern Russia: A Translation and Analysis (New York: Atheneum, 1969).
Pipes R., Struve, Liberal on the Left (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1970).
Pipes R., Struve, Liberal on the Right (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1980).
Pipes R., Social Democracy and the St Petersburg Labor Movement, 1885–1907 (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1963).
Pipes R., Struve: Liberal on the Left, 1870–1905 (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1970).
Pirumova N. M., Zemskoe liberal’noe dvizhenie: Sotsial’nye korni i evoliutsiia do nachala XX veka (Moscow, Nauka, 1977).
Pirumova N. M., Zemskaia intelligentsiia i ee rol’ v obshchestvennoi bor’be (Moscow, Nauka, 1986).
Pisarev S. N., Uchrezhdenie po priniatiiu i napravleniiu proshenii i zhalob, prinosimykh na Vysochaishee imia, 1810–1910 gg. Istoricheskii ocherk (St Petersburg: Tovarishchestvo P. Golike i A. Vil’borg, 1909).
Pis’ma i bumagi Imperatora Petra Velikogo, II vols.: vols. I–VII (St Petersburg: Gos. tip., 1887–1918); vols. VIII–XI (Moscow: AN SSSR, 1948–64).
Pistohlkors G.von, Ritterschaftliche Reformpolitik zwischen Russifizierung und Revolution (Göttingen: Musterschmidt, 1978).
Plaggenborg S., ‘Tax Policy and the Question of Peasant Poverty in Tsarist Russia 1881–1905’, Cahiers du Monde Russe et Sovietique 36 (1995): 53–69.
Plamper J., ‘The Russian Orthodox Episcopate, 1721–1917: A Prosopography’, Journal of Social History 60 (2001): 5–24.
Poe Marshall, ‘What Did Russians Mean When They Called Themselves “Slaves of the Tsar”?Slavic Review 57, 3 (Fall 1998): 585–608.
Pogrebinskii A. P., Ocherki istorii finansov dorevoliutsionnoi Rossii XIX–XX vv. (Moscow: Gosfinizdat, 1954).
Pokrovskii I. M., Russkie eparkhii v XVI–XIX vv, 2 vols. (Kazan, 1913).
Pokrovskii V. I., Sbornik svedenii po istorii i statistike vneshnei torgovli Rossii (St Petersburg: Departament Tamozhennykh Sborov, 1902).
Polianskii N. N., Epopeia voenno-polevykh sudov 1906–1907 gg. (Moscow: Izd. Vsesoiuznogo obshchestva politkatorzhan, 1934).
Polianskii N. N., Tsarskie voennye sudy v bor’be s revoliutsiei, 1905–1907 gg (Moscow: Izd. MGU, 1958).
Politicheskie deiateli Rossii 1917 (Moscow: Bol’shaia Rossiiskaia entsiklopediia, 1993).
Pol’noe sobranie zakonov Rossiiskoi imperii, 1st series, 45 vols. (St Petersburg: Tip. II otd., 1830).
Pol’noe sobranie zakonov Rossiiskoi imperii, 2nd series, 55 vols. (St Petersburg: Tip. II otd., 1830–84).
Pol’noe sobranie zakonov, 3rd series, 33 vols. (St Petersburg: Senatskaia tip., 1885–1917).
Polunov A.Iu., Pod vlast’iu ober-prokurora (Moscow: Aero-XX, 1995).
Pomeranz W. E., ‘Justice from Underground: The History of the Underground Advokatura’, Russian Review 52 (1993): 321–40.
Pomper P., Peter Lavrov and the Russian Revolutionary Movement (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1972).
Ponomarev V. N., Krymskaia voina i russko-amerikanskie otnosheniia (Moscow: Institut rossiiskoi istorii, 1993).
Popkins G., ‘Peasant Experiences of the Late Tsarist State: District Congresses of Land Captains, Provincial Boards and the Legal Appeals Process, 1891–1917, Slavonic and East European Review 78 (2000): 90–114.
Popova A. I., Griboedov diplomat (Moscow: Mezhdunarodnye otnosheniia, 1964).
Porfir’eva A. L. (ed.), Muzykal’nyi Peterburg: entsiklopedicheskii slovar’, 4 vols. (St Petersburg: Kompozitor, 1996–2001).
Porter B., When Nationalism Began to Hate: Imagining Modern Politics in Nineteenth-Century Poland (New York: Oxford University Press, 2000).
Praisman L. G., Terroristy i revoliutsionery, okranniki i provokatory (Moscow: Rosspen, 2001).
Pravilova K., ‘Finliandiia i rossiiskaia imperia: politika i finansy’, Istoricheskie zapiski, 124, 6 (2003): 180–240.
Pravoslavnaia entsiklopediia: Russkaia pravoslavnaia tserkov’, in progress, 7 vols. to date (Moscow: Tserkovno-nauchnyi tsentr ‘Pravoslavnaia entsiklopediia’, 1998–).
Prilozheniia k trudam redaktsionnykh komissii dlia sostavleniia polozhenii o krest’ianakh, vykhodiashchikh iz krepostnoi zavisimosti, 6 vols. (St Petersburg, 1860).
Primakov E. M. et al. (eds.), Kantsler A. M. Gorchakov: 200 let so dnia rozhdeniia (Moscow: Mezhdunarodnye otnosheniia, 1998).
Prozorov S. M. (ed.), Islam na teritorii byvshei Rossiiskoi imperii (Moscow: Vostochnaia literatura, 1999).
Pushkin A., Complete Prose Fiction, trans., intro. and notes Debreczeny Paul (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1983).
Pyman A., A History of Russian Symbolism (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994).
