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  • Cited by 3
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    Stoker, Hendrik G. and Derengowski, Paul 2017. A discussion about the version of the Bible available to Muhammad. In die Skriflig/In Luce Verbi, Vol. 51, Issue. 2,

    Epp, Eldon Jay 1989. New Testament Textual Criticism Past, Present, and Future: Reflections on the Alands' Text of the New Testament. Harvard Theological Review, Vol. 82, Issue. 02, p. 213.

    Neusner, Jacob 1986. Toward a theory of comparison. Religion, Vol. 16, Issue. 3, p. 269.

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    • Online ISBN: 9781139055901
    • Book DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521074186
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Volume 1 of The Cambridge History of the Bible concerns the earliest period down to Jerome and takes as its central theme the process by which the books of both Testaments came into being and emerged as a canon of scripture, and the use of canonical writings in the early church.

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Page 1 of 2


  • 1 - THE BIBLICAL LANGUAGES
    pp 1-11
    • By Matthew Black, St Mary’s College, University of St Andrews
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521074186.002
  • View abstract
    Summary
    Hebrew and Aramaic are two of the main representatives of the Semitic family of languages, named after Shem, the reputed ancestor of the Semitic peoples. Ancient Ethiopic first appears in epigraphic materials of the first Christian centuries and in the Aksum inscriptions of the fourth century AD. It is the language of an extensive Ethiopian Christian literature. The modern Semitic languages of Ethiopia are represented by Tigrina, Tigre, Amharic, Harari and Gurage. Classical Hebrew is the language of the Old Testament scriptures. The Lachish letters of the sixth century BC inscriptions, like the Gezer Calendar, the Siloam inscriptions have all added substantially to the knowledge of the ancient Hebrew language. The New Testament is written in a form of biblical Greek, the language of the Greek Old Testament and related writings, which are itself a deposit of the widely diffused Hellenistic language, usually designated the Koine form of the Greek language in the post-classical or Hellenistic era.
  • 2 - THE BIBLICAL SCRIPTS
    pp 11-29
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521074186.003
  • View abstract
    Summary
    This chapter explores the Biblical Scripts: Early Hebrew, Square Hebrew, Greek, Latin, Syriac, Coptic and Ethiopic. The Early Hebrew and the Phoenician alphabets were two branches from the Canaanite stem, which was a continuation of the North- Semitic. The Samaria ostraca, of the ninth or eighth century BC are the earliest documents written in Early Hebrew current or running hand. The Greek alphabet occupies in many ways a unique place in the history of writing. The numerous Greek inscriptions are of paramount importance for history; they form the subject of Greek epigraphy. The city of Antioch of Syria was one of the most important centres of early Christianity and it was there that 'the disciples were for the first time called Christians'. Coptic literature consists for the most part of translations from Greek, and includes versions of the Bible, apocrypha of the Old Testament and of the New Testament, the Martyrdoms and the Lives of the Saints, and so on.
  • 3 - BOOKS IN THE ANCIENT NEAR EAST AND IN THE OLD TESTAMENT
    pp 30-48
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521074186.004
  • View abstract
    Summary
    The discovery of more than half a million documents spanning the period of the Old Testament enables a comparison to be made between the various contemporary literary forms in use within the ancient Near East. The Assyrian and Babylonian scribes of the first millennium employed scrolls of papyrus or leather for Aramaic inscriptions. The varied and numerous documents and writing materials presuppose persons skilled in writing. From 3100 BC in Mesopotamia, and thereafter in Egypt, Anatolia and Elam, scribes were at work in the principal cities and centres of government. In Mesopotamia and Israel the overriding cultural factor was the concept of law and authority which ensured the vitality, stability and continuity of a highly developed civilisation. The Hebrew Proverbs are closest to the precepts or instructions which range from the Old Kingdom writings of the Egyptian sages to the New Kingdom collections and are scattered throughout the literature.
  • 4 - BOOKS IN THE GRAECO-ROMAN WORLD AND IN THE NEW TESTAMENT
    pp 48-66
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521074186.005
  • View abstract
    Summary
    The discoveries at Qumran show that in the first century BC the text of Isaiah, for example, was faithfully transmitted; the widely varying interpretations that might be placed on the text by Jews as well as later by Christians. Christian literature began with the interpretation of the Old Testament in the light of Christian experience. The literature of the earliest Church, from the New Testament, is with two exceptions what might have been predicted from its Jewish origins: the sacred books of Judaism and some interpretations of those books in the light of Christian experience. In Jewish copies of the Greek versions of the scriptures it was usual for the name of God, Yahweh, to be written in Hebrew letters. Christian culture and education were bookish through and through; reliance on the book, initially a legacy from Judaism, was soon a weapon of the Church in its fight against paganism.
  • 5 - THE OLD TESTAMENT IN THE MAKING
    pp 67-113
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521074186.006
  • View abstract
    Summary
    The Old Testament is a collection of religious writings which, whatever their individual origins, are in their final form directed to the maintenance of the life of a community which thought of itself as being in a special sense the people of God. A great deal of attention has been paid in recent years to form critical analysis of Old Testament material. This was applied especially to the psalms, the types of which were traced by Hermann Gunkel and further developed; analysis of psalms outside Israel revealed the same patterns of construction. This chapter considers a narrative which appears twice in the Old Testament, in 2 Sam. 24 and 1 Chron. 21. One variety of Old Testament literature is provided by the prophetic books, containing an immense wealth of material of many different kinds. From the point of view of content, no completely sharp division can be made between the prophetic literature and other parts of the Old Testament.
