Skip to main content Accesibility Help
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 1
  • Cited by
    This chapter has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Feldhay, Rivka 2018. Emergence and Expansion of Pre-Classical Mechanics. Vol. 270, Issue. , p. 29.

  • Print publication year: 2006
  • Online publication date: March 2008

14 - Sites of Military Science and Technology

from Part II - Personae and Sites of Natural Knowledge
By the middle of the thirteenth century, gunpowder had made its way to Western Europe from Asia, most likely from China, by intermediaries yet to be ascertained. Technological changes were also frequent during this early period of gunpowder weapon development. Some of the more traditional arms manufacturers, especially armorers, tried to keep pace with these gunpowder-related changes. However, at some locations an entirely new fortification system was constructed that was designed completely with an eye toward defense against gunpowder weapons. However, one group of intellectuals began to build on and tie their quest for patronage to the advent and proliferation of gunpowder weapons. The earliest of these intellectuals, from the fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries, have most frequently been called "courtly engineers" by modern historians. Gunnery, the building of war machines, and the design of fortifications were prominent among what were known as the "mechanical arts", which included the practical disciplines that involved working with machines.
Recommend this book

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

The Cambridge History of Science
  • Online ISBN: 9781139054010
  • Book DOI:
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to *
Alder, KenEngineering the Revolution: Arms and Enlightenment in France, 1763–1815 (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1997).
Anglo, SydneyMachiavelli as a Military Authority: Some Early Sources,” in Florence and Italy: Renaissance Studies in Honour of Nicolai Rubinstein, ed. Denley, P. and Elam, C. (London: Westfield College, University of London, Committee for Medieval Studies, 1988).
Bacon, RogerOpera, ed. Brewer, J. S. (London: Rolls Series, 1859).
Bacon, RogerThe Opus Majus of Roger Bacon, ed. Bridges, J. H., 2 vols. (London: Rolls Series, 1900)
Battista Alberti, LeonL’Architettura (De re aedificatoria) Leon Battista Alberti, ed. and trans. Orlandi, Giovanni, 2 vols. (Milan: Edizioni Il Polifilo, 1966)
Battista Alberti, LeonOn the Art of Building in Ten Books, trans. Rykwert, J., Leach, Neil, and Tavernor, Robert (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1988)
Blair, ClaudeEuropean Armour: circa 1066 to circa 1700 (London: B.T. Batsford, 1958).
Brackenbury, HenryAncient Cannon in Europe, Part I: From Their First Employment to A.D. 1350,” Proceedings of the Royal Artillery Institution, 4 (1865).
Buchanan, BrendaGunpowder and Early Gunpowder Weapons,” in Gunpowder: The History of an International Technology, ed. (Bath: University of Bath Press, 1996).
Bull, StephenPearls from the Dungheap: English Saltpetre Production, 1590–1640,” Journal of the Ordnance Society, 2 (1990)
Cassidy, BenMachiavelli and the Ideology of the Offensive: Gunpowder Weapons in The Art of War,” Journal of Military History, 67 (2003).
Contamine, PhilippeWar in the Middle Ages, trans. , Michael Jones (Oxford: Blackwell, 1984)
da Vigo’s, GiovanniJoannes da Vigo: The Most Excellent Workes of Chirurgerye [1543] (Amsterdam: Da Capo Press Theatrum Orbis Terrarum, 1968).
de Commynes, PhilippeThe Memoirs of Philippe de Commynes, ed. Kinser, Samuel, trans. Isabelle Cazeaux, 2 vols. (Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1969).
de Gheyn, JacobWapenhandelinghe van roers, musquetten ende spiessen, achtervolgende de ordre van Sÿn Excellentie Maurits, Prince van Orangie, Graue van Nassau, etc., Gouverneur ende Capiteÿn Generael ouer Gelderlant, Hollant, Zeelant, Vtrecht, Overÿssel, etc. (The Hague, 1607)
de La Groix, HorstThe Literature on Fortification in Renaissance Italy,” Technology and Culture, 4 (1963)
de la Marche, OlivierEstat de la maison de Charles le Hardi, in Collection complète des mémoires relatifs à l’histoire de France, vols. 9 and 10, ed. Petitot, M. (Paris: Foucault, 1820).