Pypin A. (ed.), Sochineniia (Ekateriny II), 12 vols. (St Petersburg, 1901).
Pypin A., Obshchestvennoe dvizhenie pri Aleksandre I (Petrograd: Izd. Ogni, 1918).
Quested Rosemary, The Expansion of Russia in East Asia1857–1860 (Kuala Lumpur: University of Malaysia Press, 1968).
Quested Rosemary, ‘Matey’ Imperialists? The Tsarist Russians in Manchuria 1895–1917 (Hong Kong: University of Hong Kong, 1982).
Quested Rosemary, Sino-Russian Relations: A Short History (Sydney: George Allen and Unwin, 1984).
Raeff M., Plans for Political Reform in Imperial Russia (Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, 1966).
Raeff M., Imperial Russia 1682–1825 (New York: Knopf, 1971).
Raeff M., The Well-Ordered Police State: Social and Institutional Change through Law in the Germanies and Russia (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1983).
Raeff M., The Decembrist Movement (Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, 1966).
Raeff M., Origins of the Russian Intelligentsia (New York: Harcourt, Brace and World, 1966).
Raeff M., ‘Transfiguration and Modernization: The Paradoxes of Social Disciplining, Paedagogical Leadership, and the Enlightenment in Eighteenth-Century Russia’, in Bödeker H. E. and Hinrichs E. (eds.), Alteuropa – Ancien Régime – Frühe Neuzeit: Probleme und Methoden der Forschung (Stuttgart, Fromann-Holzboog, 1991).
Raeff M., ‘Pugachev’s Rebellion, in Forster R. and Greene J. P. (eds.), Preconditions of Revolution in Early Modern Europe (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1970).
Ragsdale H. (ed.), Paul I: A Reassessment of His Life and Reign (Pittsburgh: Pittsburgh University Press, 1979).
Ragsdale H., Détente in the Napoleonic Era: Bonaparte and the Russians (Lawrence: Regents University Press of Kansas, 1980).
Ragsdale H., ‘Russia, Prussia, and Europe in the Policy of Paul I’, JfGO 31 (1983): 81–118.
Ragsdale H., ‘Reevaluating Russian Traditions of Aggression: Catherine II and the Greek Project’, Slavonic and East European Review 66 (1988): 75–102.
Ragsdale H., (ed.), Imperial Russian Foreign Policy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993).
Raleigh Donald, ‘The Impact of World War I on Saratov and its Revolutionary Movement’, in Wade R. and Seregny S. (eds.), Politics and Society in Provincial Russia: Saratov, 1590–1917 (Columbus, Ohio University Press, 1989).
Ransel D., The Politics of Catherinian Russia (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1975).
Ransel D., Mothers of Misery: Child Abandonment in Russia (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1988).
Rawson D., ‘The Death Penalty in Late Tsarist Russia’, Russian History 11 (1984): 29–58.
Reddaway W. F. (ed.), Documents of Catherine the Great: The Correspondence with Voltaire and the Instruction of 1767 in the English Text of 1768 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1931).
Reichman H., Railwaymen and Revolution: Russia 1905 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1987).
Rennenkampf N., ‘Neskol’ko slov ob usloviiakh sledovatel’skoi deiateli’nosti v Turkestanskom krae’, Zhurnal Ministerstva Iustitsii 2, 2 (1896): 212–24.
Riasanovsky N. V., Nicholas I and Official Nationality in Russia (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1959).
Riasanovsky N. V., A Parting of Ways. Government and the Educated Public in Russia 1801–1855 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1976).
Riasanovsky N. V., The Image of Peter the Great in Russian History and Thought (New York: Oxford University Press, 1985).
Rich D. A., The Tsar’s Colonels. Professionalism, Strategy and Subversion in Late Imperial Russia (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1998).
Rieber A., Merchants and Entrepreneurs in Imperial Russia (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1982).
Ritchie G., ‘The Asiatic Department during the Reign of Alexander II 1855–1881’, unpublished PhD dissertation, Columbia University (1970).
Robbins R., Famine in Russia, 1891–1892 (New York: Columbia University Press, 1975).
Robbins R., The Tsar’s Viceroys: Russian Provincial Governors in the Last Years of Empire (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1987).
Robinson G. T., Rural Russia under the Old Regime (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1932).
Rogger H., Jewish Policies and Right-Wing Politics in Imperial Russia (Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1986).
Romanov B. A., Ocherki diplomaticheskoi istorii russko-iaponskoi voiny. 1895–1907 (Moscow and Leningrad: Izd. AN SSSR, 1955).
Romanov B. A., Rossiia v Manchzhurii (Leningrad: Izd. Instituta Dal’nego Vostoka, 1928).
Romanov B. A., Russia in Manchuria, trans. Susan WilburJones (Ann Arbor: Edwards, 1952).
Romanovich-Slavatinskii A., Dvorianstvo v Rossii, new edn. (Moscow: Izd. Kraft, 2003).
Roosa R., Russian Industrialists in an Age of Revolution (Armonk: M. E. Sharpe, 1997).
Roosevelt P., Life on the Russian Country Estate: A Social and Cultural History (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1995).
Rorlich A.-A., The Volga Tatars: A Profile in National Resilience (Stanford: Hoover, 1986).
Rosslyn W., Feats of Agreeable Usefulness: Translations by Russian Women 1763–1825 (London: Ashgate, 2002).
Rosslyn W., (ed.), Women and Gender in Eighteenth-century Russia (London: Ashgate, 2002).
Rostunov I. I., Russkii front pervoi mirovoi voiny (Moscow: Nauka, 1976).
Rostunov I. I., Istoriia russko-ianponskoi voiny 1904–1905 gg. (Moscow: Nauka, 1977).