  • 6 - CANONICAL AND NON-CANONICAL
    pp 113-159
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521074186.007
  • View abstract
    Summary
    This chapter considers the terms that are used to describe the canonical writings and the definition of canonisation and canonicity within the relevant period. It discusses the evidence for acts of canonisation by which the several sections, and the collection as a whole, came to be recognised as canonical. The chapter describes the relation between canonical and non-canonical literature. A famous passage in Josephus provides both a descriptive terminology and a definition of the nature of the Canon as it was understood in his time. The discovery of the book of the Law in the Temple at Jerusalem in the eighteenth year of the reign of Josiah led to a decisive development in the emergence of the Canon. The Greek-speaking Christian Church took over the Septuagint, which contained other works and in which, moreover, some of the canonical books included additional sections.
  • 7 - THE OLD TESTAMENT TEXT
    pp 159-199
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521074186.008
  • View abstract
    Summary
    This chapter examines the first stages in the history of the transmission of the Old Testament text over a period of approximately 500 years, starting with 300 BC. The Old Testament books were translated into other Semitic languages, Aramaic and Syriac and also into non-Semitic languages, Greek, and subsequently Latin. The demand for a translation of the Hebrew scriptures into Aramaic probably arose during the Babylonian Exile or immediately after the return of the exiles to Palestine in the Persian period. Aramaic being the lingua franca of the time, it was adopted by many Jews in their intercourse with the non-Jewish world. The biblical manuscripts from Qumran have added a new dimension to the criticism of the biblical text and to the study of its history, both in the original Hebrew and in the earliest ancient versions, especially in Greek.
  • 8 - BIBLE AND MIDRASH: EARLY OLD TESTAMENT EXEGESIS
    pp 199-231
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521074186.009
  • View abstract
    Summary
    This chapter discusses the nature and purpose of midrash and focuses on some biblical passages which foreshadow and prompt the discipline of exegesis. The most famous of the scribes was Ezra, and it is in connection with him that scripture interpretation as such is first mentioned in the Bible. The public recitation of scripture which was part of Temple worship became the essential feature of synagogal liturgy already in pre-Christian times and appears in the New Testament as a well-established custom. Palestinian Jewry was divided, from the second century BC to the end of the Second Temple, into separate and rival groups each of which slanted its interpretative system to justify the biblical authenticity of its beliefs and way of life. Beyond any immediate exegetical assistance, midrash is by nature provides the closest historical link with Old Testament tradition itself.
  • 9 - THE NEW TESTAMENT IN THE MAKING
    pp 232-284
    • By C. F. Evans, University of London, King’s College
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521074186.010
  • View abstract
    Summary
    Christianity is unique among the world religions in being born with a Bible in its cradle. The use of the Old Testament continued to play a great part in Christian writing as it had done previously in Christian speech. The existence of an authoritative Bible would have had the negative effect of inhibiting any thought of producing fresh books, and there is more than a suggestion in the early Church of a reluctance to write. With the exception of the Pauline letters the New Testament writings were relatively slow in appearing, and a high proportion of them are anonymous. The Old Testament supplied the basis of early Christian thought, it did not supply the models for its writing, and in the matter of literary forms the New Testament is remarkably independent of the Old. The New Testament was not, like the Old Testament, revealed the limited amount of material available for canonisation.
  • 10 - THE NEW TESTAMENT CANON
    pp 284-308
    • By R. M. Grant, Carl Darling Buck Professor of Humanities, Divinity School, Chicago, Department of New Testament and Early Christian Literature
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521074186.011
  • View abstract
    Summary
    The Canon of the New Testament was the result of a long and gradual process in the course of which the books regarded as authoritative, inspired, and apostolic were selected out of a much larger body of literature. During the apostolic age the Christian Bible consisted of the Old Testament alone, not that the Old Testament was precisely defined, but the main outlines were quite clear. The Church was experiencing severe exegetical difficulties toward the middle of the second century. Many Gnostics were able to provide esoteric interpretations of Pauline epistles and of the gospels as well. Among the most important documents in the history of the New Testament Canon is the 'Muratorian' fragment, so called because it was published by L. A. Muratori in 1740. Origen provides one of the best examples of the way in which literary criticism was being brought to bear on questions of authorship in relation to canonicity.
  • 11 - THE NEW TESTAMENT TEXT
    pp 308-377
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521074186.012
  • View abstract
    Summary
    In the field of New Testament textual criticism, a great change of approach and method has taken place in the course of the present century. The method owed much to the work of the great nineteenth century philologist Karl Lachmann, who worked in the fields of the manuscript tradition of Latin classical texts, the New Testament and medieval German poetry. One of the greatest exponents of the study of documents a generation after Westcott and Hort was Kirsopp Lake. He wrote some words which express the ideal for the textual critic working on this aspect of the field. The majority of manuscripts of the Greek New Testament are of Byzantine production, and most of these post-date the Iconoclastic controversy and the invention of minuscule. The Byzantine text has many readings which appear conflate, and many evident rationalisations of cruces.
  • 12 - THE INTERPRETATION OF THE OLD TESTAMENT IN THE NEW
    pp 377-411
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521074186.013
  • View abstract
    Summary
    A very large majority of New Testament books quote the Old Testament explicitly, and often make it clear that the authors regarded the Old Testament as an authoritative body of literature which claimed the attention and obedience of Christians. The interpretation by Greek thinkers of poetry and ancient myth forms a useful but distant background to the use of the Old Testament by New Testament writers. To the Greek philosopher, the existence of earlier literature was no more than incidental; at most it provided a useful confirmation of truths of which he was already persuaded on other grounds. Judaism understood itself as a current practical exegesis of its Bible. Most of the writers of the New Testament were Jews, and all were children of their own age. The wording of the Old Testament is taken over and woven into narrative or argument.