de Saint-Rémy, SurireyThe Manufacture of Gunpowder in France (1702), Part I: Saltpetre, Sulphur, and Charcoal,” trans. Roberts, D. H., Journal of the Ordnance Society, 5 (1993)
DeVries, Kelly and Smith, Robert D., “Removable Powder Chambers in Early Gunpowder Weapons,” in Gunpowder, Explosives, and the State: A Technological History, ed. Buchanan, Brenda (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2005).
DeVries, Kelly, Medieval Military Technology (Peterborough: Broadview Press, 1992)
DeVries, KellyA Reassessment of the Gun Illustrated in the Walter de Milemete and Pseudo-Aristotle Manuscripts,” Journal of the Ordnance Society, 15 (2003).
DeVries, KellyDebate – Catapults Are Not Atomic Bombs: Towards a Redefinition of ‘Effectiveness’ in Premodern Military Technology,” War in History, 4 (1997)
DeVries, KellyMilitary Surgical Practice and the Advent of Gunpowder Weaponry,” Canadian Bulletin of Medical History, 7 (1990)
DeVries, KellyThe Forgotten Battle of Bevershoutsveld, May 3, 1382: Technological Innovation and Military Significance,” in Armies, Chivalry, and Warfare in Medieval Britain and France (Harlaxton Medieval Studies, 7), ed. Strickland, Matthew (Stamford, Lincolnshire: Paul Watkins Publishing, 1998)
DeVries, KellyThe Impact of Gunpowder Weaponry on Siege Warfare in the Hundred Years War,” in The Medieval City under Siege, ed. Corfis, Ivy A. and Wolfe, Michael (Woodbridge: Boydell Press, 1995)
DeVries, KellyA Cumulative Bibliography of Medieval Military History and Technology (Leiden: E. J. Brill, 2002).
DeVries, KellyGuns and Men in Medieval Europe, 1200–1500: Studies in Military History and Technology (Variorum Collected Studies) (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2002).
DeVries, , “Gunpowder Weaponry and the Rise of the Early Modern State,” War in History, 5 (1998)
di Giorgio Martini, FrancescoTrattati di architettura ingegneria e arte militare, 2 vols. (Milan: Electa, 1967)
Dubled, H.L’Artillerie royale Française à l’époque de Charles VII et au début du règne de Louis XI (1437–1469): Les frères Bureau,” Memorial de l’artillerie française, 50 (1976).
Duffy, ChristopherThe Fortress in the Age of Vauban and Frederick the Great, 1660–1789 (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1985)
Duffy, , Fire and Stone: The Science of Fortress Warfare, 1660–1860 (Newton Abbot: David and Charles, 1975).
Filarete, , Trattato di architettura, ed. Finoli, Anna Maria and Grassi, Liliana, 2 vols. (Milan: Il Polifilo, 1972)
Filarete, , Treatise on Architecture, Being the Treatise by Antonio di Piero Averlino, known as Filarete, trans. Spencer, John R., 2 vols. (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1965)
Fiorato, VeronicaBoylston, Anthea, and Knüsel, Christopher, Blood Red Roses: The Archaeology of a Mass Grave from the Battle of Towton, a.d. 1461 (Oxford: Oxbow Books, 2000).
Froissart, JeanChroniques, ed. Luce, S., 10 vols. in 12 (Paris: Mme. Ve. J. Renouard, 1869–97).
Ghiberti, BuonaccorsoA Translation of Vitruvius and Copies of Late Antique Drawings in Buonaccorso Ghiberti’s Zibaldone, trans. Scaglia, Gustina (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1979).
Hale, John R.Printing and the Military Culture of Renaissance Venice,” in Hale, Renaissance War Studies (London: Hambledon, 1983)
Hale, John R.The Early Development of the Bastion: An Italian Chronology,” in Europe in the Late Middle Ages, ed. , J. R. Hale (Evanston, Ill.: Northwestern University Press, 1965)
Hale, John R.The Military Education of the Officer Class in Early Modern Europe,” in Cultural Aspects of the Italian Renaissance: Essays in Honor of Paul Oskar Kristeller, ed. Clough, C. H. (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1976)
Hale, John R.Renaissance Fortification: Art or Engineering? (London: Thames and Hudson Press, 1977)
Hale, , “Gunpowder and the Renaissance: An Essay in the History of Ideas,” in From Renaissance to Counter-Reformation: Essays in Honour of Garrett Mattingly, ed. Carter, Charles H. (London: Cape, 1966)
Hale, , “Military Academies on the Venetian Terrafirma in the Early Seventeenth Century,” Studi veneziani, 15 (1973)
Hall, A. RupertBallistics in the Seventeenth Century (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1965).
Hall, Bert S.Weapons and Warfare in Renaissance Europe: Gunpowder, Technology, and Tactics (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1997).