Rostunov I. I., Russko-turetskaia voina 1877–1878 (Moscow: Voenizdat, 1977).
Rostunov I. I., (ed.), Istoriia severnoi voiny: 1700–1721 gg. (Moscow: Nauka, 1987).
Rowland D.The Problem of Advice in Muscovite Tales about the Time of Troubles’, Russian History/Histoire russe 6, 2 (1979): 259–83.
Rowland D.Did Muscovite Literary Ideology Place Limits on the Power of the Tsar (1540s–1660s)?Russian Review 49 (1990): 125–55.
Rozhdestvenskii S. V., Istoricheskii obzor deiatel’nosti ministerstva narodnogo prosveshcheniia. 1802–1902 (St Petersburg: Izd. ministerstva narodnogo prosveshcheniia, 1902).
Rozhkov Vladimir, Tserkovnye voprosy v Gosudarstvennoi Dume (Rome: Pontificium institutum orientalium studiorum, 1975).
Ruane C., Gender, Class and the Professionalization of Russian City Teachers, 1860–1914 (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1994).
Rubinshtein N. L. Sel’skoe khoziaistvo Rossii vo vtoroi polovine XVIII v. (Moscow: Gospolitizdat, 1957)
Russian State Historical Archives: St Petersburg. Annotated Register (St Petersburg: Russian-Baltic Information Center – Blitz, 1994).
Russkaia Starina, 175 vols. (St Petersburg: various publishers, 1870–1918).
Russkii Arkhiv (Moscow: Izd. P. Barteneva, 1863–1917).
Ruud C., Fighting Words: Imperial Censorship and the Russian Press, 1804–1906 (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1982).
Rybachenok I. S., Soiuz s Frantsiei vo vneshnei politike Rossii v kontse XIX v. (Moscow: Institut istorii SSSR, 1993).
Rybachenok I. S., ‘Rossiia i gaagskaia konferentsiia po razoruzheniiu 1899 g.’, Novaia i noveishaia istoriia, no. 4 (Apr. 1996): 169–92.
Rywkin M. (ed.), Russian Colonial Expansion to 1917 (London: Mansell, 1988).
Rzhevsky N. (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Modern Russian Culture (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998).
Sablinsky W., The Road to Bloody Sunday: Father Gapon and the St Petersburg Massacre of 1905 (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1976).
Safonov M., Problema reform v pravitel’stvennoi politike Rossii na rubezhe XVIII i XIX vv. (Leningrad: Nauka, 1988).
Sakharov A. N. et al. (eds.), Istoriia vneshnei politiki Rossii, 5 vols. (Moscow: Mezhdunarodnye otnosheniia, 1995–9).
Sanborn J., Drafting the Russian Nation: Military Conscription, Total War, and Mass Politics 1905–1925 (DeKalb: Northern Illinois University Press, 2003).
Sankt-Peterburgskie vysshie zhenskie kursy. Slushatel’nitsy kursov. Po dannym perepisi (ankety), vypolnennoi statisticheskim seminarom v noiabre 1909 g. (St Petersburg, 1912).
Sarabianov D., From Neoclassicism to the Avant-Garde: Painting, Sculpture, Architecture (London: Thames and Hudson, 1990).
Sarabianov D. Rossiia i zapad: XVIII–nachalo XX veka (Moscow: Iskusstvo XXI vek, 1998).
Saul N. E., Concord and Conflict: The United States and Russia, 1867–1914 (Lawrence: Regents University Press of Kansas, 1996).
Saunders D., The Ukrainian Impact on Russian Culture 1750–1830 (Edmonton: CIUS, 1985).
Savinov A. Ivan Nikitin 1688–1741 (Moscow: Iskusstvo, 1945).
Sbornik Imperatortskogo Russkogo istoricheskogo obshchestva, 148 vols. (St Petersburg: Tip. M. M. Stasiulevicha, 1867–1916).
Schader A. M., Languages of the Lash: Corporal Punishment and Identity in Imperial Russia (DeKalb: Northern Illinois University Press, 2002).
Schimmelpenninck van der Oye D. H., Toward the Rising Sun: Russian Ideologies of Empire and the Path to War with Japan (DeKalb: Northern Illinois University Press, 2001).
Schmidt C., Sozialkontrolle in Moskau. Justiz, Kriminalität und Leibeigenschaft 1649–1785 (Stuttgart: Steiner Verlag, 1996).
Schneiderman Jeremiah, Sergei Zubatov and Revolutionary Marxism: The Struggle for the Working Class in Tsarist Russia (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1976).
Schroeder P. W., The Transformation of European Politics, 1763–1848 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994).
Schwartz S., The Russian Revoliution of 1905 : The Workers’ Movement and the Formation of Bolshevism and Menshevism, trans: Vakar G. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1967).
Schweitzer R., Autonomie und Autokratie. Die Stellung des Grossfurstentums Finnland im russischen Reich in der zweiten Hälfte des 19. Jahrhunderts (Giessen: Wilhelm Schmitz, 1978).
Scott H. M., The Emergence of the Eastern Powers, 1756–1775 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001).
Scott J. B., (ed.) The Armed Neutralities of 1780 and 1800: A Collection of Official Documents (New York: Oxford University Press, 1918).
Segal H. B. (ed.), The Literature of Eighteenth-Century Russia, 2 vols. (New York: E. P. Dixon, 1967).
Semenov A. A., and Khorev M. M., A.O. Karelin: tvorcheskoe nasledie (Nizhnii Novgorod: Volgo-Viatskoe knizhnoe izd. 1990).
Seregny Scott, Russian Teachers and Peasant Revolution: The Politics of Education in 1905 (Bloomington, Indiana University Press, 1989).