  • 13 - BIBLICAL EXEGESIS IN THE EARLY CHURCH
    pp 412-453
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521074186.014
  • View abstract
    Summary
    The exegesis of the primitive Christian Church was a direct and unselfconscious continuation of the type of exegesis practised by ancient Judaism in its later period. The discovery of the Qumran literature has opened to another type of Jewish exegesis, the list of proof-texts. The greater part of Christian exegesis for a hundred and fifty years after the resurrection is of course exegesis of the Old Testament. One of the most important new features in all Christian exegesis from the end of the second century onwards is the acceptance by the Church of the Fourth Gospel as fully authoritative. The Western tradition of exegesis showed its conservatism and caution, however, in another direction, and that is in its treatment of eschatology. The Christian gospel was being transposed from a basically Jewish frame of reference and form to a basically Greek frame of reference.
  • 14 - ORIGEN AS BIBLICAL SCHOLAR
    pp 454-489
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521074186.015
  • View abstract
    Summary
    Origen was the kind of person, regrettably rare in Christian history, who appears to have been capable of entering into genuine dialogue with Jews. The obvious common ground for such debate was the Old Testament. He did not undertake any major study of the New Testament text of the kind which he carried out in the case of the Old Testament. The ancient Latin version of the passage quoted from the Commentary on Matthew makes him say that he would not dare to do such a thing; but the remark does not occur in the Greek text and cannot therefore be accepted with any confidence as genuine. The Holy Spirit was the real author of scripture. This fact guaranteed neither the stylistic quality nor the absolute historicity of the scriptural record. Modern scholarship has tended to draw a firm line of distinction between typological and allegorical interpretations of the Old Testament.
  • 15 - THEODORE OF MOPSUESTIA AS REPRESENTATIVE OF THE ANTIOCHENE SCHOOL
    pp 489-510
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521074186.016
  • View abstract
    Summary
    Fourth-century Antioch was an outstanding centre of biblical scholarship and of ecclesiastical confusion. The leading figures of the Antiochene school of biblical scholarship in the fourth century were staunch upholders of the faith of Nicaea. Diodore was the leading figure of the school in the middle of the century and bishop of Tarsus from 378. Theodore of Mopsuestia draws a distinction between the office of the exegete and that of the preacher in the introduction to his Commentary on John. For Theodore, the primary author of all scripture was the Holy Spirit. His work of commentary on the Psalms and on the minor prophets led him to pay more attention than the majority of early writers to the precise nature of inspiration. His judgement on New Testament commentaries is based wholly on the suitability of the sense of the disputed reading. Theodore's commentaries on the Old Testament show him as a scholar capable of acute historical observation.
  • 16 - JEROME AS BIBLICAL SCHOLAR
    pp 510-541
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521074186.017
  • View abstract
    Summary
    Jerome was the greatest biblical scholar of the early Church. Jerome's own first 'little work' was a commentary on Obadiah. From Constantinople Paulinus and Jerome went on to Rome, together with Epiphanius, bishop of Salamis in Cyprus, to take part in the council held by Damasus in 382. Jerome lectured on scripture daily and wrote continuously. Didymus' treatise On the Holy Spirit was translated, as were also more of Origen's biblical homilies. Jerome started on a revision of the Old Latin Old Testament and became increasingly concerned to secure the best Septuagint texts obtainable on which to base it. The Hebraica veritas influenced Jerome in one direction namely, in his view of the extent of the Old Testament Canon. Jerome's major contribution as a biblical commentator was the series of commentaries on the Old Testament prophets who provided him with a practically unworked field.
  • 17 - AUGUSTINE AS BIBLICAL SCHOLAR
    pp 541-563
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521074186.018
  • View abstract
    Summary
    Augustine's achievements as a biblical scholar and exegete can be appreciated only in relation to his childhood and general education. The African Council of Carthage of 397, at which Augustine was present, recognised an Old Testament Canon which included the books of the Apocrypha and a New Testament Canon which included Hebrews and Peter. The actual text of scripture upon which Augustine exercised his exegetical talent varied during the course of his life. Augustine's own views on scriptural exegesis are set out in the treatise De Doctrina Christiana which appeared in its final form only in 427, and which may therefore be regarded as representing his mature opinion. Augustine's approach to scriptural exegesis is first and foremost that of a pastor, designed to instruct his congregation in the doctrine of the Church and to stir their minds to greater warmth of devotion.
  • 18 - THE PLACE OF THE BIBLE IN THE LITURGY
    pp 563-586
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521074186.019
  • View abstract
    Summary
    The study of liturgical origins enables to understand better the significance of festivals and the meaning of liturgical formulas and ceremonies. The earliest Christians were of Jewish origin, and were accustomed to the services held both in the Temple and in the synagogue. The main purpose of the synagogue was the reading and interpretation of the scriptures of the Old Testament, the Bible of the Jews, as well as prayer. The evidence of the New Testament indicates that the Old Testament scriptures were regularly read in the synagogue. In the sub-apostolic period, three useful texts are the Epistle of Clement of Rome to the Corinthians, Pliny's Letter to Trajan and the Didacke. The Old Testament lesson was sometimes called 'the prophet' or 'the prophecy', as in Apostolic Constitution. There are clear indications in the New Testament that the Christians recognised the value and importance of definite hours of prayer.