Hobohm, M.Machiavellis Renaissance der Kriegkunst, 2 vols. (Berlin: Curtius, 1913)
Kaiserfeld, ThomasChemistry in the War Machine: Saltpeter Production in 18th Century Sweden,” in The Heirs of Archimedes: Technology, Science and Warfare, 1350–1800, ed. Steele, Brett (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2005).
Kist, J. B. ed., The Exercise of Armes: All 117 Engravings from the Classic 17th-Century Military Manual (Mineola, N.Y.: Dover 1999).
Krenn, PeterWas leisteten die alten Handfeuerwaffen? Ergebnisse einer Ausstellung des Landeszeughauses in Graz,” Waffen- und Kostümkunde, 32 (1990)
Krenn, Peter ed., Von alten Handfeuerwaffen: Entwicklung, Technik, Leistung (Graz: Landeszeughaus, 1989)
Little, A. G. ed., “Part of the Opus tertium,” British Society of Franciscan Studies, 4 (1912)
Little, A. G. ed., Studies in English Franciscan History (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1917).
Long, Pamela O.Openness, Secrecy, Authorship: Technical Arts and the Culture of Knowledge from Antiquity to the Renaissance (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2001).
Lynn, John A.International Rivalry and Warfare,” in The Eighteenth Century: Europe, 1688–1815, ed. Blanning, T. C. W. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000).
Machiavelli, NiccolòThe Art of War, ed. and trans. Wood, Neal (New York: Da Capo Press, 1965).
Malgaigne, J. F.Surgery and Ambroise Paré, trans. Hamby, Wallace B. (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1965)
Manetti, RenzoAntonio da Sangallo: Arte fortificatoria e simbolismo neoplatonico nella fortezza di Firenze,” in Architettura militare nell’Europa del XVI secolo: Atti del Convegno di Studi, Firenze, 25–28 Novembre 1986, ed. Cresti, Carlo, Fara, Amelio, and Lamberini, Daniela (Siena: Edizioni Periccioli, 1988)
Oakeshott, EwartEuropean Weapons and Armour: From the Renaissance to the Industrial Revolution [1980] (Woodbridge: Boydell Press, 2000)
Paré, Ambroise, The Apologie and Treatise, ed. and trans. Keynes, Geoffrey (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1952).
Paré, , Ten Books of Surgery with the Magazine of the Instruments Necessary for It, ed. and trans. Linker, Robert White and Womack, Nathan (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1969).
Parker, GeoffreyThe Military Revolution: Military Innovation and the Rise of the West, 1500–1800 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988)
Pepper, Simon and Adams, Nicholas, Firearms and Fortifications: Military Architecture and Siege Warfare in Sixteenth-Century Siena (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1986).
Pepper, Simon M.Planning Versus Fortification: Sangallo’s Plan for the Defence of Rome,” Architectural Review, 159 (1976)
Peter, KrennKalaus, Paul, and Hall, Bert, “Material Culture and Military History: Test-Firing Early Modern Small Arms,” Material History Review, 42 (Fall 1995).
Pfaffenbichler, MatthiasMedieval Craftsmen: Armourers (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1992).
Pyhrr, StuartGodoy, José-A., and Leydi, Silvio, Heroic Armor of the Italian Renaissance: Filippo Negroli and His Contemporaries (New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1998).
Roberts’s, MichaelThe Military Revolution, 1560–1660 (Belfast: Marjory Boyd, 1956).
Smith, Robert D.Casting Shot in the 16th Century,” Journal of the Ordnance Society, 12 (2000).
Smith, Robert D.Good and Bold: A Late 15th-Century Artillery Train,” The Royal Armouries Yearbook, 6 (2001)
Smith, Robert D. and DeVries, Kelly, The Artillery of the Dukes of Burgundy, 1363–1477 (Woodbridge: Boydell Press, 2005).
Stewart, Richard WinshipThe English Ordnance Office, 1585–1625: A Case Study in Bureaucracy (London: Royal Historical Society, 1996).
Thordemann, BengtArmour from the Battle of Wisby, 1361 [1939] ([Highland City, Tx.]: Chivalry Bookshelf, 2001).
Vauban’s, A Manual of Siegecraft and Fortification, trans. Rothrock, George A. (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1968).
Vaughan, RichardPhilip the Good: The Apogee of Burgundy (London: Longmans, 1970).
Webb, Henry J.Elizabethan Military Science: The Books and the Practice (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1965).
Williams, Alan R.The Production of Saltpetre in the Middle Ages,” Ambix, 22 (1975).