Sergeev E.Iu., ‘Inaia zemlia, inoe nebo’ Zapad i voennaia elita Rossii 1900–1914 (Moscow: Institut vseobshchei istorii RAN, 2001).
Seton-Watson H., The Russian Empire, 1801–1917 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1967).
Shapiro A. L. (ed.), Agrarnaia istoriia Severo-Zapada Rossii XVII veka (Leningrad: Nauka, 1989)
Shatsillo K. F., Ot portsmutskogo mira k peroi mirovoi voine. Generaly i politika (Moscow: Rosspen, 2000).
Shebaldin Iu.N., ‘Gosudarstvennyi biudzhet tsarskoi Rossii v nachale XX veka (do pervoi mirovoi voiny)’, Istoricheskie zapiski, 56 (1959): 163–90.
Shepelev L., Tituly, mundiry i ordena Rossiiskoi imperii (Moscow: Tsentrpoligraph, 2004).
Shepelev L. E., Chinovnyi mir Rossii XVIII–nachalo XX v. (St Petersburg: Iskusstvo, 1999).
Shepelev L. E., Aktsionernye kompanii v Rossii (Leningrad: Nauka, 1973).
Shepelev L. E., Tsarizm i burzhuaziia vo vtoroi polovine XIX veka. Problemy torgovo-promyshlennoi politiki (Leningrad: Nauka, 1981).
Shepelev L. E., Tsarizm i burzhuaziia vo vtoroi polovine XIX veka (Leningrad: Nauka 1986).
Shepelev L. E., Tsarizm i burzhuaziia v 1904–1914 (Leningrad: Nauka, 1987).
Shevzov Vera, Russian Orthodoxy on the Eve of Revolution (New York: Oxford University Press, 2004).
Shil’der N., Imperator Aleksandr pervyi: ego zhizn’ i tsarstvovanie, 4 vols. (St Petersburg: Izd. A. S. Suvorin, 1897–98).
Shilov D., Gosudarstvennye deiateli Rossiiskoi imperii. 1802–1917 (St Petersburg: Dmitrii Bulanin, 2001).
Shirinianets A. A., Russkaia sotsial’no-politicheskaia mysl’ XIX–nachala XX veka. N. M. Karamzin (Moscow: Izd. Vorob’ev A. V., 2001).
Shitsgal A. G. (ed.), Grazhdanskii shrift pervoi chetverti XVIII veka 1708–1725 (Moscow: Kniga, 1981).
Shmidt S. O., ‘Kistorii slova “intelligentsia”’, repr. in Obshchestvennoe samosoznanie rossiiskogo blagorodnogo sosloviia, XVII-pervaia tret’ XIX veka (Moscow, Nauka, 2002).
Shrag I. L., ‘Krest’ianskie sudy Vladimirskoi i Moskovskoi gubernii’, Iuridcheskii vestnik (1877), nos. 3–4: 1–48; nos. 5–6: 52–101; nos. 7–8: 58–86; nos. 9–10: 61–99.
Shtrange M. M., Demokraticheskaia intelligentsiia Rossii v XVIII veke (Moscow, Nauka, 1965).
Shtrange M. M., Russkoe obshchestvo i frantsuzskaia revoliutsiia (Moscow: Izd. AN SSSR, 1956).
Shvanebakh P. A., Nashe podatnoe delo (St Petersburg: Tip. M. M. Stasiulevicha, 1903).
Shvidkovskii D. O., The Empress and the Architect: British Gardens and Follies in St Petersburg, 1750–1830 (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1996).
Siegel Jennifer, Endgame: Britain, Russia and the Final Struggle for Central Asia (London: I. B. Tauris, 2002).
Simanskii P. N., Sobytiia na Dalnem Vostoke, 3 vols. (St Petersburg: Voennaia tip., 1910).
Simms J. Y., ‘The Crisis of Russian Agriculture at the End of the Nineteenth Century’, Slavic Review 36 (1977): 378–98.
Simonova M. S., ‘Otmena krugovoi poruki’, Istoricheskie zapiski, 83 (1969): 159–95.
Sinel A., The Classroom and the Chancellery: State Education Reform in Russia under Count Dmitry Tolstoi (Cambridge, Mass., Harvard University Press, 1973).
Sirotkin V. G., Duel’ dvukh diplomatii (Moscow: Nauka, 1966).
Sirotkin V. G., Napoleon i Rossiia (Moscow: Olma-Press, 2000).
Skripilev E. A. (ed.), Razvitie russkogo prava vo vtoroi polovine XIX – nachale XX veka (Moscow: Nauka, 1997).
Slezkine Y., Arctic Mirrors: Russia and the Small Peoples of the North (Ithaca: University of California Press, 1994).
Slezkine Y., The Jewish Century (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2004).
Sliozberg G. B., Dela minuvshikh dnei, vol. I (Paris: priv. pub., 1933).
Slocum J. W., ‘Who and When were the Inorodtsy? The Evolution of the Category of “Aliens” in Imperial Russia’, Russian Review 57, 2, (1988): 173–90.
Sluchevskii V. K., ‘Iz pervykh let zhizni sudebnykh ustavov’, Zhurnal Ministerstva Iustitsii 20, 2 (1914): 181–233.
Smith A. K., ‘Peasant Agriculture in Pre-Reform Kostroma and Kazan’ Provinces’, Russian History 26 (1999): 355–424.
Smith R. E. F., Peasant Farming in Muscovy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1977).
Smith R. E. F., and Christian D., Bread and Salt: A Social and Economic History of Food and Drink in Russia (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1984).