Page 1 of 2


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Dugmore, C. A., The Influence of the Synagogue upon the Divine Office (Oxford, 1944; reprint London, 1965).
Duplacy, J., Où en est la critique textuelle du nouveau Testament? (Paris, 1959)
Duplacy, J., ‘Bulletin de critique textuelle du nouveau Testament’, Recherches de science religieuse L (1962), 242–63, 564–98
Duplacy, J., ‘Bulletin de critique textuelle du nouveau Testament’, Recherches de science religieuse LI (1963), 432–62
Duplacy, J., ‘Bulletin de critique textuelle du nouveau Testament’, Recherches de science religieuse LIII (1965), 257–84; LIV (1966), 426–76
Duplacy, J., ‘Bulletin de critique textuelle du nouveau Testament’, Recherches de science religieuse and then, in collaboration with Martini, C. M., in Biblica, Rome. XLIX (1968), 515–51
Duplacy, J., ‘Bulletin de critique textuelle du nouveau Testament’, Recherches de science religieuse and then, in collaboration with Martini, C. M., in Biblica, Rome. LII (1971), 79–113
Duplacy, J., ‘Bulletin de critique textuelle du nouveau Testament’, Recherches de science religieuse and then, in collaboration with Martini, C. M., in Biblica, Rome. LIII (1972), 245–78.
Duplacy, J., ‘P75: (Pap. Bodmer XIV-XV) et les formes les plus anciennes du texte de Luc’ in L'Évangile de Luc: Memorial Lucien Cerfaux (Gembloux, 1973) 109–26.
Dupont-Sommer, A., Les Araméens (Paris, 1949).
Eissfeldt, O., The Old Testament: An Introduction, transl. by Ackroyd, P. R. (Oxford, New York, 1965). [The standard work, with full bibliographical information.]
Ellis, E. E., Paul's Use of the Old Testament (Edinburgh and London, 1957).
Erman, A., The Literature of the Ancient Egyptians, transl. by Blackman, A. M. (London, 1927). [Still the best general survey of Egyptian literature in translation.]
Evans, E., Tertullian, Adversus Marcionem, edited and translated, 2 vols. (London, 1972).
Eybers, I. H., ‘Some Light on the Canon of the Qumrân Sect’, New Light on Some Old Testament Problems: Papers read at 5th Meeting of Die O., T. Werkgemeenskap in Suid-Afrika (Pretoria, 1962), 1–14.
Favez, C., Saint Jérôme peint par lui-même = Collection Latomus, XXXIII (Brussels, 1958).
Février, J.-G., Histoire de l'écriture (Paris, 1948).
Filson, F. V., Which Books belong in the Bible? A Study of the Canon (Philadelphia, 1957). [A lucid discussion of the problem of canonicity and of the status of the Old Testament and of the Apocrypha. Protestant standpoint.]
Fitzmyer, J. A., ‘The Use of Explicit Old Testament Quotations in Qumran Literature and in the New Testament’, New Testament Studies, Cambridge. VII (1960-1), 298–333.
Flesseman-Van Leer, E., Tradition and Scripture in the Early Church (Assen, 1955).
Fohrer, G., Einleitung in das Alte Testament (Heidelberg, 1965); English transl. Introduction to the Old Testament, by Green, David (Nashville, 1968; London, 1970).
For ‘Dibelius, M., Fresh Approach…’ read ‘Dibelius, M., A Fresh Approach…’ After ‘Kümmel, W. G., Das Neue Testament. Geschichte der Erforschung seiner Probleme (Freiburg/Münich, 1958),’ add ‘English transl. of 2nd rev. ed. The New Testament. The History of the Investigation of its Problems by Gilmour, S. McLean and Kee, Howard C. (London, 1973)’.
Fuller, R. G., A Critical Introduction to the New Testament (London, 1966).
Gadd, C. J., Teachers and Students in the Oldest Schools (London, 1956). [Discussion of Sumerian school texts.]
Geiger, A., Urschrift und Übersetzungen der Bibel in ihrer Abhängigkeit von der inneren Entwickelung des Judenthums (Breslau, 1857, 2nd ed. 1912).
Gelb, I. J., A Study of Writing (London, 1952).
Gerhardsson, B., Memory and Manuscript (Lund, Copenhagen, 1961).
Gerleman, G., ‘Synoptic Studies in the Old Testament’, Lunds Universitets Ärsskrift N. F. Avd. 1 Bd. 44 Nr. 5 (1948), 3–35.
Gilyarevskij, R. S. and Grivnin, V. S., Manual of World Languages and their Scripts (in Russian) (Moscow, 1960).
Ginzberg, L., Legends of the Jews, 7 vols. (Philadelphia, 1909; 10th ed. 1954). [A compendium of exegetical traditions with valuable notes.]
Goodspeed, E. J., The Formation of the New Testament (Chicago, 1926).
Grant, F. C., The Gospels, Their Origin and Growth (London, 1959).
Grant, R. M., The Formation of the New Testament (London and New York, 1965).
Grant, R. M. (with Freedman, D. N. and Schoedel, W. R.), The Secret Sayings of Jesus (New York and London, 1960).
Grant, R. M., A Short History of the Interpretation of the Bible (rev. ed. New York, 1964; London, 1965).
Grant, R. M., The Letter and the Spirit (London, 1957).
Grant, R. M., The Earliest Lives of Jesus (London, 1961).
Grant, R. M., Gnosticism and Early Christianity (Oxford, 1966).
