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    Ogilvie, Brian 2016. A Companion to the History of Science. p. 358.

    Dear, Peter 2016. A Companion to the History of Science. p. 71.

    Davids, Karel 2015. On Machines, Self-Organization, and the Global Traveling of Knowledge, circa 1500–1900. Isis, Vol. 106, Issue. 4, p. 866.

    Dear, Peter 2012. Historiography of Not-So-Recent Science. History of Science, Vol. 50, Issue. 2, p. 197.

    Taylor, Peter J. Hoyler, Michael and Evans, David M. 2008. A Geohistorical Study of ‘The Rise of Modern Science’: Mapping Scientific Practice Through Urban Networks, 1500–1900. Minerva, Vol. 46, Issue. 4, p. 391.

  • Print publication year: 2006
  • Online publication date: March 2008

16 - Networks of Travel, Correspondence, and Exchange

from Part II - Personae and Sites of Natural Knowledge
European knowledge of the natural world depends upon expert practitioners who were entrusted with providing reliable information and authentic natural specimens while traversing ever larger and ever more remote geographical tracts. Although networks of travel and correspondence grew extensively during the late Middle Ages, they were almost without exception confined to the lands of Europe and the coasts of the Mediterranean Sea. At the same time that correspondence networks proliferated, travel extended beyond European shores to those of Africa, Asia, and the New World. Broadly speaking, the fundamental changes in communications in the early modern period depended on innovations in postal services, overseas travel, and printing. Although the disinterested pursuit of scientific knowledge was never a primary goal of these corporations, the operation of long-distance networks of any sort required knowledge of certain parts of the natural world.
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