Smolitsch Igor, Russisches Mönchtum: Entstehung, Entwicklung und Wesen 988–1917 (Würzburg: Augustinus-Verlag, 1953).
Smolitsch Igor, Geschichte der russischen Kirche, 2 vols. (Leiden and Berlin: Brill, 1964–91).
Snyder T., Nationalism, Marxism, and Modern Central Europe: A Biography of Kazimierz Kelles-Krauz, 1872–1905 (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1998).
Snyder T., The Reconstruction of Nations: Poland, Ukraine, Lithuania, Belarus, 1569–1999 (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2003).
Solov’eva A. N., Zheleznodorozhnyi transport Rossii vo vtoroi polovine XIX veka (Moscow: Nauka, 1975).
Solzhenitsyn A., Dvesti let vmeste (1795–1995), 2 vols. (Moscow: Russkii put’, 2001–2).
Spasovich V. D., Sochineniia, 10 vols. (St Petersburg: knizhnii magazin brat’ev Rymovich, 1889–1902).
Spasovich V. D., ‘Sudebnaia reforma v Sibirii’, Zhurnal Ministerstva Iustitsii 2, 6 (1896): 145–60.
Spasovich V. D., Sudebnye ustavy 20 noiabria 1864 goda za piat’desiat let, 2 vols. (Petrograd, 1914).
Spasovich V. D., Svod zamechanii o priminenii na praktike sudebnykh ustavov (1869–1870) (n.p.: n.d.).
Spisok grazhdanskim chinam pervykh chetyrekh klassov po starshinstvu, 1841–185 8, 24 vols. (St Petersburg: Senatskaia tip., 1841–58).
Spisok grazhdanskim chinam pervykh chetyrekh klassov, 1876–1916, 80 vols. (St Petersburg: Senatskaia tip., 1876–1916).
Spravochniki po istorii dorevoliutsionnoi Rossii. Bibliograficheskii ukazatel’, 2nd edn (Moscow: Kniga, 1978).
Squire P. S., The Third Department: The Establishment and Practice of the Political Police in the Russia of Nicholas I (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1968).
Stanislawski M., Tsar Nicholas I and the Jews: The Transformation of Jewish Society in Russia, 1825–1855. (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1983).
Stanislawski M., For Whom Do I Toil? Judah Leib Gordon and the Crisis of Russian Jewry (New York: Oxford University Press, 1988).
Starr S. F., Decentralisation and Self-Government in Russia. 1830–70 (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1972).
Stasov V., Selected Essays on Music (London: Barrie and Rockliff, 1968).
Stavrou T. G. (ed.), Art and Culture in Nineteenth-Century Russia (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1983).
Steinberg MarkD., Moral Communities: The Culture of Class Relations in the Russian Printing Industry, 1867–1907 (Berkeley, University of California Press, 1992).
Stepanov V. I., N. Kh. Bunge. Sud’ba reformatora (Moscow: Rosspen, 1998).
Stepanov V. I., Sud’by Rossii. Doklady i zapiski gosudarstvennykh deiatelei imperatoram o problemakh ekonomicheskogo razvitiia strany (St Petersburg: Liki Rossii, 1999).
Stites R., The Women’s Liberation Movement in Russia: Feminism, Nihilism and Bolshevism, 1860–1930 (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1978).
Stockdale M. K., Paul Miliukov and the Quest for a Liberal Russia, 1880–1918 (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1996).
Stoletie voennogo ministerstva. 1802–1902, 13 vols. (St Petersburg: various publishers, 1902–14).
Stone N., The Eastern Front 1914–1917 (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1975).
Subtelny O., The Mazepists: Ukrainian Separatism in the Early Eighteenth Century (New York: Columbia University Press, 1982).
Subtelny O., Ukraine: A History (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1988).
Sumner B. H., Russia and the Ballkans 1870–1880 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1937).
Sumner B. H., Tsardom and Imperialism (Hamden: Archon Books, 1968).
Suny R. G., Looking Towards Ararat: Armenia in Modern History (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1993).
Suny R. G., The Making of the Georgian Nation (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1994).
Suny R. G., Transcaucasia: Nationalism and Social Change (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1983).
Surh G., 1905 in St Petersburg: Labor, Society and Revolution (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1989).
Svod zakonov Rossiiskoi imperii, 15 vols. (St Petersburg: Tip. II otd., 1832).
Taranovskii T. (ed.), Reform in Modern Russian History: Progress or Cycle? (New York: Woodrow Wilson Center Press and Cambridge University Press, 1995).
Tarle E. V., Severnaia voina i shvedskoe nashestvia na Rossiiu (Moscow: Izd. sotsial’noekonomicheskoi literatury, 1958).
Tarnovskii E. N., ‘Otnoshenie chisla opravdannykh k chislu podsudimykh v evropeiskoi Rossii za 1889–1893 gg. (Sravnitel’no-statisticheskii ocherk)’, Zhurnal Ministerstva Iustitsii 3, 9 (1897): 169–89.
Tarnovskii K. N., Sovetskaia istoriografiia rossiiskogo imperializma (Moscow: Nauka, 1964).
Taruskin R., Stravinsky and the Russian Traditions, 2 vols. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1966).
Tatishchev S. S., Aleksandr II: ego zhizn’ i tsarstvovanie, 2 vols. (St Petersburg: Izd. A. S. Suvorin, 1903).
Taube M., La politique russe d’avant-guerre (Paris: Librairie Ernest Leroux, 1928).
Tenishev V. V., Pravosudie v russkom krest’ianskom bytu (Briansk, 1907).
Thackeray F. W., Antecedants of Revolution: Alexander I and the Polish Kingdom 1815–1825 (Boulder: Westview, 1980).