Greenberg, M., ‘The Stabilization of the Text of the Hebrew Bible, Reviewed in the Light of the Biblical Materials from the Judean Desert’, Journal of the American Oriental Society, Boston (Mass.), New Haven (Conn.). LXXVI (1956) 157–67.
Greer, R. A., Theodore of Mopsuestia (London, 1961). [Especially for John.]
Grützmacher, G., Hieronymus: Eine hiographische Studie zur alten Kirchengeschichte (Leipzig, Berlin, 1901–8).
Gunkel, H. and Begrich, E., Einleitung in die Psalmen (Göttingen, 1933). [The basic work, though limited in scope.]
H KAINH ΔIAΘHKH (ed. Kilpatrick, G. D.), British and Foreign Bible Society (2nd ed. London, 1958).
Hahn, Traugott, Tyconius-Studien (Studien zur Gesch. d. Theologie und Kirche, Leipzig, 1900).
Hanson, A. T., Jesus Christ in the Old Testament (London, 1965).
Hanson, R. P. C., Tradition in the Early Church (London, 1962).
Hanson, R. P. C., Allegory and Event (London, 1959).
Harnack, A., Bible Reading in the Early Church, transl. by Wilkinson, J. R. (London, 1912).
Harris, J. R. (assisted by Burch, V.), Testimonies, Part I (Cambridge, 1916); Part II (Cambridge, 1920).
Hatch, W. H. P., The Principal Uncial Manuscripts of the New Testament (Chicago and London, 1939).
Hatch, W. H. P., Facsimiles and Descriptions of Minuscule Manuscripts of the New Testament (Cambridge, Mass., 1951).
Hayes, J. H. ed., Old Testament Form Criticism (Trinity University, Texas, 1974). [A presentation of the whole field of form critical study and its achievements.]
Heinemann, I., Darḵê ha-'aggaḏah [The Methods of the Aggadah] (Jerusalem, 1949).
Heinemann, J., ‘Early Halakhah in the Palestinian Targumim’, Journal of Jewish Studies XXV (1974).
Heuser, G., Die Kopten (Heidelberg, 1938).
Hippolytus, , The Treatise on the Apostolic Tradition of S. Hippolytus of Rome, ed. Dix, G. (London, 1937).
Holl, Adolf, Augustins Bergpredigtexegese (Vienna, 1959).
Hölscher, G., Kanonisch und Apokryph. Ein Kapitel aus der Geschichte des alttestamentlichen Kanons (Leipzig, 1905).
Hunger, H., Babylonische und assyrische Kolophone (1968).
Jellicoe, S., The Septuagint and Modern Study (Oxford, 1968) for an up-to-date comprehensive discussion of issues pertaining to the Septuagint [see p. 168 of text].
Jepsen, A., ‘Zur Kanongeschichte des Alten Testaments’, Zeitschrift für die Alttestamentliche Wissenschaft (Giessen), Berlin. LXXI (1959), 114–36.
Jungmann, J. A., The Early Liturgy to the Time of Gregory the Great (London, 1960).
Jungmann, J. A., The Mass of the Roman Rite. Its Origins and Development, 2 vols. (New York, 1950, 1953).
Kahle, P. E., The Cairo Geniza (The Schweich Lectures, 1941) (London, 1947; 2nd ed. Oxford, 1959).
Kaiser, O., Einleitung in das Alte Testament (Gutersloh, 1969); English transl. Introduction to the Old Testament (Oxford, 1975). [A survey of problems and areas of research rather than a formal introduction.]
Katz, P., ‘The Old Testament Canon in Palestine and Alexandria’, Zeitschrift für die Neutestamentliche Wissenschaft (Giessen), Berlin. XLVII (1956), 191–217.
Kenyon, F. G., Our Bible and the Ancient Manuscripts (London, 1939).
Kenyon, F. G., The Bible and Archaeology (London, 1940).
Klijn, A. F. J., A survey of the researches into the Western text of the gospels and Acts: part i (Utrecht, 1949); part 2 (Supplements to Novum Testamentum, XXI, Leiden, 1969).
Knox, J., Marcion and the New Testament (Chicago, 1942).
Koch, K., Was ist Formgeschichte? (Neukirchen, 2nd ed. 1967); English transl. by Cupitt, S., The Growth of the Biblical Tradition: the form-critical method (London, 1969).
Koch, K., Was ist Formgeschichte? (3rd ed. 1974, with a supplement on ‘Linguistik und Formgeschichte’).
Köster, H., Synoptische Überlieferungen bei den Apostolischen Vätern (Texte und Untersuchungen 65, Berlin, 1957).
Kraeling, C. H. and Adams, R. M. ed., City Invincible (Chicago, 1960). [Pp. 94–113 give summary of Egyptian (by Wilson, J.) and Mesopotamian (by Landsberger, B.) education and literacy.]
Kramer, S. N., History begins at Sumer (London, 1957).
Kümmel, W. G., Einleitung in das Neue Testament, Feine, P. and Behm, J. (rev. ed. Heidelberg, 1963); English transl. of 14th rev. ed. Introduction to the New Testament by Matill, A. J. Jr. (London, 1966).
Kümmel, W. G., Das Neue Testament. Geschichte der Erforschung seiner Probleme (Freiburg/Münich, 1958).
La Bonnardière, A.-M., Recherches de chronologie augustinienne (Paris, 1965) (reviewed by Wright, D. F., JTS NS XVII (1966), 182–6.)
Lake, K., Blake, R. P., New, S., ‘The Caesarean Text of the Gospel of Mark’, Harvard Theological Review, Cambridge (Mass.). XXI (1928), 207–404.
Lamb, J. A., The Psalms in Christian Worship (London, 1962).
Lambert, W. G., Babylonian Wisdom Literature (Oxford, 1960).
Lampe, G. W. H. and Woollcombe, K. J., Essays in Typology (London, 1957).
Le Déaut, R., Introduction à la littérature targumique (Rome, 1966).
Leloir, L., Le témoignage d'Ephrem sur le Diatessaron (CSCO subsidia T. 19, Louvain, 1962).
Lindars, B., New Testament Apologetic (London, 1961).
Lods, A., Histoire de la littérature hébraïque et juive depuis les origines jusqu' à la ruine de létat juif (135 après J.-C.) (Paris, 1950).
Luneau, A., L'Histoire de Salut chez les Pires de l'Église (Paris, 1964).
Macdonald, A. B., Christian Worship in the Primitive Church (Edinburgh, 1934).
Maclean, A. J., The Ancient Church Orders (Cambridge, 1910).
Mann, J., The Bible as Read and Preached in the Old Synagogue. 2 vols. (Cincinnati, 1940, 1966).
Markus, R. A., ‘Saint Augustine on history, prophecy and inspiration’, Augustinus (Madrid, 1967), pp. 271–80.
Marrou, H. I., Saint Augustin et la fin de la culture antique (4th ed. Paris, 1958).
Martimort, A. G., L'Eglise en prière (3rd edition. Tournai); English transl. The Church at Prayer (Irish University Press, Shannon. Part I, 1968. Part II, 1971).
Martini, C. M., S.J., Il problema della recensionalità del codice B alla luce del papiro Bodmer XIV (Analecta Biblica, XXVI, Rome, 1966) [see p. 328].
McNamara, M., The New Testament and the Palestinian Targum to the Pentateuch (Rome, 1966).
McNamara, M., Targum and Testament (Shannon, 1972).
Meer, F. G. L., St Augustine the Bishop, English transl. by Balteshar, B. and Lamb, G. R. (London, 1961).
Meijering, E. P., Orthodoxy and Platonism in Athanasius (Leiden, 1968).
Ménard, J.-E. ed., Exégèse bihlique et Judaïsme (Strasbourg, 1973).
Metzger, B. M., The Text of the New Testament. Its Transmission, Corruption and Restoration (2nd ed. Oxford, 1968).
Mitton, C. L., The Formation of the Pauline Corpus of Letters (London, 1955).
Moorhouse, A. C., Writing and the Alphabet (London, 1946).
Moorhouse, A. C., The Triumph of the Alphabet, A History of Writing (New York, 1953).
Moscati, Sabatino and others, An Introduction to the Comparative Grammar of the Semitic Languages (Wiesbaden, 1964).
Moule, C. F. D., The Birth of the New Testament (London, 1962), ch. 4.
Moule, C. F. D., Worship in the New Testament (London, 1961).
Moulton, J. H. and Milligan, G., The Vocabulary of the Greek Testament (London, 1914–29).
Mullen, T., The Canon of the Old Testament (New York, 1892). [An extended discussion and historical survey of differing ecclesiastical and sectarian attitudes to the Canon up to the nineteenth century. Roman Catholic standpoint.]
Munck, J., Paulus und die Heilsgeschichte (Copenhagen, 1954); English transl. Paul and the Salvation of Mankind by Clarke, F. (London, 1959).
Murphy, F. X. ed., A Monument to Saint Jerome: Essays on some Aspects of his Work and Influence (New York, 1952).
Novum Testamentum Graece…, ed. Nestle, E. et Aland, K. (25th ed. Stuttgart, 1963).
Novum Testamentum Graece et Latine, ed. Merk, S. J.. 9th ed. ed. Martini, S. J. Carlo (Rome, 1964).
O'Leary, Lacy, Comparative Grammar of the Semitic Languages (London, 1923).
Oppenheim, A. L., Ancient Mesopotamia (Chicago and London, 1964). [A survey of cuneiform literature with emphasis on traditional Mesopotamian scribal methods.]
Orlinsky, H. M., ‘The Textual Criticism of the Old Testament’, The Bible and the Ancient Near East, Essays in Honor of W. F. Albright (London, 1961), pp. 113–32.
Östborn, G., Cult and Canon: A Study in the Canonization of the Old Testament (Uppsala Universitets Årsskrift 1950: 10, Uppsala and Leipzig, 1950).
Pasquali, G., Storia della tradizione e critica del testo (2nd ed. Florence, 1952).
Pirot, L., L'Œuvre Exégétique de Théodore de Mopsueste (Rome, 1913).
Pontet, Maurice, L'exégèse de S. Augustin prédicateur (Paris, [1945]).
Posner, E., Archives in the Ancient World (Cambridge, Mass., 1972).
Pritchard, J. B. ed., Ancient Near Eastern Texts relating to the Old Testament (Princeton, 1955). [Translations by specialists of myths, epics, legends, laws, histories, rituals, hymns, prayers, wisdom and other literature from Sumerian, Akkadian, Aramaic, Hittite and Ugaritic sources.]
Quasten, J., Patrology, 3 vols. (London, 1950, 1953, 1960).
Rabin, C., ‘The Dead Sea Scrolls and the History of the Old Testament Text’, Journal of Theological Studies, Oxford. VI (1955), 174–82.
Rahmer, M., Die hebräische Traditionen in den Werken des Hieronymus (Breslau, Berlin, 1861–1902).