Thaden E. C., Conservative Nationalism in Nineteenth-Century Russia (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1964).
Thaden E. C., Russia’s Western Borderlands, 1710–1870 (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1984).
Thaden E. C., (ed.), Russification in the Baltic Provinces and Finland, 1855–1914 (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1981).
Theen R. H., Lenin: Genesis and Development of a Revolutionary (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1973).
Tikhon (Zadonskii), Nastavlenie o sobstvennykh vsiakogo khristianina dolzhnostiakh (St Petersburg: Sinodal’naia tip., 1789).
Tillander-Godenhielm U., The Russian Imperial Award System 1894–1917 (Helsinki: SMYA, 2005).
Timofeev N., Sud prisiazhnykh v Rossii (Moscow, 1881).
Tishkin G. A., Zhenskii vopros v Rossii 50–60-e gody XIX v. (Leningrad: Izd. LGU, 1984).
Titlinov B. V., Molodezh’ i revoliutsiia (Leningrad: Gosizdat, 1924).
Torke H. J., ‘Das russische Beamtentum in der ersten Hälfte des 19 Jahrhunderts’, Forschungen zur Geshchichte Osteuropas 13 (1967): 7–345.
Troitskii N. A., ‘Narodnaia volia’ pered tsarskim sudom 1880–1894 (Saratov: Izd Saratovskogo universiteta, 1983).
Troitskii N. A., Tsarskie sudy protiv revoliutsionnoi Rossii (Saratov: Izd saratovskogo universiteta, 1976).
Troitskii S. M., Russkii absoliutizm i dvorianstvo v XVIIIv: Formirovanie biurokratii (Moscow: Nauka, 1974).
Troitskii S. M., Russkii absoliutizm i dvorianstvo v XVIIIv. (Moscow: Nauka, 1974).
Troitskii S. M., Finansovaia politika russkogo absoliutizma v XVIII veke (Moscow: Nauka, 1966).
Trubetzkoi PrinceG., Russland als Grossmacht (Stuttgart: Deutsche Verlags-Anhalt, 1917).
Trudy Vol’nogo Ekonomicheskogo Obshchestva k pooshchreniiu v Rossii zemledeliia i domostroitel’stva, 280 vols. (St Petersburg, 1765–1915).
Tselorungo D. G., Ofitsery russkoi armii – uchastniki borodinskogo srazheniia. Istorikosotsiologicheskoe issledovanie (Moscow: Kalita, 2002).
Tsukhanov , ‘O nedostatkakh nashego suda prisiazhnykh’, Zhurnal grazhdanskogo ugolovnogo prava 11, 2 (1882): 81–109; 11, 3 (1882): 133–58.
Tugan Baranovskii R., Russkaia fabrika v proshlom i nastoiashchem (Moscow: Moskovskii rabochii, 1922).
Tumanov G. M., Razboi i reforma suda na kavkaze (St Petersburg, 1903).
Tvardovskaia V. A., Ideologiia poreformennogo samoderzhaviia (M. N. Katkov i ego izdaniia (Moscow: Nauka, 1978).
Ulianova G., ‘Entrepreneurs and Philanthropy in Nizhnii Novgorod, from the Nineteenth Century to the Beginning of the Twentieth Century’, in Brumfield W., Anan’ich B. and Petrov Iu. , Commerce in Russian Urban Culture, 1861–1914 (Washington/Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 2001), pp. 90–107.
Ustav dukhovnykh konsistorii (St Petersburg, 1841).
Valkenier E. K., Russian Realist Art, the State, and Society: The Peredvizhniki and their Tradition (New York: Columbia University Press, 1989).
Valkenier E. K., Valentin Serov: Portraits of Russia’s Silver Age (Evanston: Northwestern University Press, 2001).
Vandal A., Napoléon et Alexandre I, 5th edition, 3 vols. (Paris: Plon and Nourrit, 1898–1903).
Venturi Franco, Roots of Revolution: A History of the Populist and Socialist Movements in Nineteenth-Century Russia, trans Haskell Francis (New York: Knopf, 1960).
Verbitskaya A., Keys to Happiness, ed. and trans. Holmgren B. and Goscilo H. (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1999).
Verkhovskoi P. V., Uchrezhdenie dukhovnoi kollegii i dukhovnyi reglament, 2 vols. (Rostov-on-Don, 1916).
Vernadsky G. et al (eds.), A Source Book for Russian History from Ancient Times to 1917, 3 vols. (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1972).
Verner A., The Crisis of Russian Autocracy: Nicholas II and the 1905 Revolution (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1990).
Verzhbitskii V. G., Revoliutsionnoe dvizhenie v russkoi armii 1826–1859 (Moscow: Izd. Sovetskaia Rossiia, 1964).
Vilenskii B. V. (ed.), Sudebnaia reforma. Rossiiskoe zakonodatel’stvo X–XX vekov, vol. VIII (Moscow: Iuridicheskaia literatura, 1991).
Vinaver M. M., Ocherki ob advokature (St Petersburg: Tip. M. M. Stasiulevicha, 1902).
Vinogradov V. N., ‘Diplomatiia Ekateriny Velikoi: “My ni za kem khvostom ne tashchimsia”’, Novaia i noveishaia istoriia (2001), no. 3: 131–50.
Vinogradov V. N., ‘Diplomatiia Ekateriny Velikoi: krymskaia epopeia’, Novaia i noveishaia istoriia (2001), no. 4: 124–48.
Vinogradov V. N., ‘Diplomatiia Ekateriny Velikoi: Ekateriny II i Frantsuzskaia revoliutsiia’, Novaia i noveishaia istoriia (2002), no. 6: 109–36.