Rappoport, S., Agada und Exegese bei Flavius Josephus (Frankfurt am Main, 1930).
Rigaux, B., St Paulet ses Lettres (Paris, 1962).
Roberts, B. J., ‘The Old Testament Canon: A Suggestion’, Bulletin of the John Rylands Library, Manchester. XLVI (1963), 164–78.
Roberts, B. J., The Old Testament Text and Versions (Cardiff, 1951).
Roberts, C. H., The Codex (Proceedings of the British Academy, London. XL, 1954).
Roberts, C. H., ‘The Writing and Dissemination of Literature in the Classical World’ (chapter 19 of Literature and Western Civilisation, vol. 1, ed. Daiches, David, London, 1972).
Roehrich, A., Essai sur Saint Jérôme exégète (Geneva, 1891).
Rollero, Piero, ‘L'influsso della Expositio in Lucam di Ambrogio nell'esegesi agostiniana’, Augustinus Magister (Paris, 1954), I, 211–20.
Ruwet, J., ‘Clément d'Alexandrie, Canon des Écritures et apocryphes’, Biblica, Rome. XXIX (1948), 240–71.
Ruwet, J., ‘Les apocryphes dans Pceuvre d'Origène’, Biblica, Rome. XXIII (1942), 18–42; XXIV (1943), 18–58; XXV (1944), 143–66.
Ryle, H. E., The Canon of the Old Testament, An Essay on the Gradual Growth and Formation of the Hebrew Canon of Scripture (London, 1892). [Contains ample references to, and extensive citations from, rabbinic and patristic sources.]
Sanders, J. N., The Fourth Gospel in the Early Church (Cambridge, 1943).
Sandmel, S., The Hebrew Scriptures. An Introduction to their Literature and Religious Ideas (New York, 1963). [A modern Jewish approach to literary problems.]
Schubart, W., Das Buch bei den Griechen u, Römern, 11 (Berlin, 1921).
Schürer, E., – Vermes, G., – Millar, F., The History of the Jewish People in the Age of Jesus Christ 1 (Edinburgh, 1973), 90–114 [The Midrashim–The Targums].
Seeligmann, I. L., ‘Indications of Editorial Alteration and Adaptation in the Massoretic Text and the Septuagint’, Vetus Testamentum, Leiden. XI (1961), 201–21.
Segal, M. H., ‘The Promulgation of the Authoritative Text of the Hebrew Bible’, Journal of Biblical Literature, New York, New Haven (Conn.), Philadelphia (Pa.). LXXII (1953), 35–48.
Selwyn, E. C., The Oracles in the New Testament (London, n.d. [1912], preface dated 1911).
Serapion, , The Sacramentary of Serapion, ed. Wordsworth, J. (2nd ed. London, 1923; reprint Hamden, Connecticut, 1964).
Shotwell, W. A., The Biblical Exegesis of Justin Martyr (London, 1965).
Simon, M., Verus Israel (Paris, 1948).
Simpson, W. K. ed., The Literature of Ancient Egypt (New Haven and London, 1972). [An anthology of Stories, Instructions and Poetry in translation.]
Skehan, P. W., ‘The Biblical Scrolls from Qumrân and the Text of the Old Testament’, The Biblical Archaeologist, New Haven (Conn.). XXVII (1965), 87–100.
Skehan, P. W., ‘The Qumrân Manuscripts and Textual Criticism’, Suppl. to Vetus Testamentum, Leiden. IV (1957), 148–60.
Smith, M., reported in New York Times, 30 December 1960.
Smith, M., Clement of Alexandria and a Secret Gospel of Mark (Cambridge, Mass. 1973).
Smith, W. R., The Old Testament in the Jewish Church (2nd ed. revised and much enlarged, London and Edinburgh, 1892).
Sperber, A., ‘Hebrew Based Upon Biblical Passages in Parallel Transmission’, Hebrew Union College Annual, Cincinnati (Ohio). XII–XIII (1937–8), 103–274.
Srawley, J. H., The Early History of the Liturgy (2nd ed. Cambridge, 1947).
Strack, H. L., Introduction to the Talmud and Midrash (Philadelphia, 1931). [Translated from Einleitung in Talmud und Midrasch (5th ed. Munchen, 1920; 1st ed. 1887). Out of date but not yet replaced.]
Strauss, Gerhard, Schriftgebrauch, Schriftauslegung und Schriftbeweis bei Augustin (Beiträge zur Gesch. der biblischen Hermeneutik Nr 1, Tübingen, 1959).
Sundberg, A. C., The Old Testament of the Early Church (Harvard Theological Studies, XX, Cambridge, Mass. and London, 1964).
Sundberg, A. C. Jr., ‘Canon Muratori: A Fourth-Century List’, Harvard Theological Review, Cambridge (Mass.). LXVI (1973), 1–41.
Swete, H. B., ‘Theodorus of Mopsuestia’, in Smith, W. and Wace, H., Dictionary of Christian Biography, IV (London, 1887), 934–48. [Especially for Paul.]
Swete, H. B., Theodori Episcopi Mopsuesteni in Epistolas B. Pauli Commentarii (2 vols., Cambridge, 1880–2). Greek fragments in Staab, K., Pauluskom-mentare aus der griechischen Kirche (Neutestamentliche Abhandlungen XV, Münster, 1933).
Talmon, S., ‘DSIa as a Witness to Ancient Exegesis of the Book of Isaiah’, Annual of the Swedish Theological Institute (in Jerusalem), Leiden. 1 (1962), 62–72.
Talmon, S., ‘Synonymous Readings in the Textual Traditions of the Old Testament’, Scripta Hierosolymitana, VIII (1961), 334–83.
Talmon, S., ‘Qumran und das Alte Testament’, Frankfurter Universitätsreden Heft 2 (Frankfurt a/M, 1972), 84–100
Talmon, S., ‘The New Covenanters of Qumran’, Scientific American 225 no. 5 (November, 1971), 72–83 [see p. 190].
Textus, Annual of the Hebrew University Bible Project, I–III (1960–3) ed. by Rabin, C., IV–VI (1964–8) ed. by Talmon, S..
The Greek New Testament, ed. Aland, K., Black, M., Metzger, B. M., Wikgren, A. P. (New York, London, Amsterdam, Stuttgart, Edinburgh, 1966).
Thierry, A., Saint Jérôme: La Société chrétienne à Rome et l'émigration romaine en Terre Sainte (Paris, 1867).
Thompson, T. L., The History of the Patriarchal Narratives (Beihefte ZAW 133, Berlin, 1974) [see p. 70, n. 1: this volume offers a critical study of the supposed affinities between the patriarchal narratives and the Mari and Nuzi texts].
Turner, E. G., Greek Manuscripts of the Ancient World (Oxford, 1971).
Turner, N., article on ‘The Language of the New Testament’, in Peake's Commentary on the Bible, ed. by Black, Matthew and Rowley, H. H. (London, 1962).
Turner, Nigel, A Grammar of New Testament Greek, by Moulton, J. H. III, Syntax, by Turner, Nigel (Edinburgh, 1963).
Ullendorff, E., ‘What is a Semitic Language?’, Orientalia, Rome. XXVII (1958), 66–75.
Ullendorff, E., ‘Studies in the Ethiopic Syllabary’, Journal of the International Institute of African Languages and Cultures, Oxford. XXI (1951), 207–17.
Ullendorff, E., The Semitic Languages of Ethiopia (London, 1955).
Ullendorff, E., The Ethiopians (London, 1960).
Van Unnik, W. C., ‘The “Gospel of Truth” and the New Testament’, The Jung Codex, ed. Cross, F. L. (London, 1955), pp. 79–129.
Van Unnik, W. C.,‘H καινὴ δικθήκη—a Problem in the early history of the Canon’, Texte und Untersuchungen, 79 (1961), 212–27.
Vermes, G., Scripture and Tradition in Judaism, Haggadic Studies (Leiden, 1961).
Vermes, G., ‘The Qumran Interpretation of Scripture in its Historical Setting’, Annual of Leeds University Oriental Society, vol. 6 (Leiden, 1969).
Vermes, G., Scripture and Tradition (2nd revised ed., 1973).
Vermes, G., Post-biblical Jewish Studies (Leiden, 1975).
Vischer, W., The Witness of the Old Testament to Christ, English transl. by Crabtree, A. B. (London, 1949).
Vogels, H. J., Handbuch der Textkritik des Neuen Testaments (2nd ed. Münster, 1955).
Vogels, H. J., Evangelium Palatinum. Studien zur ältesten Geschichte der lateinischen Evangelienübersetzung (Münster, 1916).
von Soden, H., Die Schriften des neuen Testaments in ihrer ältesten erreichbaren Textgestalt hergestellt auf Grund ihrer Textgeschichte (Berlin, 1911–13).
Vööbus, A., Early Versions of the New Testament (Stockholm, 1954).
Vosté, J. M., Theodori Mopsuesteni Commentarius in Evangelium Johannis Apostoli (Corpus Scriptorum Christianorum Orientalium: Scriptores Syri, Series 4, Tomus III; Louvain, 1940). Greek fragments in Devreesse, R., Essai…, pp. 305–419.
Wickert, U., Studien zu den Pauluskommentaren Theodors von Mopsuestia (Berlin, 1962).
Wilder, A. N., Early Christian Rhetoric (London, 1964).
Wiles, M., The Spiritual Gospel (Cambridge, 1959).
Wiles, M., The Divine Apostle (Cambridge, 1967).
Williams, R. J., ‘Scribal Training in Egypt’, Journal of the American Oriental Society, Boston (Mass.), New Haven (Conn.). XCII (1972), 214–21.
Winton Thomas, D. ed., Documents from Old Testament Times (London, 1958). [A more restricted selection of texts than in Pritchard (see above), but with useful commentaries closely relating the documents with Old Testament literature.]
Wiseman, D. J., ‘Assyrian Writing Boards’, Iraq, XVII (1955), 3–13.
Worrell, W. H., A Short Account of the Copts (Ann Arbor, 1945).
Wright, D. F., ‘The Manuscripts of St Augustine's Tractatus in Evangelium lohannis’, Recherches Augustiniennes VIII (1972), 55–143, esp. 100–6.
Wright, G. E. ed., The Bible and the Ancient Near East (London, 1961). [Essays on language, literature and religion including textual criticism.]
Würthwein, E., Der Text des Alten Testaments (Stuttgart, 1952; 2nd ed. 1963); English transl. of 1st ed. The Text of the Old Testament by Ackroyd, P. R. (Oxford, 1957).
Würthwein, E., Das Text des Alten Testaments (4th revised ed., 1973).
Zuntz, G., The Text of the Epistles (The Schweich Lectures, 1946) (London, 1953).
Zunz, L., Die gottesdienstlichen Vorträge der Juden historisch entwickelt (Berlin, 1832; 2nd ed. Frankfurt am Main, 1892). [Pioneer work on post-biblical literature.]