Vinogradov V. N., (ed.), Vek Ekateriny II: dela balkanskie (Moscow: Nauka, 2000).
Vinogradova T. P., Nizhegorodskaia intelligentsiia vokrug N. A. Dobroliubova (Nizhnii Novgorod: Volgo-Viatskoe knizhnoe izd., 1992).
Vital D., The Origins of Zionism (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1975).
Vitchevskii V., Torgovaia, tamozhennaia i promyshlennaia politika Rossii (St Petersburg: Izdanie D. A., Kazitsina i Iu. D. Philipova, 1909).
Vladimirov L. E., Advocatus miles. Posobie dlia ugolovnoi zashchity (St Petersburg: Zakonovedenie, 1911).
Vlasto A. P., A Linguistic History of Russia to the End of the Eighteenth Century (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1986).
Vneshnaia politika Rossii XIX i nachala XX veka. Dokumenty rossiiskogo ministerstva inostrannykh del, 1801–1815, 1st series, 8 vols. (Moscow and Leningrad: Gospolitizdat, 1960–72).
Vneshnaia politika Rossii XIX i XX veka. Dokumenty rossiiskogo ministerstva inostrannykh del, 1815–1830, 2nd series, 7 vols. (Moscow and Leningrad: Gospolitizdat, 1974–76).
Vodarskii Ia.E., Naselenie Rossii v kontse XVII-nachale XVIII veka (Moscow: Nauka, 1977).
Volodimirov V., ‘Mirovoi sud v Peterburge’, Zhurnal grazhdanskogo ugolovnogo prava 14, 5 (1884): 1–58.
Volodimirov V., Vysochaishe uchrezhdennaia komissiia dlia peresmotra zakonopolozhenii po sudebnoi chasti. Trudy, 9 vols. (St Petersburg, 1895–9).
Volodimirov V., Vysochaishe uchrezhdennaia komissiia dlia peresmotra zakonopolozhenii po sudebnoi chasti. Podgotovitel’nye materialy, 12 vols. (St Petersburg, 1894–5).
Vovchik A. F., Politika tsarizma po rabochemu voprosu v predrevoliutsionnyi period (1895–1904) (Lvov: Izd L’vovskogo universiteta, 1964).
Vowles J., ‘The “Feminization” of Russian Literature: Women, Language, and Literature in Eighteenth-Century Russia’, in Clyman T. and Greene D. (eds.), Women Writers in Russian Literature (Westport: Praeger, 1994), pp. 35–60.
Vozgrin V. E., Rossiia i evropeiskie strany v gody Severnoi voiny (Leningrad: Nauka, 1986).
Vucinich W. S. (ed.), Russia and Asia: Essays on the Influence of Russia on the Asian Peoples (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1971).
Vyskochkov L., Imperator Nikolai I (St Petersburg: Izd. SPbU 2001).
Wagner WilliamG., Marriage, Property, and Law in Late Imperial Russia (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1994).
Walicki A., The Controversy over Capitalism: Studies in the Social Philosophy of the Russian Populists (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1969).
Walicki A., The Slavophile Controversy: History of a Conservative Utopia in Nineteenth-Century Russian Thought, trans. Andrews-Rusiecka H. (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1975).
Walicki A., A History of Russian Thought from the Enlightenment to Marxism (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1979).
Walicki A., Legal Philosophies of Russian Liberalism (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1987).
Walicki A., Philosophy and Romantic Nationalism: The Case of Poland (Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 1982).
Walicki A., The Enlightenment and the Birth of Modern Nationhood: Polish Political Thought from Noble Republicanism to Tadeusz Kosciuszko (Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 1989).
Wandycz P. S., The Lands of Partitioned Poland 1795–1918 (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1974).
Wcislo F., Reforming Rural Russia: State, Local Society and National Politics, 1855–1914 (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1990).
Weeks T. R., Nation and State in Late Imperial Russia: Nationalism and Russification on the Western Frontier, 1863–1914 (DeKalb: Northern Illinois University Press, 1996).
Weickhardt G., ‘Political Thought in Seventeenth-Century Russia’, Russian History/Histoire russe 21, 3 (Fall 1994): 316–37.
Weiss P., Kandinsky and Old Russia (London: Yale University Press, 1994).
Werth P. W., At the Margins of Orthodoxy: Mission, Governance and Confessional Politics in Russia’s Volga-Kama Region 1827–1905 (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2002).
Whelan H., Alexander III and the State Council: Bureaucracy and Counterreform in Late Imperial Russia (New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1982).
Whelan H. W., Adapting to Modernity: Family, Caste and Capitalism among the Baltic German Nobility (Cologne: Böhlau Verlag, 1999).
Whittaker C. H., The Origins of Modern Russian Education: An Intellectual Biography of Count Sergei Uvarov, 1786–1855 (DeKalb: Northern Illinois University Press, 1984).
Wigzell Faith, Reading Russian Fortunes: Print Culture, Magic and Divination in Russia from 1765 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998).
Wildman A. K., The End of the Russian Imperial Army: The Old Army and the Soldiers’ Revolt (March–April, 1917) (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1980).
Wildman A., The Making of a Workers’ Revolution: Russian Social Democracy, 1891–1903 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1967).
Wirtschafter E. K., The Play of Ideas: Russian Enlightenment Theater (DeKalb: Northern Illinois University Press, 2003).
Wirtschafter E. K., Structures of Society: Imperial Russia’s‘People of Various Ranks’ (DeKalb, Northern Illinois University Press, 1994).
Wirtschafter E. K., ‘Social Misfits:Veterans and Soldiers’ Families in Servile Russia’, Journal of Military History 59 (1995): 215–35.
Wirtschafter E. K., ‘Legal Identity and the Possession of Serfs in Imperial Russia’, Journal of Modern History 70 (1998): 561–87.
Wirtschafter E. K., From Serf to Russian Soldier (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1990).
Wirtschafter EliseKimerling, The Play of Ideas in Russian Enlightenment Theater (DeKalb: Northern Illinois University Press, 2003).
Witte S.Iu., Konspekt lektsii o narodnom i gosudarstvennom khoziastve (St Petersburg: Fond ‘Nachala’, 1912).
Wittram R., Peter I: Czar und Kaiser, 2 vols. (Göttingen: Vandenhoeck and Ruprecht, 1964).
Wittram R., Baltische Geschichte (Munich: Oldenbourg, 1954).
Woodcock G., and Avakumovic I., The Anarchist Prince: A Biographical Study of Peter Kropotkin (London and New York: T. V. Boardman, 1950).
Worobec C. D., ‘Horsethieves and Peasant Justice in Post Emancipation Russia’, Journal of Social History 21 (1987): 281–93.
Worobec C. D., Peasant Russia: Family and Community in the Post-Emancipation Period (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1991).
Wortman R. S., Scenarios of Power: Myth and Ceremony in Russian Monarchy, 2 vols. (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1995 and 2000).
Wortman R., The Crisis of Russian Populism (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1967).
Wortman R., The Development of a Russian Legal Consciousness (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1976).
Wynn C., Workers, Strikes and Pogroms: The Donbass-Dnepr Bend in Late Imperial Russia 1870–1905 (Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1992).
Yaney G., The Systematization of Russian Government: Social Evolution in the Domestic Administration of Imperial Russia (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1973).
Zaionchkovskii P. (ed.), Istoriia dorevoliutsionnoi Rossii v dnevnikakh i vospominaniiakh, 19 vols. (Moscow: Kniga, 1976–89).
Zaionchkovskii P. A., Krizis samoderzhaviia na rubezhe 1870–1880-kh godov (Moscow: Izd. MGU, 1964).
Zaionchkovskii P. A., The Russian Autocracy under Alexander III (Gulf Breeze: Academic International Press, 1976).
Zaionchkovskii P. A., Pravitel’stvennyi apparat samoderzhavnoi Rossii XIX v. (Moscow: Mysl’, 1978).
Zaionchkovskii P. A., Voennye reformy 1860–1870 godov v Rossii (Moscow: Izd. MGU, 1952).
Zaionchkovskii P. A., Samoderzhavie i russkaia armiia na rubezhe XIX–XX stoletii (Moscow: Mysl, 1973).
Zakharova L. G., Samoderzhavie i otmena krepostnogo prava v Rossii, 1856–1861 (Moscow: Izd. MGU, 1984).
Zakrevskii I. P., ‘O zhelatel’nykh izmeneniiach v sudebnykh ustavach’, Zhurnal grazhdanskogo ugolovnogo prava 11, 2 (1882): 17–57.
Zavadskii V. R., ‘V zale zasedanii s prisiazhnymi zasedateliami. Iz otchetov revizora’, Zhurnal Ministerstva Iustitsii 2, 3 (1896): 104–28.
Zav’ialov A., Vopros o tserkovnykh imeniiakh pri Imp. Ekateriny II. (St Petersburg, 1900).
Zawadzki W. H., A Man of Honour: Adam Czartoryski as a Statesman of Russia and Poland, 1795–1831 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1993).
Zelkina A., In Quest for God and Freedom. Sufi Responses to the Russian Advance in the North Caucasus (London: Hurst, 2000).
Zelnik R. E., ‘The Peasant and the Factory’, in Vuchinich W. S. (ed.), The Peasant in Nineteenth Century Russia (Stanford, Stanford University Press, 1968).
Zelnik R. E., Law and Disorder on the Narova River: The Kreenholm Strike of 1872 (Berkeley, University of California Press, 1995).
Zelnik R. E., (ed.), Workers and Intelligentsia in Late Imperial Russia: Realities, Representations, Reflections (Berkeley, International and Area Studies, 1999).
Zelnik R. E., (ed.), Labor and Society in Tsarist Russia: The Factory Workers of St Petersburg, 1855–1870 (Stanford, Stanford University Press, 1971).
Zelnik R. E. (ed.), A Radical Worker in Tsarist Russia: The Autobiography of Semen Ivanovich Kanatchikov (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1986).
Zenkovsky S. A., Pan-Turkism and Islam in Russia (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1960).
Zhivov V. M., ‘Kul’turnye reformy v sisteme preobrazovaniia Petra I’, in Koshelev A. (ed.), Iz istorii russkoi kul’tury. Tom III. (XVII–nachalo XVIII veka) (Moscow: Iazyki russkoi kul’tury, 1996), pp. 528–83.
Zipperstein S., The Jews of Odessa: A Cultural History, 1794–1881 (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1986).
Zipperstein S., Elusive Prophet: Ahad Ha’am and the Origins of Zionism (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993).
Zolotarev V. A. (ed.), Istoriia voennoi strategii Rossii (Moscow: Kuchkovo pole poligrafresursy, 2000).
Zviagintsev A. G., and Orlov Yu.G., Pod sen’iu russkogo orla. Rossiiskie prokurory. Vtoraia polovina XIX – nachalo XX v. (Moscow: Rosspen, 1996).
Zviagintsev A. G., and Orlov Iu.G., V epokhu potriasenii i reform. Rossiiskie prokurory 1906–1907 (Moscow: Rosspen, 1996).
Zyrianov PavelN., Russkie monastyri i monashestvo v XIX i nachale XX veka (Moscow: Verbum-M, 2002).